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History Defined — Difficulties of the Work — Amount of Labor Involved — 
Incomplete Records — Thru Such of Note* — Plan of the Work — Thanks 
for Assistance — Authorities Examined. 11 — 12 


Discovery of the Pacific by Balboa — Invasion of Mexico by Cortez — First 
navigation of the Pacific — Explorations by Cortez — Origin of the name 
"California" — Subsequent explorations — Expedition of Cabrillo — Drake's 
discoveries — Harbor of San Diego discovered — Piracy — Colony at La Paz 
— Abandonment — Jesuits refuse to colonize — Fathers Kino and Kalvatierra 
— First mission in Lower California — Father Ugarte — Settles at San Xavier 
— Work of the Jesuits — First explorations — Early superstitions — Wild 
beasts and Demons — Kino's expeditions — Ugarte's expedition — Link's 
expeditions — Enmity against the Jesuits — Expulsion — The Franciscans — 
The Dominicans — Junipero Serra — His associates — Galvez — Three missions 
— Expedition organized — Despatched — San Diego and Monterey founded 



Past and Present Compared — Tribe and Language — Government — Religion — 
Tradition of the Creation — Food and Raiment — Marriage — Births — Buri- 
als — Medicine and Disease — Customs — Feuds — Commerce — Money — Uten- 
bUb — Games — Feasts and Festivals — Funeral Feasts — Eagle Feasts — Leg- 
ends and Traditions — The Pleiades — Orpheus and Eurydice— The Sou of 
God— The Cuwot— The Moon Mother. 14—19 


More Missionaries — San Antonio Mission Founded — Expedition to Saq Gabriel 
— Attack by Savages — San Gabriel Mission Founded — Indian Account 
Thereof — Brutal Treatment — Letter from President — Destitution — Conver- 
sion of Indians — Fears of a Relapse — Serra Visits San Gabriel — Returns to 
Mexico — Failure of Supplies — Suffering — Re-enforcements — Condition of 
the Indians — Outbreak at San Diego — Murder of Father Lewis — Expedi- 
tion by Garzes — A cold Reception — Impressing the Savages — Their Num- 
bers Estimated. 19—21 


San Diego Mission Repaired — Expedition to found San Juan — Attacked by 
Indians — Site Selected — Mission Founded — San Juan del Capistrano — 
East and West — General plan of the Missions — The Padre Gorgonio— The 

Mission Buildings— Completion— Manufactories— Gardens— i lid I Hive i )r- 
chard— Feast of La Purissima— Dream of the Neophyte— The Temblor. 


Original Intention of the Government — Thwarted by the Missionaries — Deg- 
radation of the Natives— Los Angeles Founded— Origin of Name - i luminal 
River-bed— Name of the River Changed— The First Settlers —Nature of 
the Dwellings — Visits to San Gabriel — Dominance of the Priests — Treat- 
ment of Settlers — Table of the Upper California Missions. 22— 23 

Exclusive Policy of Spanish Government — Arrest and Detention of Foreigners 
— Missourians Trapped— Gringos and Senoritas— First English-speaking 
Settler — Whittle's Petition — Joseph Chapman —Graphic Account by S. C 
Foster — Lugo and the Gringos. 23 — 24 


Fourth of July "—Hidalgo's Insurrection — Repnbl 

A Young 

— Indian Civil Service Reform 
dier Priest of San Ynez. 

Insurrections at Other Missions — The Sol- 


Effect of the Change of Government — Character of the Early Friars — the First 
Live Stock — Increase — Taxation — A Pious Fraud — Erroneous Estimates — 
Population — The First Vineyard — Fruits — Later Vineyards — Amusements 
— An Old Library — Its nature — Hindas— Jose Maria Salvadea — A Clerical 
Napoleon — The Maximum of Prosperity — Hugo Raid's Description of 
Salvadea's Reign — Indian Language Translated — Sermons in the Indian 
Tongue — The Lord's Prayer — Death of Salvadea — Jose Bernardo Sanchez 
— A Practical Joke — Early Medical Practice — Better times — Good Clothes 
— Kind Treatment — Daily Routine — Washing Day — Saturday Night — 
Sunday Games — Death of Sanchez — Incident at San Fernando. 25 — 28 



The Law of Change — The Zenith of Prosperity — Demands of Soldiers — Manu- 
mission of Indians — Action Rescinded — Governor Victoria — The Avila 
Insurrection — Meeting of Avila and Victoria— Death of Avila — Echeandia 

at San Juan— Pio Pico Govamoi Governor 1'igncroa— Tho Pious Fund 
Order o i Secularisation Sijar's Expedition Capitalists minus Capi- 
tal— Th« Final Twig Destruction oi Oabtls Building*, Orchards, and 
Vineyard* Destroyed Come bo Prayen Government Admlnistradoi i 

ill.- Iti.Ii.itis Share— An Indian Debate. 28 — 30 



The Indiana— -Their Condition- Dana'i I iptionol Them Immorality— 

Intoxication— The Mexicaua— Drew— Mannere—8pfleoh—Mixod Bl Ii 

Loveof Finery Bilvsa C ires Revolutioni Murder ol an American 

—Refusal of Authorities bo [nterfon A.ti t American Residents— 

Judge Lynch— Murder of o Mexican - Abridging the Course of Justice— 
Fracas between Indians- A Difference— Vicious Character of the M.m 
cans Socially— Mr. Dana Cribioizsd -Conflicting Statements Criticisms 
by J. J.Warner and B. 1>. Wilson. 80—33 



(1822 1840.) 

Policy of Mexico toward Foreigners -Important!! of San Pedro- First Settlers 

— s. Smith— Trade with Sonora -Condition of Los Angela 

County in 1881— Census of 1636 Ea torn Emigration Societies Blographfi 

Sketches of Early Settlors McKinly John Temple— Rice Leandry 

Ferguson — Laughlin — Pryor— Steams — JBouchet— Whit. i> ,, 

Portuguese George— Rocha— Prentice — Warner — Young— Wolf skill— 
\ ignes -Bowman Rhea— Day — Ward— Rice— Pawlding— Williams— 
Carson— Carpenter — Chard — Leese— Johnson Ef. Seid Keith Prod 
hommc — H. Melius — Graham — Hall— Marsh — J. Reed— F. Melius — 
Rowland — Wilson — Workman — F. P. F Temple— Alexander — Boll — 
Den — Dalton — Mascarel. 30 — gg 

Hijar's Revolution — Its Result — Figueroa's Death — Jose Castro — Nicolas Gu- 
tierrez — Mariano Chjco — Gutierrez Restored — Graham's Revolution — Al- 
varado Governor — War with Carillo — Csrillo Imprisoned — Arrests at Los 
Angeles — Arrest of Graham and His Companions — Character of Alvando's 
Government — Revenue Frauds — Arrival of Manuel HicheltorCnA— Fetes 
and Festivities — Seizure of Monterey by Coiiimodore.Jones — All a Mistake 
— A Terrified Governor— The Earthworks oa Fort Hill— A Imputed Ques- 
tion — Account of Com. Jones' Visit to Los Angeles — Physical Appearance 
of the Country — A Brilliant Reception — Extraordinary Demands — The 
Ball — Return of the Articles Unapproved — The Departure— A Historic 
House — Micheltorena Assumes Control — In Bad Odor — Alvarado's Revo* 
lution — Americana versus Americans — A Terrible Engagement — Fearful 
Bloodshed — Diplomacy — An Armistice — Capitulation — Micheltorena Ban- 
ished— Pio Pico Governor—" That Muk." 38—41 


(March 1, LSrf— March l. 1847.) 
Fremont's Arri\al— A Free Circus— Indian Attack— Despatches from Wash- 
ington— Merritt ami [de Capture Sonoma— The " Bear Flag"— Fremont 
Declared Governor— Congress Deelarea War— Kearney 's Expedition— Sloat 
Captures Monterey— Stockton's Expedition to Los Angeles— Capture of 
Santa Barbara— Arrival at San Pedro— Commissioners from Castro— A 
Military Xriok— Bombaitic Reply— The March on Los Angeles— Flight of 
Castro and Pio Pico Loi Angeles Captured— Proclamation— Gillespie 
Left in Charge— His Reforms— Revolt of thi.- California! is— Floras' Procla- 
mation -B. D. Wilson's Party Captured— A Massacre Averted— Gillespie 

Capitulates AG ISamaritan— MervineReaohesSan Pedro— Is Defeated 

-Floras' Scheme— Workman Circumvents It— The Tables Turned— Pacifi- 
cation Desired- Stockton Arrives at San Pedro — BogUB Cavalry— Stockton 
Sails for San Diego— Erroneous History— Joined by Kearney— Strength of ■ 
the Americans- Prisoners Liberated -Messengers from KI.ihjs -Stocktons 
Reply -Battle ol Rio San Gabriel— Battle of the Mesa— Los Angeles 
Recaptured — Stockton's General Order— Californians Retire to Nan Pas- 
qual— Flight of Floras— Fremont's [nsnbordination— He Makes aTreaty— 
A Disputed Point— Fremont Camps at San Gabriel— Indignation of Stock- : 
ton and Kearney — Relics of the War — A Disputed Governorship— 
Gi neral Kearney Governor. 41 — 45 




Spaniih Philosophy— Hope of Castro's Return— Precautions — The First Ball — 
A I nial Averted— Mails Established — Mason Governor — First "Fourth of 
July"— Fort Moure Named— Col. Burton's Departure— Civil Government— 
Falsa Alarms— An Explosion— First Civil Marriage— The Treaty of Peace 
(Jold Exoitement -A Hush to the Diggings— Kik-y Governor — Proclama- 
tion— The Constitutional Convuntion — A Scientific Question — The Consti- 
tution Adopted — Governor Burnett — The First Legislature — The Thirty- 
First Statu. 45—47 




Act of 1850 — Repealed hy Act of 1851 — Act of 1853 — San Bernardino County 
Created— Act of 1850— Corrected by Act of 1857— Act of 18(i(i— Kern 
County Created — County Lines Established — Present Bounds of Los 
Anodes County — List of Laud Grants — The First Land Grants — Divi- 
sion of the County into Townships — Topography and Physical Geog- 
raphy. 47 — 49 


Mexican Elections—The Ayuntamiento— Powers of the Several Officers— 
Minutes ol the Ayuntamiento— Policy of the American Government — 
First Inauguration of Civil Officers Dhder American Rule — First Election 
ol Ayuntamiento— First County Election— Civil Affairs Administered 
\>\ the Court of Sessions — First Board ol Supervisors — Judges of the 
Plains— Their Powers Defined— Appointments — Lists of County Officers. 



1'ride of Climate Nbl Perfect, Set Excellent— A chapter of Exceptions — 
Average Temperature— Cool Nights— Earthquake of 181*2 — Droughts, 

1827-8-9— Droughts, 1844-5-6— Earthquake of 1855— Earthquake of 1857 
—Flood of 1868— Earthquake of 1S78— Water and Irrigation-Rainfall 
—Natural Streams— A California "Elver " Defined— Los Angeles River- 
San Gabriel River— Santa Ana River— Artesian Wells. 52—57 


Charms of a Pastoral Life— Origin of California Live Stock— Horned Cattle— 
Mexican Dairies— Gradual Decline of the Cattle Interest— Horses— Sheep 
—Gradual Increase of the Sheep Interest— Governer Downey on Sheep- 
Swine — Bees — Bilk-worms. 5/ 60 


Los Angeles as an Agricultural County— Mexican Agriculture— Modern Agri 
culture — Wheat— Its History— Odessa Wheat— A Californian Harvest 
Field— Barley— Corn— Oats— Rye— Buckwheat— Peas — Beans— Castor 
Beans— Peanuts— Potatoes— Sweet Potatoes— Onions— Flax— Hops— Al- 
falfa— Sugar Beets— .1 Mighty Beetl— Tobacco — Cotton- -Sugar-Cane— 
Broom-Corn— Forest Culture— Eucalyptus. 60—63 




Los Angeles as a Fruit County— Continual Fruit Harvest— Oranges— Lemons 
—Limes— Olives— Walnuts— Apples— Peaches— Pears— Almonds — Other 
Fruits — Crapes and Wines — General History Thereof. 63 — 66 


Los Angeles as a Mineral County— Gold— The First Discovery in California — 
Subsequent Discoveries in the County — Silver — Early Discoveries — Sil- 
veraldo, and the Santa Rosa Mining District — History of the Discovery, 
and Present Condition — Copper — Coal — The Black Star Coal Mine— Santa 
Clara Coal Mine— Salt — Bitumen— Petroleum. 66—69 




Soap — Carriage and Wagon Factories — Brick -Making — Tanneries — Breweries— 

Castor-Oil — Woolen Mills — Pork Packing — Artificial Stone — Brooms — 

Fruit Canning— Matches — Paper Pulp — Alden Drying Works — Whaling 

— Gas Manufacture —Beet Sugar— Asbestine Sub -Irrigation Company. 



Mexican Schools— The First English School — History of the Public Schools — 
Their Present Condition — List of the Districts— St. Vincent's College — 
iSisters of Charity — Lawlor Institute. 71 — 73 


Navigation— Indian Boats— The First Schooner — Steamboats— Table of Ship- 
ping from 1855 to 1879— Land Travel— Carretas— Stage Coaches— Rail- 
roads — Los Angeles and San Pedro Railroad — Southern Pacific Railroad 
— Los Angeles and Independence Railroad. 73 — 76 I 


The Star— Southern Californian — El Clamor Publico — Southern Vineyard- 
Christian Church — News — Amigo del Pueblo — Cbronick — Express — La 
Oronica — Emerald — Mirror — Sued Californisch Post — Evening Republican 
— School-master — L'Union — Commercial — L'Union Novelle — Journal — 
Rescue — Wilmington Journal — Anaheim Gazette — People's Advocate- 
Weekly Review— Young Californian— Santa Ana Valley News— Santa 
Ana Herald— Santa Ana Times— Downey City Courier. 76* — 78, 



1 1850-1880.) 

A Strange Story — Crime in the Early Days — The Irving Party— Attemptep 

Assassination of B. Hayes — Felipe Alvitre — Murder of Mrs. Cassin — Ant* 

nascio Moreno — Nicholas Graham — The Bandits of San Juan — Murder 

of Sheriff Barton and Party — Executions and Lyuchings — Thomas King 

James B. Johnson — Murder of Sheriff Getman — Alvitre — Cota — Lache- 

nais — Arza — C'erradel — Lynching of Daimwood and others— Wilkins— Mur- 
der of Newman — Horse Thieves — Domingo — King and Carlisle Affray — 
Murder of Williams and Kimball— Dye and Warren Affray — The Chinese 
Massacre — Murder of Bilderbeck Brothers— Turner and Gordo Affray — 
The Bandit Vasquez — The Fouck Murder — Phelps Embezzlement — Sotello 
Shot— Hamilton Defalcation — Counterfeiters — Crime in 1880— S. H. 
Hoyle. W 4t| 


Extracts From the Report of the Late Hon. B. D. Wilson, Indian Agent for 
Southern California, 1S52 — Present Status of the Southern Tribes. / 

S7— 90 


The Slavery Question — An Old Police Report — A Curious Document — Habits 
of Life— Amusements— The " Carreta "—Prosperous Times— The County 
in 1S53— Sketch by A. Waite — 1854, a Mixed Population— 1S57, Habit3 
of the Natives— Religious Devotions— Celebration of a Holy Day — "Cor- 
pus Christi" — The Sunday Law— Bull-fight at San Gabriel— At Los 
Angeles — Chicken-Catching — Horse-Racing — A Three-League Race— A 
Falling off— Later Races— Current Events from 1850 to I8S0. 90—103 


The Most Northerly Township — Area and Topography — Water — Railroad and 
Stations — San Francisco Ranch — Early Times — Enterprise of H. M. 
Newhall— The First Grain Fields— Wheat Enterprise on a Large Scale — 
Horticultural Experiments— Stock— Minerals— The Town of Newhall. 



The Old Mission— Early History— The First Marriage — The First Birth- 
Extensive Buildings — Present Condition — An. Old Church — The Ghost of 
a Friar — Mission Gardens — San Fernando Ranch — Early History — Et 
Encino Ranch — El Escorpion Ranch— Pico Reservation — Wheat — Sheep 
— B ees — Minerals— Water — Town of San Fernando, 104 — 106 



Kanciils in i.m An eles Township, 

Los Anqelbb Crrv Imperfect Recordj Barli I l : - — ■ r ■ i ace— The 
Pueblo in 1836 Erected into a City —Capital oi California — Condition of 
the ' !ity at tin- American Occupation— List of City Archives in IM7 - Act 
<>f Incorporation —The First American Child— Current Events by Year*, 
1808 to 1880. 
Crrv Omenta from 1850 to 1880. 
Firi . 1858 1867 1870 1871 1874 1875 1876 1877- 1879. 

FAe Cohpahie Thirty Eighl Confidence Park,Hose— Vigils -. 

Crrv Water— History of, I *."><> to 1880. 

Ohotw oxa Catholic Church Fort 8t. M. EL Church— First Baptist Church 
—African M. E. Church First Presbyterian Church— St. Athana tu 

'] pal Church First Protestant Society Congregation Bni Brith 

First Ci rogational Church Sermon Mission of the M. E. Church 

Church ol Chrisl Chinoss Mission— Unitarian Church — Trinity M- B. 
* Ihuroh South 
80CIBTIE8 L. A. Lodge No. 12, F. A A. M.— L. A. Chapter No :t:i. K, A. M 
Pentalpha Lodge No 202, F. & A. M. — t kwurde Lion « lommandery No. 
9, Knights Templar— Aoaeia Chapter No. 21, Order oi the Eastern Star— L. 
a Lodge No, 30, I <>. 0. F. -Golden Rule Lodge No. 160, I. 0. 0. F.— 
South Star, Degree Lodge, No. 7, 1. 0. <>. F. Hebrew Benevolent Society 
Mechanics' Institute Y, M. Social Assembly— Harmony Club— Ger- 
mania Turn-Veroin -French Benevolent Society— B.C. *■">, Union League 
«>f America I 0. Good Templars- Mechanics' Eight-Hour League- 
Southern Pacific Club st. Patrick's Benevolent Society- I. A. Council 
No. II, R.4S M 1. a Co Medioal Association— St. Andrew's Society 
Anoiont Jewish Order K. s. B. L, A. Social Club— L. A. Musical Asso- 
ciation S. C. Farmers' Union — L. A. Chamber of Commerce— Irish L A 
S. Club— Knights of Pythias— Spanish Am, Benevolent Society— Ancient 
Order of ffibarniana— S. C. Horticultural Society— L. A. Phialetics— 
Ladies Benevolont Society— Italian Mutual Benevolenl Society— L. A. 

Free Dieponsnry— Frank Bartlett Tost <!. A. R.— L. A. Bar Associat 

Anoienl Order United Workmen— Ivy Social Club -Owl Dramatic Club 

—Bed Men- -Veterans of Mexican War— Catholic Ab. Society— Grangers, 

Military OnoANiZATiONa -L. A. Rangers— L. A. Guards— French Zouavee— 

Guardi t Zaragisa— Washington Guards— City Guards— Ringgold's Light 

Artillery— Twiat's Rifle Co.— Freneh [nfantry Corps— Southern ltiilea — 

L, A Grays Moore's Co, Native California Co. 

Public Institutions County Hospital and Alms House— Puhlic Library As- 

aociation- County Jail -City Schools— Cemeteries — Banks and Banking — 

Hotels, 106—129 


New Life from Decay — A Century Azo — An Interregnum ofJRest — Topogra- J 
phy of the T 'wnship — Present Appearance of the San Gabriel Valley 
San Gabriel Village— Pasadena— Sierra Madre Villa— Water Supply- 
Summing Up— Table of the Orange Interest— Table of the Wine Interest. 



Grant ol I... Pnenle to Rowland and Workman- Erection of the Township 
—Its Original Limits— Present Ranches therein Contained— Early His- 
tory— J-'...rh 3tai El M< 1866— 

Appreciation of Real Estate— I >uarte Settlement— Industries of El Mont* 
Township. j^ 


Location— Ranohes included in this Township- Division ol the Dal ton Property 
—Act sa Flouring Mills— A Bi^- Nugget— Fire, 133 134 



Topography— Ranchoa included in this Township -Early History -Descrip 

tion of the Valley— Ownership— The Several Sett] rata Spadra 

Pomona — A Destructive Fire. J34 


List of Ranches— Centineki and Sausal Redondo— BreaBanoh—fiosecransTrael 
—Stock— Cattle— Sheep— Bees— Dairies- Santa Monica— The Roadstead 
—Wharf— Town— South Santa Monica -Old Santa Monica. 186— 137 


Bounds of the Township— Ranches Contained Therein— Early History— Crops 
—Florence— The State of Maine— History of the Colony -Forest Culture 
—Dairies— Sheep— Hogs— Artesian Wells. [38—139 


The Original Grants in Wilmington Township— Stock — Horses— Cattle- 
Sheep— Dairies— Crops— Wheat — Barley — Fruit— Water— The First Ar- 
tesian Well — Compton, its History and Present Condition — Wilmington- 
Old San Pedro Harbor, and Reminiscences Thereof — Early Reports of 
Engiueers— Light-house— Improvement of. the Harbor— The Breakwater- 
Old San Pedro Town— Liudville— Wharfs and Warehouses— Major P. H. 
Downing'a History of Wilmington— MoPherson'a sketch Thereof— The 
Town of Wilmington, Past and Present — Current Events— Present O mi 

dit : on of the Town— Educational — The Wilson College — Churches So- ! 

cieties — Fire Department. 139 i4 ; -, 


Organization of the Township— Ranches Therein— Topography — Early His 
tory — Governor Downey's Liberality— Geographical Position of the Town- 
ship— A Curious Phenomenon— The Township in 1872— In 187G— In 18S0 
—Water— Crops— Fruit — Live Stock — A Noted Sheep Ranch— Mills— 

Downey Citj Gallatin Dollag. Settlement Old Los tfietcs— Pico's 
RJnohito— Fulton fl Litems Norwalk. 1 ir, 1 .,, 


Are* of the Township R I .., Water Supply The Oajoa Ditch 

' cop I 1 : ipi . md w baa Prineipal Vine- 

>'•*'" ■ " Stock Schools Centralis Orangethorpe Fail 

Inaheiin Historj ol thi a ttli on nl md \i Qrowtli Watei S3 1 

,|,M1 "' to' !'""" Kr Industry \,» .,,,,,. , . Chureh) 1 Sooii fcii 1 

iai m 
1 11 LPTEH \l,ll 


111 T| " township Historj ol the Sottlomonl Cropi Stock— 

S| no '1 1 and Socii ■ ■ Gardei Grovi I ropa inafa 

Landing Exports and tot] 150 \q\ 

CH \ITKi; \l.ll! 

Ranches in the Township Topography Scantj Population krti W alls, 



List of the Ranch 1 in this Township Descripl the Principal Ranchi 1 

r " »nl Condition oi the Township Watei 8uppl] The 8anto Ann 
I"' ■ tting Ditch Crop Fruit Livi Stool B. a T11 tin City Santa 
\n.. History ol the Town Churches Societies Sohooli Gospel 
Swamp ' Iropa Fruiti Mormon S" fctloment Orango Fruits < ropi 
Sistorj oi the Settlement Newport \ Diss tei 101 -108 


List mi Ranches in the Township Description ol the Several Ranches and 
their Topograph) 3tooh Thi HotSpringa Bee Ranches Cropa The 

Emharcadero Descripi 1 oi the Port by Early Navfgaton Son Juan 

Capiitranc Buried Treasure Pri enl Condition ol the Villagi The 
Ruined Mission, iqq \- it 


Santa Catalina Island 
Relics — San I l. mente 1 1 

D< wription Thereol I Mi d< i bip Stool Indian 
ind— Description -Stook-^Suhititute for Water. 


Chronological Tahle 174 

biographical Sketches 175 134 

Directory of Subscribers iyg _jgj 

History of the American Mag. joo 

Census of the State iy*> 

Official Vote of Lob Angeles County iy_» 




Adam*, M. V facing page 

Adams, 1\ T *' 

Anaheim Public School Building 

Baker's Block facing page 

Banning, Mrs. Phineas " 

Bittner, Andrew " 

Bowers, P " 

Bullis, John day " 

Butler, G. R " 

Butler, L. 

Capitol Mills " 

Carey, Thomas " 

Cathedral and Bishop's Resilience " 

Central Block " 

Childa, O. W " 

Chilson, D. G .., 

City Garden " 

Commercial Bank •' 

Congregational Church *» 

Coronel, A. F " 

Cuddebaok.G. P " 

Dalton, George " 

De Celis, J. A. & Sous ■• 

Deming, Palmer & Co " 

Dominguez, Don Manuel •» 

Downey Block <« 

Downey, John G •* 

Dunkellwrger, I. R " 

DurreU, J. F " 

Eherle, Bros .1 

Edwards, Samson •< 

Edwards, Thomas « 

Edwards, W, H 

Eucalyptus Grove (l 

Evergreen Cemetery ,, 

Fashiou Livery Stable <« 

Femusson, R. A ,1 

Fernbeim ,, 















Foster, E. B 

Gardner, J. W 

Gooch, Thomas L 

Grove, M. P 

Guinn, J. M 

Hazard, H. T 

Hellman, H. W 

Hellman, Isaias W 

Hollenbeck, J. E 

Hooper, J. W 

House, R. F 

Hunt, W. B 

Jacoby, L 

Judson, Gillett & Gibson. 

Konig, William 

Koro, F. A 

Kroeger, Henry 

Kysor & Hennessy 

Lake Vineyard 

Landell, Jas. W 

Lanfranco Block 

Langenbcrger, A. 

Leahy, Thomas 

Lichtenberger, L 

Loekwood, H 

Lyman, S , 

Mallett, Mrs. R. Park.. . 

McDonald Block 

McDonald, E.N 

McDonald, J. G 

McKenzie, Alex 

Meade, John 

Monroe, W. N 

Montgomery, H. L 

Morton, Mary A 

Mullally, Joseph 

Nadeau, Martha F 

Nadeau, R 







































Naud, E » << 

Newhall, H. M 

Newmark Block «• .< 

O'Neil. Jno. S ........"! ....... 

Pacific Hotel < < „ 

Park, Mrs. M. E ]/' 

Perry, W. H ...........!...!... 

Potts, A. W ....... 

Public School Building, Anaheim « « 

Public School Building, Vernon District » « 

Putney, A. E [[ 

Reiser, Theodore <. u 

Rowland, John .. << 

Sanatorium, Anaheim »• <i 

San Marino <• tl 

San Pedro Ranch «« .1 

Seibert, B. F. ' * „ 

Seymour & Co << lt 

Shaffer, P.J 

Shields, John H "" .. , t 

Shorb, J. De Barth 

Snow & Adams u » 

Snow, H. K 

Stephens, D. G u t , 

Talbot, M. W 

Temple Street Stables «- u 

Valley View 1. „ 

Villa De Paredon Blanco « .. 

Vernon District Public School Building « <• 

Waldron, D. V 

Wakehan, H. H /. .. .1 

Washington Gardens «i ■< 

Weyse, Julius Guenther •< <i 

Wilson, B. D 

Wilson & Buttolph «• <« 

Wolfskill, Jos. W between pages 16 and 

Workman, W. H facing page 


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History Dafined— Wffloultiea of the Work -Amount of Labor Involved— 
Incomplete RecorcU— Thru Sacks tfNoUx— Flan of the Work-Thanka 
f.,r Aasietuiu'c— Authorities Examined. 

" All history is but a splendid fiction!" 
Such wns Lord Byron's exclamation on reading an account of 
theQreels revolution, in which he himself had been a principal 
actor. Sweeping as it is, yet dwells there more than a modi- 
cum of truth in his criticism; for however careful a historian 
may be, he knows well, that much of the information upon 
which he bases his record of past events, is at best but par- 
tially accurate, is too often wholly unreliable. 

This editor submits, that while all history is— in the very 

nature of things— a compilation, yet history, like cookery, 

differs as to worth in two important particulars; first, as to the 

ingredients; second, as to the manner of serving. Regarding 

the first, he would say, that he has used the best the market 

affords ; as to the second -his readers must judge for themselves 

Many and great are the difficulties which ever beset and 

perplex the patient historian, and with all such he has not been 

unfamiliar. Numerous books have already been written on 

the topic he has essayed, yet is he forced to the conclusion 

that but few of these deserve to rank as history. He has not 

scrupled to make free use of every seemingly reliable aid but 

alas ! too often has encountered the hideous hag Mendacity 

masquerading in the painted semblance of beauteous Truth 

To repulse the first, and woo the second, has been his constant 

aim, and with modest confidence he now presents these Emits 
of his labor to the public eye, assured— that while perfection is 
not claimed— yet they constitute a history as reliable as human 
industry can evolve from out the remaining fragments of a 
decayed past. Errors will doubtless be detected, but these are 
unavoidable; and in no case does he hold himself responsible 
for the reliability of quoted statements 

Very many of the records of Los Angeles City and county 
are sadly incomplete, while those of an early date are all in the 
Spanish language, necessitating translation, and much extra 
labor. In order to keep the expenditure within reasonable 
limits, and make this publication possible, it is absolutely 
necessary that it be advanced with the greatest speed compati- 
ble with strict accuracy. If then the reader should find the 
following pages deficient in literary polish or grace of diction 
let it be borne in mind, that the aim has been to present our 
patrons with a fairlv reliable history couched in plain English, 
rather than with a work of art designed only to captivate 
by means of brilliant metaphor, and glowing rhetoric 

The amount of labor involved in the preparation of such a 
work, can scarcely be appreciated by one who has never under- 
taken the task— The poring over old newspaper riles for items 
of information; the searching of musty and -lusty archives; 
the numberless interviews with old inhabitants ; the long and 
tedious comparison of countless notes, collected from all .sources; 
the careful elimination of unreliable gossip— separating as it 
were, the tares from the wheat. As some indication of what 
has been done in the collection of information only, as we 
now write, three large grain soda stand in one corner of the 

room, packed to overflowing with pencilled slips of brown 
paper the QO tea we have gathered and used to make this 

book. Iu the collection of these, Ave months were consul 1. 

and during n portion of that time the Editor was assisted by 
Mr H W. Cornish and Mr. A M Freeman, members of the 
historical staff. But after this much had been accomplished, 

the whole book— equal i iwme to three oi-dvnary n ■/*. 

had to be compiled and written from out that mighty chaos oi 
facts and figures. In this task the Editor [single-handed,] has 
consumed but three and one half months, and in addition has 
read and corrected all of the proof himself. He submit* that 
he has not bei n idle. 

In the preparation of this work ho has had neither fi lends to 
reward, nor foes to defame He entered Los Angela last Feb 
ruarv a total strange, to the county and the roast. \\ ith the 
completion of this task he bids farewell to both-perhaps for 
ever, and carries away with bun only the most grateful mem 
ories of countless courtesies and loudnesses received from al 
ifornians. during one of the iriost pleasantly spent years of a 
not unvaried life. Wherever it may hereafter be his Fate 01 
fortune to wander, there will California surely have a fnend, 
but Los Angeles— a l,,n <'- 

The plan of this work contemplates: Fvret, a brief history 
of the State of California from the earliest times down to the 
American occupation, with special attention to those -vents 
happening within Los Angeles county. Second, a history oi 

the countv from the American occupation to the present ti 

Third a history of each township separately, briefly touching 
on such matter as have not been fully described m other 



portions of the book. Chronological and other tables for 
speedy reference, and biographies of our view subscribers, close 
the volume. 

The Editor wishes especially to thank the Editors of the 
several newspapers published in Los Angeles City and county 
for their hearty assistance toward this work. He is also in- 
debted to the following gentlemen — among many others, for 
valuable information rendered : — 

Right Rev. Francis Mora Los Angeles. 

Hon. J. J. Warner 

Hon. John G. Downey 

Hon. Ygnaeio Sepulveda 

Hod A. J. King 

Don F. P. Ramirez 

I >on Eu logic de Cclis 

Henry l> Harrows, Esq 

JohnO. Wheeler, Esq 

I Ion. Prudent Brand ry 

(leorge Hansen, Esq 

Edward T. Wright, Esq 

Thomas E. Rowin, Esq 

I ion. Antonio F. CoroneJ " 

Major Horace Bell " 

A. W. Potts, Esq., (County Clerk) Los Angeles. 

W. W. Robinson, (City Clerk and Auditor) 

R, Nadeau, Esq " 

Dr. J. P. Widney 

Dr. J. S. Griffin. 

H. T. Hazard, Esq 

0. W. Childs, Esq 

Oscar H. Kimball, Esq « 

N. Levering, Esq " 

Hon. Henry Hamilton San Gabriel. 

L. H. Titus, Esq 

J. De Barth Shorb, Esq 

L. J. Rose, Esq " 

F. P. F. Temple, Esq El Monte. 

Frank W. Temple, Esq *« 

John ll Tei a \ Je, Esq " 

B. F. Seibert, Esq Anaheim. 

A. W. Steinhort, Esq 

William R. Olden Esq 

Richard Melrose, Esq. (Ed. Gazette.) 

John P. Zeyn, Esq " 

B. Dreyfus, Esq 

Theodore Reiser, Esq 

August Langenberger, Esq " 

Theodore Rimpau, Esq. ■< 

Henry Kroeger, Esq «■ 

Davis & Brother « 

J. M. Quinn, Esq <« 

William II. Spurgeon, Esq Santa Ana. 

George C. Knox, Esq 

J. G. Kimball, Esq \[ 

Henry S. Knapp, Esq « 

Editor Santa Ana Times « 

Editor Santa Ana Herald " 

Richard Eagan, Esq San Juan Capistrano. 

Padre Jose Mut " " . 

Rev. Robert Strong Westminster. 

Rev. A. J. Compton 

Rev. F. A. Field 

Hon. Stephen C. Foster Downey. 

Editor Downey Courier 

L. L. Beqnette, Esq 

J. K. Banks, Esq 

J. W. Venabie, Esq., (County Assessor) .... 

J. H. Burke, Esq 

0. P. Passons, Esq 

Albert B. Clark, Esq Orange. 

Patterson Bowers, Esq 

R. C. Crowder, Esq 

William Garner, Esq Gospel Swamp. 

W. N. Tedford, Esq Gospel Swamp. 

Gen. John H. Shields Florence. 

Rev. G. D. Compton Compton. 

Dr. J. E. Fulton Fulton Wells. 

Gen. E. M. Sanford 

Daniel Gridley, Esq Artesia. 

Don Bernardino Guirado Old Los Nietos. 

Gen. Phineas Banning Wilmington. 

Major P. H. Downing " 

George Hinds, Esq " 

J. H. Melville, Esq , SantaMonica. 

M. D. Johnson, Esq 

George Carson, Esq San Pedro Ranch. 

William Briggs, Esq " " 

J. Bixby, Esq Los Cerritos " 

Bryant Gates, Esq San Vicente " 

Anderson Rose, Esq La Ballona " 

D. Freeman, Esq Sausal Redondo " 

Daniel Waite, Esq Salt Works. 

Hon. Charles McClay San Fernando. 

D. W. Fields, Esq ; Newhall. 

James Feore, Esq « 

Right Rev. W. Ingraham Kip San Francisco. 

Rev. James Woods « 

H. M. Newhall, Esq 


(Constituting a Complete File from June 20, 1654 to July 1, 1S30 inclusive.) 

Southern Californian, June 20, 1854 to January 1, 1855. 
Los Angeles Star, January 4, 1855 to March 20, 1858. 
Southern Vineyard, March 20, 1858 to January 1, 1860. 
Los Angeles News, January 1, 1860 to November 27, 1872. 
Los Angeles Star, November 27, 1872 to May 1, 1876. 
Los Angeles Evening Repress, May 1, 1870 to Jan. 1, 1877. 
Los Angeles Herald, January 1, 1877 to January 1, 1878. 
Los Angeles Evening Express, J an. 1, 1878 to July 1, 1880. 
Los Angeles Morning Journal, Feb. 1, 1880 to Julv 1, 1880. 
Anaheim Gazette, special subjects. 
Santa Ana Tvmes, 
Santa Ana Herald, " 
Downey Courier, " " 

Los Angeles Correspondence of San Francisco Bulletin, and 

other papers. H. D. Barrows (1856-1880). 
" Los Angeles County Indians." A series of letters to the 

Los Angeles Star, by Hugo Reid (1852 
"Historical Sketches." A series of letters to Los Angeles 

Evenimg Express, by Hon. Stephen C. Foster (1876). 
" Recollections of a Ranger." A series of letters to the San 

Francisco Golden Era, by Major Horace Bell. 


Forbes' " California " (1835). 

Powell's " Golden State." 

Hittell's " Resources of California." 

Native Races of the Pacific States, by H. H. Bancroft ( 1 875, 

five volumes). 
Historical Sketch of Los Angeles County, by Warner Haves 

& Widney (1876). 
Condition, Progress and Advantages of Los Angeles County 
- by A. T. Hawley, (1876). 
Annals of San Francisco (1854). 
Herald Pamphlet, (1876). 
California Register (1859). 
Wood's Reminiscences of California (1854,. 
Homes in Los Angeles County, by McPherson (1873). 
NordorfT's " California." 
Truman's "Semi-Tropical California." 
Life of Vasquez, {Herald Pamphlet, 1874 
General Land Office Report (1870). 
State Engineer's Report (1880). 

Report of United States Exploring Expedition (1841;. 
* A Bloom from the Angel Land, by a German nobleman. 
Los Angeles "City Directories." 

Missions of California, by Right Rev. W. Ingraham Kip. 
"Two Years Before the "Mast," by Richard H. Dana (1840). 
"Three Years in California," Rev. W. Colton (1850 
Laws of California. 
Codes of California. 


Records of Court of Sessions (1850-1852;. 
County Supervisors' Minutes (1852-1880). 
Records of County Court (1850-1880). 
Records of District Court (1850-1880). 
MSS. Pleadings in Important Criminal Cases (1850-1880). 
Minutes of Los Angeles City Council (1850-1880 . 
It will be readily understood that the foregoing list contains 
scarcely a tithe of the names of those who have contributed by 
information or otherwise, toward the success ,,f this undertak- 
j ing. To mention the names of all would require a volume 
devoted to that purpose only, and for this reason the vast 
majority must remain unthanked by name; yet may these 
j rest assured that we are none the less grateful to them. The 
! gentlemen who have so liberally subscribed to the view de- 
j partment, and for copies of the book, have also our hearty 
I thanks; for without such liberality on their part, the publica- 
tion of this work would have been impossible. 
Oakland October 20. l.sso. 

' Written in German ami published at Berlin. t Spanish ami English. 

* WV»*T". 



Corner or Main fts Acadia Streets, Los Angeles,Cal 




(1513- 1770.) 

Discovery of the Pacific by Balboa- [nvarion ol Me> fag Oortea I 

navigation ol the Paoific Exploratiom bj Oorfez Origin ol the name 
"California" Subsequent exploratiom Expedition ol Cabrillo Drake's 
disoovcriei Harbor oi San Diego di covered Piracy Colony at La Paz 
—Abandonment Jesuits refo <■ bo colonic Pal hen Kino and Sah iti rra 
I'.i .1 mlnsion in Lower California Pathi i U prfa - ttli ■ a1 San Xsvier 
Worlt ol the Jesuits Pint explorations Early superstitions Wild 
boasts and Demons Kino's expeditions Cgerte's expedition— Link's 
expeditions Enmity againsl the Jesuits— Expulsion The Pranci au 

The Dominicans Junipero Sorrs Hisi t. Qalvea Three n ui 

Expedition organized Dcapatched 8an Diego and Montorej founded. 

To Balboa belongs the credit of firel discovering the Pacific 
Ocean. To Magellan that of first navigating it in Bhips. But 
ifcistoCortez -the indomitable, we must render the honor of 
first exploring its Bhores. 

He luitl burned his fleets at Tabasco; he had conquered and 
spoiled Mexico; he had profaned the shrines of the Aztecs, and 
loaded their King with chains, inflamed by success, and 
arrogant with power, be yet sighed for new worlds to conquer, 
and despatched his generals to explore the I lalifornian gulf, and 
bring him word what manner of men dwelt within thecountries 

surrounding it. Dissatisfied with their report, he c manded 

a second expedition in person, but found little to reward his 
persistence, .save sterile soil and naked savages. His was the 
fate of all pioneers, in all ages, he saw the [and of promise his 
dreams had pictured, but might noi enter in and realize the 
pleasureshe believed it to contain. Disheartened he returned 
homo, and disappointed ho. died. 

Whence comes the name "California" we know not with 
certainty, for writers differ much in opinion on this subject. 
Perhaps of the many advanced, the most plausible theory is 
that it was derived from an old Spanish Romance published in 
Sevilla, Spain, about 1510, entitled " The Sergas of Esplandian, 
the Bon of Ajuadis, of Gaul;" and, among many other wonder- 
ful relations, containing the following curious passage: — 

Know tlmt on the right hand of the Indies, there is an island called 
Califurnia, very near to the Terrestrial Paradise, peopled by black 
women, without any men among them, because they are accustomed to 
live alter the manner of the Amazons. Thev are" of strumr and hard- 
ened bodies, of ardent courage, and of great force. The island w the 
strongest in the world, from its steep rocks and great elHFs. Their 
anna are all of gold, and so are the caparisons of the wild beasts thev 
ride. J 

Many ardent adventurers succeeded < nite/. ui attempting to 
explore this wondrous land, but all with scanty results. The 

' successful was Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, who, in 1542, 

discovered and named Cape Mendocino, He was followed in 
1 >n l'\ Sir Francis Drake, who discovered a Bay, supposed by 

son.e to have been thai of San Francisco, but which was more 
probably Bodega Baj or ' Jack's rlarbot In 1602 the har- 
bor of San Diego was discovered U Don Sebastian 7iscayna 
who gave glowing accounts on bis return 0! the man 
productiveness of the soil in thai neighbor] 

At this period piracy was regarded as a legitimate enterprise . 
and was conducted under letters paten* issued to their subjects 
by all, or nearly all the European nations. Theonlj restric- 
tion these cui throats were under, was that thej musl nol prej 
"I 1 "" fcbe commerce of their pan m flag; thai of all othi 1 
-..■..ions was lawful spoil. Thus Captain Drake robbed the 
Spanish galleons under British colors, and was Knighted 03 

g ' Queen Hess as a reward for his achievements in this line, 

and for endeavoring to steal the western coasl of imerica fr 

the Spanish crown. Thus an effort made by the Spanish 
admiral Otondo in 1683, to colonize Lowe,- California al La 
Paz, was abandoned through fear of the Dutch privateers 
Still later, the Jesuits, at least partly on this account, refused 

840,000 a yeai Bubsidj from the Spanish -oven mt, to 

attempt the settlement of the ' tolifornios For more than two 
centuries the land discovered by Cortez was trodden onlj by 
savages and wild beasts. 

Associated with Admiral (Hondo in the colonization scheme 
ol' 1683, was a German Jesuit Friar named Kuhn, but better 
known to by the Spanish name Kino Once, in feai 
of death, he had made a vow to St. Francis Xavier, and in 
fulfillment of this devoted his whole subsequent life to the 
purpose of bringing about the spiritual conquest of the 
Calif orni as, 

Taking with him another priest named Salvatierra, as 
enthusiastic as himself, these two spent eleven years traveling 
throughout Mexico, preaching the crusade of their hope, and 
begging alms to assist them in the accomplishment of this— 
the aim of their ambition. At last the college of Jesuits in 
Mexico was moved to lend a helping hand. Father Juan 
Ugarte, the venerable professor of philosophy at the college, 
even became so interested, that he took upon himself the direc- 
tion of the financial affairs pertaining to the enterprise. Under 
these auspices, on the 25th day of October, 1697, the first Jesuil 
Mission in Lower California was established at Loreto under 
charge of the indefatigable Father Salvatierra. Three years 
later, moved by missionary zeal, Father Ugarte surrendered 
his chair of philosophy at the college, and also crossing the 
California gulf, settled at San Xavier, there to spend the rem- 
nant of his days, instructing squalid savages in the forms of 
Christian faith. 


However much modern historians may differ upon minor 
points; however much modern moralists may decry tkevr 

methods of conversion; all musl agree that the Jesuil Fathers 
were not onlj the firsl white sottlers in Lower California, bul 
that thej also were the pioneers of exploration in the upper 

and thai to them must , ver be accorded thocredifc 
due those who open up a hitherto wholly unknown territory 
to subsequent and more systematic enterprise. Truly, b fore 

,,i ''"' advent, the coast and harbors of tin northern < itrj had 

)ls uv ,,;|X "" been frequently explored by navigators; but. 

1 1 in mighty mountains, its deep valli j il 

far-reaching prairies, with all thoii 1 ndless possibilitii yel 

remained a verj ton-a incognita, throughoul the length and 
breadth of which timorous fancy pictured unheard of and >a\ 

■''-'' animals and yet more savage men ami demon., banded 

together under the immediate leadership of the greal arch 
enemy, all bound by physical force and dire enchantment, to 
resisl the incoming of the blessed gospel .-ft Ihrist. 

I he first expedition into the interior, of which anj authentic 
record remains, was in !7<>o, when the Jesuit Father Kino 
already mentioned), impelled alike by missionary fervor and 
geographic enterprise, penetrated to the river, Gila and Col 

orado, and by four subsequent journeys in Me 1 ■ genoral 

ll I|M11 ' extending in all ovei five mcce live years,) exploded 

thethen popular fallacy that. California was an island In 
171'n, Father Ugarte, in a vessel of his own construction, 
reached the river Colorado, bj way of the gulf ; and in 170G 
the Jesuit Father Winceatua Link, also explored a portion of 
thenoithern territory, and confir d the statements of both 

the others. 

But the star of the Jesuits, long in the ascendant, at last 

reached the zenith then waned, and set. With thai sturdy 
persistence, and oneness of purpose which has ever charactei 
ized their Order, they for seventy long years waged in© an! 
warfare, alike againsl tie' forces of nature, and the powers of 
darkness. During that period they established fifteen no ion 
upon tli.' peninsula; they surrounded them with grain-fields 
and orchards; they amassed wealth cattle, and horses and 

sheep; and their Indian converts were numbered by the n 

sand. They builded well, but they builded in vain. The King 
of Spain feared them; the grandees of Spain envied them; 
ergo -the welfare of Spain demanded their expulsion; the 
edict was promulgated, and the Jesujts Were cast. out. 

In the year 1767, the Franciscan Friars of the college of San 
Fernando were duly installed; to be in turn weeeeded b\ the 
Dominican Friars, five years later. 


The Jesuits had been expelled; the Franciscans had taken 
their place; and the missionary spirit ran high. In 1768, 
Francis Junipero Serra, a Franciscan Friai of the college of 
San Fernando, Mexico, was nominated Missionary President of 



Upper California, This priest was a native of Mayorca, and 
earlj in life filled fchi chair of philosophy in the University of 
thai place This he resigned for tin- wider field of Missionary 
labor, and bad already distinguished himself in Mexico by his 

eloquence and zeal a rig ths natives. The Franciscan annals 

de cribe him as "a love-inspired enthusiast, whose eye kindled 
with delight at sight of a band of savages, and whose hearl 
thrilled with transport al the baptism of an Indian babi 
With liini wen: associated four others, all from the same col- 
lege, and named respectively- Father Fernando Parron, Father 
Juan Biscayno; Father Francisco Gomez; and Father Juan 
Crespi. At Loreto, a peninsular port these five were joined 
by Don Joseph Galvez, "Visitador General," who had been 
commissioned bj the king to superintend the proposed expedi- 
tion. It was now determined to establish three missions in 

I rpper I 'alifornia, located respectively ; at the port of 

Monterey, one at the port of San Diego, and the third at some 
point between these two — this latter to be named " San 

In furtherance of this design, an expedition was organized 
in five divisions, two to proceed by land, ami three by water; 
.-ill to meet at San Diego. The first land division under com- 
mand of ( laptain Rivera y Moncada, left Santa Anna some time 
in September, L768, and reached San Diego May 14, 1769. 
The second, under Governor Gaspar de Portala, and accom- 
panied ty the Father President, left Villacata May 15, 1769, 
and reached San Diego July 1, 1709. These divisions each 
took with them horses, nudes, and cattle to stock the proposed 
Upper California missions. For the other divisions there were 
three vessels provided. The "San Carlos" sailed from Loreto 
January 9, L769. She was commanded by Don Vincente 
Vilal, and carried, beside subordinate officers, twenty-five 
soldiers, a surgeon, and a priest, She reached San Diego May 
1, 170!), with only the officers, Friar, cook, and two seamen 
— all others having perished on the voyage by hunger, thirst 
and scurvy. The "San Antonio' sailed from cape San Lucas 
February I-"., L769. She was commanded by' Don Juan 
Perez, and reached San Diego April 11, following, bavin** 
lost eight of her crew by scurvy. The "San Joseph" sailed 
from Loreto June 16, I7ii!t, and was never afterward heard 

San Diego Mission was founded July 16, 17(iD. 
Monterey " " June 3, 177<>. 



Pa i and Present Compared— Tribe and Language— Government— Religion- 
Tradition <<i the < Creation — Food and Raiment— Marriage— Births — Buri- 
als—Medicine and Disease— Customs — Feuds — Commerce — Money — Uten- 
sils — Games— Feasts and Festivals — Funeral Feasts — Eagle Feasts— Leg- 
ends and Traditions — The Pleiades — Orpheus and Eurydice — The Sou of 
God— The Cuwot — The Moon Mother. 

A SEA-NYMPH, fresh from her native surge! An Aphrodite, 
new-born! A Cures, at rest I A Bacchante, wrapped in slum- 
ber! Her head pillowed upon the mountains; her brows girt 
with odorous pine; her breasts with orange, and myrtle, and 
clustering vines — her zone with yellow grain — her limbs with 
wild Mowers. With one hand nestling mid snowy summits, 
the other toying with sun-lit waves; she rests — the chosen of 
Apollo, and bathed in his glances ever, dreams, and dreams, 
and dreams the years away ! 

Such might be esteemed a poetic picture of Los Angeles 
county to-day, but how different was that scene which met 
the gaze of the Spanish missionaries. Truly — 

The hills, 
Rock-ribbed, and ancient as the sun; the vales 
Stretching in pensive i|eietness between; 
The venerable woods; livers that move 
In majesty, and the complaining brooks 
That make; the meadows green; and poured found all 
Old Ocean's gray and melancholy waste — 

AH these were here, as now ; but tradition tells of a time, 
long distant in the lapse of years, when this great valley, 
throughout its whole expanse, was a mighty cienega, covered 
with leafy forest oaks and sycamores, willows, and underbrush. 
Drought and the vandal hand of man have shorn the robe of 
nature, yet at the period whereof we now write, enough 
remained to indicate what once had been. Even then it was 
not the puny rivulet of to-day, ravished of its store by count- 
less ditches, that opposed the foot of the wayfarer, but the 
lordly " Porciuncula," deep and rapid, on whose banks the 
wild deer fed, and on whose bosom floated myriads of water- 

Where stands the "Angel City" now, in stately pride of 
brick and stone, then stood the Indian village " Yang-na" in 
all its primitive simplicity of reeds and twigs. Here dwelt the 
aborigines by the cairns of their ancestors. Here, oblivious of 
civilization with its injustices and cruelties, its doubts and per- 
plexities, and happy in their ignorance, they reigned— first 
occupants, sole possessors, and— as they believed, paramount 
lords of the soil. 

"For the matters related in tins chapter, we arc- indebted largely to the 
jery .,1,1, essays of the late Hugo Reid, published in the Los A Star, 
!>>■'-, and republished m that paper in I860.— Ed, 


The Indians inhabiting what is now Los Angeles county, 
were formerly comprised in one great tribe or family, divided 
into villages under distinct chiefs, speaking the same Ian. 
throughout, with but slight local differences of pronunciation. 
Civil war was unknown among them, and common cause was 
ever made against ;i common enemy. They had, in all. imi 
forty villages, including settlements upon the islands of Santa 
Catalina and San Clemente. The Indians of San Bernardino 
constituted a distinct tribe, and were regarded as an inferior 
race by their Los Angeles cousins, who called them " Serranos " 
or mountaineers 

The valley Indians made their huts of sticks, and covered 
them with flag mats. Each village contained from 500 to 
1,500 huts. " Suanga" was the most populous, and was of 
great extent. This tribe had no distinguishing appellation. 
The word " Cahuilla," in their language, signified simply 
"Master." With this title they saluted their Spanish visitors, 
and through a blunder of these, by this name have they ever 
since been, known. 

Their language i> described as having been "soft and musi- 
cal, simple, rich, and abounding in compound expressive terms." 
Thirty years ago, it had become — in its purity, a thing of the 
past, and is now probably quite extinct. 


Their government was invested in chiefs, each village hav- 
ing its own. The office was hereditary, and when the direct 
line ran out, the nearest of kin was elected. There was but 
little crime. Robbery was unknown Murder and incest 
were punished with death. So much in abhorrence was this 
latter crime held, that marriage between kinsfolk was not 
allowed. Differences between members of the same lodge were 
decided by the chief upon the evidence. Between members of 
distinct lodges, each chief heard only the testimony of his own 
people, then the two chiefs met and agreed on a decision; or, 
failing to agree, called in a third chief, and his decision was 
final. Corporal punishment was not practiced. Fines were 
paid in shell-money, food, or skins. .Marital infidelity on the 
part of the wife) was punishable with death at the hand of 
the aggrieved husband j or he might, at discretion, compel an 
exchange for the spouse of her paramour. Children were 
under control of their parents (or nearest relation- until the 
age of puberty, when they came within the jurisdiction of the 
chief. Wizards (they had no witches) could be punished onlj 
by brethren of the craft-, since such conversed with the 
"Great Spirit," War was declared by a council of all the 
chiefs, and prisoners were tortured to death only in the pres- 
ence of a similar council. The war-dance is said to have been 
"grand, solemn, anil maddening." 


puaaiHto by THOMrsoM *- r*fST 


Los Angeles City,Cal. 




They believed in one God the Creatoi whose name—" '. 
o or!" w.i rarelj poki d, and \>- ei aveina lo and r 
voice, They usually referred bo him by om of hi attributes, 
as " 1' yo ha rin-i rvaA/n ' The Qivei of Life' thej had but 
one word for lAfe and soul. Their thi ru w do devil, and 

no hell, prior to the advenl of the missionaries ; and thej 
have ever since maintained, thai these, being a foreign inrn 
tion, concern the foreigners only. They looked foi oo n ui n c 
tion of the body, but firmly believed in b piritual e i en© 

after death, The souls of wizards w pposed to enter 

animals especially beai - Eagles, owls, crows, and porpoises 
were held sacred The first in memory of a mighty chief \\ bo 
tool* on Unit, form at death, The second as a harbinger of 
death, The third as foretelling the approach of strangers. 
The fourth as appointed guardians of the earth, constantly 
encompassing it to see that all is safe 

Their tradition of the creation runs thai al first chaos 
reigned. Out of this God Lormed the world, and placed it on 
the shoulders of seven giants, created to that end. Each lias 
his name, and when either moves, an earthquake is the conse- 
quence. Next, animals wen- formed, and last of all, the man 
"Tobohwr" and the woman "Pabavit" These were wrought 
by the Divine hand from different Btrata of earth, and presented, 
each to each, mutually to comfort and to bless. Then God 
ascended up into Heaven, where he awaits and receives the 
souls of all who die. 

Each village had its church, woven of basket work, and 
circular in form. This building was sacred ever yet was con- 
secrated anew whenever used. A similar, but unconsocrated 
building Berved for rehearsal, and the religious education of 
youth designed for the priesthood. Only seers and captains, 
male dancers, and female singers (all of whom took part in the 
service), were permitted to enter the consecrated church except 
mi funeral occasions, when near relatives of the deceased were 
also admitted. The services consisted in asking vengeance on 
enemies, returning thanks for victory , and Tehearsing the 
merits of dead heroes; together with the appropriate dances, 
Bongs, and gesticulations. Invocations were addressed to the 
Church.! as the nearest, approach allowable to speech with the 
"Great Spirit." 


Foi food they used deer, cayotes, squirrels, rats, badgers' 
gophers, raccoons, skunks, wildcats, crows, blackbirds, hawks, 
ground owls, and snakes, but not the rattle-snake. Bear-meat 
was generally rejected on superstitious grounds. Locusts. and 
grass-hoppers were toasted before the fire, and eaten as a 
dainty. Fish, seals, whales, sea-otter, and shell fish, Formed the 
principal food of the coasl and island villages. Of vegetables 

they used acorns 'made into mush' . wild cherry pits, seeds, and 
berries. All their food was eaten cold, and salt used very spar- 
ingly,- "be© frned the hair gray." 
The men went entire!} i il the women 1 

■ -kin, wrapped about themiddle. Rabbit 
skins, cut square and sewed together, formed a covering at 
night Rings in the nose were not used, but both men and 
women wore ear-rings; the former, pieces of rei I only, but 
the latter, most elaborate affau constructed out of win 
teeth, hell and feathei . The women wore also neck 
and bracelets, composed of money-shells, whales' teeth, and 
small black stones During the flower season, both women 
and children decked themselves in great splendor, entwining 
flowers in theii hair, and also plaiting them into long boas, 
which they won- about their necks. 

When a girl arrived at the age of pubertj it was hailed as 
a joyful event by all her relatives. She was now purified in 

the same manner as was a w an at child-birth, and the fact 

of her being marriageable was published far and di m 

Only the chiefs might practice polygamy; their subjects 
were restricted to one wife. When a match was made the 
fact was duly advertised l»\ both parties, On the appointed 
day, all the male relatives of th'* man. even to fie' nineteenth 
cousin, assembled at his tent, and each contributed a small 
sum of shell- money toward the purchase-price of the bride; 
the amount expected from each being equivalent to ab mt 
twenty-five cents of our money. The assemblage then ad- 
journed to the brides quarters, and divided the collection 
among her female relatives there assembled to receive it. A 
few days later these returned the compliment by taking to the 
prospective bridegrooms quarters baskets of meal, which was 
duly divided among his male relatives. These preliminaries 
over, a day was fixed for the marriage ceremon} 

The bride being decked with innumerable strings of beads, 
paint, feathers, and skins, she was taken in the arms of one 
of her male relatives, who carried her, dancing, toward the 
bridegroom's tent. All- her family, friends, and neighbors 
accompanied her, dancing around, and casting food and 
at her feet, which were duly scrambled for by the spectators. 
The relatives of the man met the procession half way, and tak- 
ing the bride, carried her themselves, dancing as thej went, 
into the bridegroom's tent, where they placed her by his side. 
Now baskets of seeds were poured over their heads- -th 
denote blessing and plenty, and this "bride's seed cake" hav- 
ing been duly scrambled for by "the attendant crowd, the couple 
were left to enjoy their honeymoon. 

A grand dance followed the wedding; at this hunter- and 
warriors frequently appeared in character, each attended by 

Ids wife, wh.» went through all the mimicry of carrying and 
skinning game, or despatching wounded enemies, as the chosen 

lion of her husband required. 

mi (hi- time foi I. never \ isited her rclativi 

tight visit her at will. If her lord ill treated 
her she gave notice of the fact to her kin, who would gather 
up the purchase monej paid for her, return it to her hu 
band, take pM-.srs-.ion of her and ai once re marrj her to some 


On the hirth of a child the mother and babe were purified 
i.\ the follow ing process; 

in die centerofa hut o larg hole was dug, an immense 
lire kindled therein, and stones heated until red hot, Now 
bundles of wild tansy were cast in. and the whole covered with 

earth, exceptin i\ a mall aperture in the middle. Over 

this the two wore placed, wrapped in a mat, funnel fashion, 
while cold water was gradually poured in upon the fire below 

The medicated steam, rushing forth in voli , caused the poor 

woman to skip and leap not a little, and ihortl} | I need in 

tense perspiration Finally, mother ami child la\ down on the 
warm earth, and were carefully covered up. This operation 
. ., repeated morning and evening for three daj . durin 
which time the woman was allowed no food, and onlj warm 

water to drink. After thi he wa allowed \ egctable f I al 

discretion, but no animal diet for the space of " tw 

At the end of this time, three pills, comp ided of meat and 

wild tobacco in equal parts, wen administered to her; ami 

fr henceforth she was free to oat \\ hatoi bi he plea i d. 

But not until the child i Id run about wasshe privileged to 

share her husband's bed. As a rule, the children were remark 
ably hardy, and soon learned the use of 'hen legs. 

When a child was born to a chief, the old women u li 

ately asssembled, and wa hing it, drank thewatei with great 

gusto. They 'lien joined in a di around the happy father, 

singing his praises, and prophesying the future renown of his 
little i 


Upon a death occurring, all those of kin bo the decea ed 
collected from far and near to mourn their loss. Then en tied 
a very babel of grief, each mourner crying or howling in a 
manner peculiar to himself; every voice being as ea ilj di bin 
guished in the general discord as are the sound of different 
instruments in a modern orchestra. After a time this was 
id by a dirge \mg in unison, in a low whining tone, 
and having for accompaniment a shrill whistle, produced by 
blowing into the hollow leg-bone of a deer, A monotonous 

beating of the feet on the lo- id accompanied the ceremonies, 

which ware kept up until the body showed signs of decay, 




when it was interred, together with offerings of seeds and food, 
according to the means of the family. 

I r deceased was head of a family, or a person of importance, 
the hut in which he lived and all his personal enacts, were 
burned; only Borne small article, as a lock of hair, being 
reserved, not as a memento, but wherewith to make a feast 
upon some future occasion. 


Their medical men were esteemed as wizards and seers. 
Tlu-y created diseases and cured them; bewitched and poisoned 
those who offended them; made rain, consulted the "Good 
Spirit." and received answers; hail power to change then- 
forms at will, into the semblance of divers creatures; and pos- 
sessed foreknowledge of coming events. They were held in 
deep dread and reverence by the common people, who firmly 
believed in all their alleged powers. 

Syphilis, ardent spirits, and high-living, the " Erinnt/es" of 
modern civilization, were to this people unknown; therefore 
the practice of medicine resolved itself into a science of sim- 
ples. Toothache was unheard of, and they carried their teeth 
perfect to the grave. Rheumatism was treated with numer- 
ous small Misters, made by burning dry nettle stalk upon the 
flesh, These were immediately opened. Lumbago was cured 
by sweating the patient for twenty or thirty hours at a 
stretch, For fever, a bolus of wild tobacco was administered. 
Vomiting was produced by a decoction of herbs, accompanied 
by manipulation, and, in very extreme cases, a song by the 
Seer. Local inflammation was treated by blood-letting, sharp 
Hints taking the place of lancets. For paralysis, stagnation 
of the blood, etc., the patient was whipped with nettles, and 
given the juice of thorn apples to drink. The flesh of mud- 
turtles was considered a specific for decline; but this disease 
was of very rare occurrence. 

Strangury was cured by steaming the patient as in the puri- 
fication of women, only that marsh-mallows were used instead 
of tansy. After this a large ball of masticated tobacco was 
administered, which, causing great depression and relaxation 
of the nervous system, frequently had the desired effect. In 
obstinate cases this treatment was supplemented by sucking the 
surface immediately over the region of the bladder. This 
operation was performed with divers rites and ceremonies, 
BUch as smoking to the "Great Spirit," pressure and rubbing 
of the part, and the singing of a religious incantation. 

Snake-bites were cured by the application of herbs and ashes 
t4> the wound; while herbs, ashes, and fine dust from the nests 
of ants, were also administered internally. 

The poison fur arrows was prepared by the seers. Fire was 
supposed t*» destroy its hurtful properties, therefore the flesh of 
animals killed by these weapons, was cooked and eaten with- 

out fear. The fact was, that the alleged poison was only 
harmless gall, boiled down to the consistency of honey. The 
seers also pretended to be acquainted with poisons so deadly 
that contact alone would produce death, while others, of which 
they had the secret, required one, two, or even as many as 
twelve moons, to accomplish that end. Thus an enemy could 
be killed instantly, or made to die a lingering death; the time 
of his dissolution being gauged by the will of his destroyer. 


Before starting on a hunting expedition, the hunters stung 
themselves all over with nettles, but especially in the eyes, the 
lids being opened, and the nettle leaves introduced underneath. 
This was to make them watchful, vigilant, and clear-sighted. 
The skin of a deer's head and neck was then drawn over the 
head of each; and thus equipped, they would steal upon a herd, 
skillfully counterfeiting the habits of the animal, and rarely 
failing to come so close, that their first arrows were a certainty. 

To ensure hardihood (for dread of pain, even in women was 
esteemed disgraceful), they would lie down on the hills of the 
larae red ant, and have handfuls of these placed upon their 
stomachs, and about their eyes. Lastly, to ensure a full dose, 
they swallowed quantities of the ants — alive ! 

The children were not without some education in the forms 
of politeness. If water was desired by an adult, the boy or 
girl who brought it must not taste thereof until their elder 
was satisfied. If two persons were in conversation, a child 
might not pass between, but must go around on either side. 
No male, from childhood, might call his sister "liar" even in 

Feuds were of long continuance, frequently descending 
through many generations; especially if between members of 
different tribes. They were only active however in annual 
" song tights " of eight days, duration, during which each party 
upbraided his enemy to his heart's content, in choice metrical 
" Billinescate," and foretold the delight he would some day 

DO' ° " 

experience, in stamping on the grave of his adversary. In 
1S52 a feud of this kind, commenced in San Bernardino long 
before the advent of the Spaniards, was still celebrated in 
yearly "song fights" at San Gabriel and San Juan Capistrano, 
where dwelt the respective descendants of the original belliger- 

The name of Deity was never taken in vain. The nearest 
approach to an oath, was — " Niomare / " — Bless me ! " 

Friends saluted each other with " Aca aha?" — "How are 


To which the response was " Tehepleo 


" Ckainoc" — "Unwell," as the case might be. At parting, 
there was no farewell. The visitor said simply " Yamu UMFttU" 
— "lam going!' and his host responded "Mca!" — "Go!" 
Paint, when used upon the person, had different significa- 

tions. Warriors and dancers painted in varied colors. Young 
females, "in love," painted sparingly on both cheeks with red 

ochre. Women of middle and advanced age, used the 39 

plentifully, to prevent sunburn. 

Summer began with the croaking of the frogs. Bv this 
season and by the declination of the sun, North and South, 
long periods of time were reckoned; shorter periods by days 
and moons. 

Boys were trained as messengers, and continued in this ser- 
vice until worn out. Swiftness of foot was distinguished by 
a string of buckskin tied about the neck. Messages were oral, 
and must be delivered in the words and gestures of the sender, 
requiring a good memory on the part of the messenger. 

This people were not much given to roaming. One of their 
number, however, once traveled North to "where the ge se 
breed," and he must, have been a veritable Munchausen. He 
reported having visited one nation whose ears reached to the 
hips! Another of dwarfs; and a third so perfect, that they 
would take a live animal, and "J ninth' it* essence" casting 
away the remainder, which on examination, proved to be 

They were acquainted with the North star " Romi;" and 
also with the cardinal points— " Fumi," North; " Kitami" 
South; "Crvmi" East; " Payni," West. 


As a circulating medium, they used pieces of shells, circular 
in form, less in diameter than a five cent nickel, strung on long 
strings, a hole being bored through the centre of each. Eight 
yards of these ranked about the value of an American dollar 
Their mode of measurement consisted in meting from the 
knuckles of the left hand to the point of the middle finger, 
thence round to the wrist, and back again the same way to 
within one inch of the wrist. This quantity was called "pucu 
ponco" and a real of Spanish currency subsequently received 
the same name. They counted up to seven times, but having 
no eight times in their vocabulary, they also adopted the 
Spanish dollar, which they called "puen peso." Thus they 
had a circulating medium and legal tender, wherewith to 
conduct trade, when barter could not be employed. 

The coast Indians produced mone}', fish, sea-otter skins, ami 
soap-stone pots; those of the interior deer-skins, seeds, ber- 
ries, etc.; and each exchanged with the other. 


Hemp was spun from nettles, and served for nets, fishing 
lines, thread, etc. Needles, fish-hooks, awls, and many similar 
articles, were made from shell and bone. A knife of 
used for cutting meat. Mortars and pestles were wrought with 
great labor, by means of sharp stones as tools, out ol solid 

t it iiiiflifaii 


. ■ . ■ 

* Ik 

View showing Orange ■§; Lemon Groves §s Residence of JDS .W.^ 01 -^ 


./. V. I PVP ?~ :!**"*& 



if ' * 4 

* * 





1 • ■ m 



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# f q 

*I ' '•> -f 1 •> :• - , 

E- ; T' 





^:;^ ;; " ! ' : :te T n^ 




. . . 

,hn n >i " 




granite. They were well formed, u uallj about sixteen inches 
wide at the top b o b 1 1 om '■ n high and two ini 

thick. The pel ■ iterance < to complete one of them, 

may be imagined Thi ir preset that time 

unknown, their tnanufacl in beii ubsequently learned from 

i lit- Spaniards. Their cooking pots were proi I from 

Indians of Santa ' iatalina I 

They were about an inch in thickne b, and had coveraol the 

samematerial. In addition to th< - theyhadnui i ba 

made of rushes; tho iq u ed for liquid i bi in ■ pi i b red □ 
and out with pitch, called by them "Hanoi" 


These wore fow, and all of a gambling i haraeti i 1 hi 
favorite was "chuehnrke " (Sp ' , i and consisted in guess- 
ing within which of the oppi at 1 hand a small piece ol stick 

was concealed. Four persons on each side compo ed a ei 
Singers, and an umpire wen' hired for the occasion. No word 
was spoken, all guesses being indicated by signs. This game 
constituted their ruling passion, aud upon tho result they 
frequently wagered their little all even the favors of their 
wives, and sometimes their permanent possession. The b} 
itanders bot upon tho result unite as boa^ ily as did the players. 

Fool ball was unknown, hut was learned later from the 
Indians of San Diego. 


They had many feasts, but two principal ones Funeral 
feasts, ami Eagle feasts. At such times, four poles wore planted 
around the church building at the cardinal points; each pole 
being ornamented with a gay banner of feathers. Rehearsal 
lasted oighl -lavs, ami were held in the unconsecrated place of 
worship before mentioned. On the ninth day the seers conse- 
crated the church proper; and on the tenth, the feast com- 
menced therein. 

ri \ri:.\i. FEABTS. 

The women singers were seated in a circle around the inside 
wall of the church, while the men and boys, in all their pride 
of paint and feathers, proceeded to dance in the center. The 
See,- officiated as master of the ceremonies, and bj his gestures 
directed themovomenl of the dancers. Each dancer represented 
some animal, but a simultaneous growl given at the end of 
everj vei e was in honor of the hear. Food was served at short 
intervals, and the dance continued six dayj and nights, Praise 
of the deceased, his virtues, his prowess, with prayers for the 
destruction of his foes, farmed the burden of their songs. 

On the eighth <la> the church was mere profuselj adorned 

than ever. V 1 was distributed to all present, including the 

-|>. ctators. At high noon, after eating, a deep hole was dug in 

c nter of the build kindled therein, and the arl 
reserved at th< tuitted 
. flames ' ■ while the 
chanting mystical inc constantly stirred thi 
tu insure total destructioi gifts. When all were con- 
ed, tho hole was filled up with earth; this was trodden 
I and the ' over. 

tili; r..v<.i.i 

This festival was usually held during the full moon, iinme- 

md berrj hai \ est fn the spring- 

i in,,, thei nsiderable rn air} am men of 

the different villa . ■ to who should first discover the 

01 ting place of the royal bird. Once found, the oyi 
watched assiduously, and the period of incubation carefully 
noted in order that the eaglel hould not escape. \i tho 
proper time, when full) fledged and almost ready to fly, a 
. ion of young warriors wa dispatched to bring the bird 
of Jove to the village As these approached, bearing him upon 

their hands in triumph, they were met by a cone I 

. dressed in all their bravery, and singin ; p £ 

welcome to the prisoner. I>\ these he was carried to the 
quarters ready prepared for him, and from that time he 
received all the reverence and attention due to a c ptive. 

As t lie looked for period approached, runners were dispatched 
to all the neighboring villages, bearing invitation to the cere 

Now the moon is at the full, and on the appointed night, 

the villagers with their guests, assemble expectantly within 

iln groat circular enclosure which has hern erected for the 

occasion. In the centei a might} fire is built, and as the 

Queen of heaven reaches her highest altitude, the priest enters 

ing on his hand the bird. With measured step he passes 

round and round the blazing pile, chanting as he strides. Now 

lie faces the expectant throne', and demands their pleasure 

What message will they send to the ' Great Spirit," foi behold, 

here is the Messenger ready to depart. A.we-stricki o ■ 

asemblage sits motionless, and no response is made. Now 

directing his speech to the bird, he rehearses what good or evil 

events have marked the present year. He enumerates in detail 

such things as they now have need of, then again resumes his 

march about the fire. Now he breaks into a wierd unearthly 

melody, which chills his listeners to the stillness of death. 

Gradually he increases the vehemence of hisg "I the 

rapidity of his utterance, until the oar can scarcely follow the 

burden of his passionate ejaculation. He adjures the bird by 

all tl : holy, faithfully to deliver before the throne of 

es with which he has been entrusted. As 

he utters these last words of a solemn adjuration, in a frenzy 

of passion apparently bordering on madness —he turns sud- 

denly to the watching, eager crowd and exhibits not the bird 
of Jove, erect and triumphant as the} savi him n moment 
before; but only his lifeless clay, from which the freed ap 
hath winged its flight. This ho casts to the Mane . where it i- 
earnestly watched by all oyoa until the last particle has disap 
: in vapor, or been reso 

The remainder of tho night was spenl infi i ting inddai 

nts were now distributed bj the host of th sea it 11 

none must bo slighted, and ho rausl be rich indeod, who dare 
give . In man) i u< h an ontertainmenl 

n h i. 'ii to the I" 1 I and hi i 

family. To such there was no urse bul to attend mbse 

quent feasts of a lik r, when in the distribution of 

lit-. theSe Were ;i1u J\ - a pp"l 1 h .lie, 1 ;||| e\lla I ill IV. 


Seven brothers were married to seven swtoi . in the order of 
their n peetive ages, and all lived together, 'The men wont 

( |:mI\ in hunt rabbii i and the « n to gal h< \ - Uwa j 

the men n turned first, and on arrival of the women invariably 
reported ' bad luck ;" only the youngest, each daj handed his 
w ife a rabbit At la I u piciou that all wa uol a repre 

( j i niie ,|; L _\ the your i wa ■ left iecreted, w hilo 

the others repaired to their daily labor. During bin afternoon, 
the hunting party returned laden with rabbii . which thoj 

[htway proceeded to roa it and eat all but ■, which 

the youngest brother laid aside for his wife, whereupon the 
othei laughed at him and upbraided him as a fool. \\ hi n ■ 

had concluded thi h fea I bhi j carefully hid the bones tide 

the hut. So n as hoi istcrs returned, the young fc one told 

them what she had seen, whereupon they con tilted hou bi il 
fchej ■ ape from the cruelty and neglect of their part- 
ners. ' me propo ed that they I Id turn into wat i a 

Becond that they should become Btonee; a third thai bhej 
shouldturnti i and own; but all proposition wen rejected 

.:■■ n a -ii or othei . until it c: - to 'Ic tui n of tho 

ter. Ihr dailj rabbit would appear to have 

the si opi ol < ' i ambit foi hi propi ed 

should become tars! The objection raised by some of the 
others that tl ild then be set n by their husband ■; wa 

overruled by the con idi ral ion thai I hi | would at l< a I 

of reach. They now built a af elaborate W I ine out 

of reeds: in which they sailed up into the -h.\ and e tabli hed 
themselves as ' Tin Ph "••'■ 

i »,,iy the youngi I broth i lane nted the lo ■ of hi \ e 

ami at last the Bisters, moved with compassion lent him their 
i riot, in which he also a i led and became thi con 

.lion " 7'""- ■ 





A greal pestilence had destroyed the people, Drily an old 
woman and two children a boy ami a girl, remained. When 
they grew up, the man proved himself a great hunter, and the 
girl, who possessed remarkable beauty and a lovely disposition, 
an adept in all household arte, tn time they married,and now 
the old woman, fancying herself neglected, plotted against the 
life of her foster daughter. Twice she failed in her attempt, 
but the young wife, aware of her design, apprised her husband, 
ami told him that, should she be slain in his absence, her soul 
would notify him of the fact by dropping tears upon his shoul- 
der (-)ihj day, while limiting. In* received the fatal sign, and 
hurried home, but ere he could execute vengeance on the hag, 
ihe transformed herself into a gopher, and burrowed in the 
earth where she had concealed the body of her victim. 

\u A direr days and three nights he lay upon the grave, 
lamenting bhe loss of his love, nor tasted he of food or drink, 
thro i"hout that weary vigil. At last he perceived a small 
whirlwind arise from the grave and disappear. Soon a second 
.. and moved toward the South, gradually augmenting in 
size as it progressed. This he followed, and passing over a 
sandy plain, perceived that it lel't foot-prints; then knew he 
that it was indeed his wife. Redoubling now his efforts, he 
gained upon the apparition, and addressing it was repaid by 
hearing the voice of his love reply — " Return, my husband, 
for where T go, thither thou canst not come. Thou art of the 
earth, but I am dead to tlte world!" Nevertheless, impelled by 
his great love he insisted on following, even to the world of 
shades; and at last, moved by his entreaties, she consented, but 
cautioned him- " Forgt t not that no earthly ■ </• may < veragaim 
see us!" 

They passed ovei a great sea, and entered the realm of 
ghosts, fie saw here no form, but heard myriads of voices — 
aweel as the tones of zephyrs, breathed lightly o'er reolian 
stringi, addressing Ins spirit guide,—" What hast thou here 
niat r! H smells of earth '" 

She confessed that Bhe had brought with her a mortal, her 
husband, and begged that he might be permitted to stay. She 
rehearsed his mighty deeds and many admirable qualities while 
on earth; but all in vain, Again were the voices heard, still 
musical, but now stern and threatening in their tours. "Take 
him <"'•''/'" they said, "Guided by lovi h. comes, andlovt 
pleads his causey love is all-pom rful on earth, but earthly love 
Is not 'in the courts of ffeaven!" 

Abashed by the evident displeasure of those invisible ones, 
-till shi braved their anger, and pleaded for her love. She 
dilated on his mam virtues and his great skill, until at 
... i despite their assertion, "that love availed not," the spirit- 

vuard relented and he was allowed to make exhibition of his 
acquirements, with a view to his possible admission. He was 
required to bring a feather from the top of a pole so high, that 
the summit, was scarcely visible; to split a hair of great 
fineness and exceeding length from end to end; to make a 
map of the constellation known as the Lesser Bear," and tn 
indicate the exact location of the North Star. Aided b\ his 
wife, he succeeded iii accomplishing all these tasks to the satis- 
faction of his examiners, but in a trial of hunting, tailed 
utterly, the game being invisible. A second attempt resulted 
as before, and he had become a laughing-stock throughout the 

world of ghosts, when his wife advised him to aim his arrows 

at the beetles which flew past him in great numbers. Acting 
on her instruction, each beetle, when hit, proved a fat deer, and 
so many did he slay that the spirit voices commanded him to 
desist. They then addressed his wife, who was yet to him 
invisible. "Sister!" they said, ''Thou knowest none who enter 
here, retwm again to earth. Tucupar (Heaven) knows not 
death! Our brother-in-law hath done full well yet mortal 
sJcill may not avail to wi/n a heavenly prize! We a/ward him 
the guerdon, love \ chief est of earthly blessings, in thy person; 
yet only on condition!" 

Then addressing the husband they said, — "Take thou thy 
wife! Yet remember, thou shall not apeak to her, nortouchher, 
unfit three suns have passed. A punishment awaits thy dis- 

They pass from the spiritdand, and travel in silence to the 
confines of matter. By day she is invisible to him, but at 
night, by the flickering Maine of his camp-fire he perceives her 
outline on the ground near by. Another day he remains faith- 
ful to his instructions, and by the evening blaze her form 
appears more plainly than before. The third day has passed, 
and now, behold, the amorous flame leaps forth to greet her — 
recumbent by his side, radiant with beauty and health, and 
restored, as he fondly believes, to him and love! 

But alas! one-half the lurid orb of day yet trembles, poised 
on the western verge, as with passionate vehemence he pro- 
nounces her name, and clasps to his faithful heart— not the 
form of her he loves, but only a fragment of decayed wood ! 

Heart-broken and despairing, he roamed the earth ever 
afterward, until at last the spirits, in mercy, sent to him their 
servant Death, who dissolved his mortal fetters, and carried 
him, rejoicing, to the bosom of his love ! 

Among the most curious of their traditions were the two 
following, which we quote verbatim from Mr. Reid's letters: 


Four brothers and a sister lived together in a hut. and were very 
fund of each other. The young men were principally engaged in 
hunting. The girl whose name was Chut-Kit, hud refused many oilers 
of marriage. Alter awhile she became melancholy and fond of soli- 

tude, and appeared to be enamored oj th lightning, after expreai 
desire to possess it. Her eldest brother, in the course of time, pen 
that she was with child, and taking the others into the 
as follows: "Brethren, i perceive with sorrow that onr sister hat 
harmed; she holds no intercourse with the young men of our i 
therefore one of you have done thin evil. Which of you is it? 6] 

The three declared themselves innocent, and each oni 
his having had his suspicions regarding bis fellows. They concluded 
at last to ask their sister, which was done. "Who is the fa 
your child?" asked the eldest, mi their return to the but Bursting 
into tears, she denied ever having any connection with man, bat 
stated that about seven moons previous, bavins wandered into the 
woods, saying ever and anon to herself, "Would that tlie lightning 
were mine I" that the lightning came out of a cloud and flashed over 
her, when she perceived a strange sensation of cold, pass like a piece of 
ice through her brain into the abdomen. That she had subsequent 
intercourse with it. always producing the same e 

After some time the pains of her labor commenced, and a man child 
was born. The mid-wife having asked for something tu cut the 
string, to the astonishment of all the child said. "No; it will finri 
According to the Indian custom, all new-born children are given urine 
tu drink, for a medicinal purpose, and, on a by-8 tender's recommending 
the dose to be given, the child said, "No; it is bitter!" ii 
called Mactuta, and every day became more and more wise, arguing 
with all the old men and seers on divers subjects, always to the dis- 
comfiture of their allegations and prostration of their wisdom. After 
gaining a victory he always told them that it was useless to dispute 
with him, as he was the Hon of God. 

The chiefs and wise n of the bribe al length determine bo put bioo 

to death. He was aware of it, and bantered them continually I 
ing, "Put me to death, hut in three days I will arise again ! " 

After many consultations, his enemies hit upon a plan which 
destroyed him completely; for they said among themselves, if we hum 

his body, how can he rise again, seeing that he is consumed '1! 
accordingly burned alive and his body dissipated, lie never ap] 
mo^e. Some Indians after this said, " There is no God," because they 
had destroyed him; hut the greater part said, "No; we have only 
destroyed his body, for his soul ascended to Heaven." 


In the lodge of Muhuvit, which lay behind the hills of Han Fer- 
nando, once lived a chief connected with the folio wi 
was a great wizard and enchanter. He had a pod and daughter. The 
daughter was good looking and possessed, as her father and brother 
did, a most astonishing head of hair, which, when loo i on the 

ground. She, however, possessed a niggardly disposition, 
over was lazy. After awhile the chief of Haham 
asked her in marriage and was accepted. 

In due time she presented her husband with a daughter. Shortly 
after she proved herself to be a glutton as well as parsimonious, for 
the people were commanded every day to bring rabbits, res 
for her to eat, and she devoured the whole without ever offering the 
lookers-on a single morsel. This caused universal dia much 

so that the wise men of the village consulted together, 
urged the chief to send her home. 1 ' "Do with her as seemeth best," 
said the husband. So on a second consultation, the old men deter- 
mined to put her to death instead of putting her away, fearing her 
father. "What. shall he done with the child-"' asked the seers. 
"Let it die with the mother," answered the husband. 

i trdera were given the nest day to have no water brought from the 
wells to their huts, but all should* go there and drink when so inclined. 
The rabbit hunters were likewise instructed to stuff the game before 
cooking it with all kiuds of reptiles. A largt for bring- 

ing water, was placed in the last hut of the village ami lilted with 

urine. The hour having arrived for her to eat, the rabbits were pre- 
sented according to custom. < in this occasion, h 
differently than she was in the habit of doing; for, pulling oul Ll 
ofa toad, she inquired whal it was. -'It is pari of a quail," r« 

si Hue one. " Then eat it," -aid the victim, " .\n; eat it yourself, 

the response. Piece? ol lizards and other disgusting matter came to 
light, with tlte same result, until she finished the mess. 

This repast gave her great thirst, and she asked for water \ 


MAIN ST LOS Angeles.Cal 


i ,, . i,. .I. it tb ere, the went from one habitation to anothei in -■■■■ 

it, with the )am< m r i mity of the 

lod ■ and ired the proffered dish with eagerness, finished it at 

three draughts, with the e ception of a little which she reserved for 
the child. Foi ten da) did thi ami th n i i cur, at the end of wl 
time, finding all the hair of her bead and eye-brow it fell 

nft'by drinking the urine and, moreover, thai she wa. i flesh 

nnd wrinkled, Bhe determined on leavin rid oing t<> her father's. 

n talcing bei child In her arm . he li Ft the bul 
cceding Bome distance she repented having dom 
■■ What » fool I am to carry this burdi a, as ii ht lil ed m< 
Throwing [1 awaj be went on ber road; but aftei 
way she looked back and aw bei infani with ite arms stretched out 
towards her; hi i hear) relented ai thi ii ;ht, and ri turnin 

look it up, •■ Thou hust coi tted no sin thai I boiild n 

upon thee." Bhe wenl on and on, until i ntn mi rati r load 
brought ber to a stand, when observing a lai ■■ rod c o e by she iu<>k 
i he i hild bj the heela and dashed ii ill ex- 
ists, visible on the tone to this day. Still, Indian ma 

that the child did nol die, bul Lurned Into i quarrel, On ihe went, 

alone, sad and slow til hi ci t to where hei mothei preserved ber 

seeds in the wooa\ and she crept Into a largo ba ket, called a ehamuca, 
capable of containing about sixteen bushi 

Not long after ber arrival came tin- mother to procure a mpplj of 
seeds and acorns, and putting ber hand in at the mouth she touched 
her daughter, and not being awan whal It was, gave ;i scream. 
11 Yes/' said the daughter, " be afraid ol me aftei the injur) that you 

Have d me, arrying mi to a man who cared nothing aboul mi I 1 

The mother approached, but could scarce Ij recognize hei own dau jh 
ter, and beard from beginning <■•• end the tale of her Borrows. The 
parent then Baid, " I will go to thy father and inform him," whicb 
did, The fathoi being informed by bis wifr, secretlj be proceeded 
with ber to the place of deposit, taking his daughter food and drink. 
Thus they did day after day, and berbs wero ■ I to her, to 

restore her and purge her f the filth ah e had eaten. Her head was 

:i!m. cured by the oil from a blackberry, growing on the sea coast, 
called huniH.ii . In four moons the wrinkles had nearly disappeared 
from her face, and ber ban reached Lo ber waist. 

At this stage of her cure she was commanded by hei father to go 
daily and bathe in ber brother's bathing place. Bhe did bo, but the 
brother booh began to note bow turbid the water was when he came to 

bathe. He beci ad in c squence, and more bo when he saw a 

hair in lIh- water which, on measuring with those of bis own, was nol 

one third their length. He spoke to his ther on the subject, but 

she threw no light on the matter, being anxious to conceal with her 
husband the daughter's return, until her shame and sickness had both 
i i ied away. The son, going to the bath one day sooner than usual, 
caught Ills sister in the water, but knew her not. Taking her bj the 
leg he i brew her out, saying, "So it is you who daily disturb my well; 
begone t" hi doing so he beheld her nakedness, wh cb caused her so 

eh shame that she »-.t ndered ofi*, and traveling in the sea 

drowned herself The broth* r, well latisfied with himself, returned 
home and told his mother of having found an unfortunate woman in 
bis bath, how he had thrown her oul and seen her nakedness. The 
parents left the hut and went in search of the daughter, bul without 
success, "Shame has driven her away, where ran we find ber?" 

said the wife. The lm>band answered not, but takiicj a willow twig 

be made ft ring of it, covering it with buckskin; tins he threw to the 
north, but the ring returned to him. He then threw it south, and 
back it came again; then east, with the Bame result; but when he 
threw it west, it kept on. The father followed it up in all its crooks 
and turns until he saw it enter the ocean, "fine has drowned hersell 
from shame, but deeply shall she !"■ ny enm d." said be. 

On arriving at h he informed hi- wife, who cried bitterly, much 

to the astonishment of all the lodge, who knew not what bad occurred, 

tie called all of his i pie and told them to go hunting, stop out all 

night, and take his son along. L'he son wa- then advised of the party 
he was to join, and dreasen in all his ornament, finery, and money 
beads, l lo'\ -ei out, and obeyed orders by Bleeping in the mountains. 
having a large fire to worm thems Ives at. A little before da; 
one of the old men let loose a screech owl. which he had brougl ■ 
ci 'ied. an. i which was do other than the boy's father. This i 

i ral const* rnation, ami all lied save t lie young man himself. Im- 

mediately SI bird, called by the name of "Cui 

which wa* the father again), carried bira up into the air. Seeing this 
a me running bark, exclaiming 

: his bones fell among them, 
which were gathered up and buried. 
A few days after this, a man was Been approaching the village; the 

chief went and met him. 

•• Where dost thou come from?" asked the chief. 
" From Hahamogna " Verdu 
■■ Ah," -aid the chief, "hon 

•• Very well, indeed; the captain there i- about to take a new wife. 
and in < on e |uenc< b . i eat feast is pro i 

•■ Be Itso," they have had theii laugh, now l -hall have 

mine, and we will all perish together." 

He took the road to thi arriving he fell in with 

all (he ears. I [e as] I i he women 

to do him tin favor of sifting a basketful of tunas ovi i bii ■ 

ed and he persisted, until bei companions told hei to comply; 
bul no sooner had ihe done 10 ' ban a 

and walling in piteous terms —they were all -t ■ blind ' " Now it is 

mj turn to laugh," said th< chief, and he proceeded on towards theii 
r ill age. 

Going to the west Bide of their lodge, he transformed himself into b 
huge eagle, and proceeded, Hying down close to thi ground, I hi crj 
. immediately raised amon- the pi ople of "catch the eagle ! " But 
en old woman who wa- taking care of two children while their mothers 
win- off, begged them not to do so, as it was not an eaglo bul s wi 
at this they only laughed; but the old woman covered up the children 
with a basket to keep t hem from barm. 

The) booh caught it, and saying, " Let us pull it- wings off," put it 
into execution.. The moment its wings were separated from the body 

a gush of bl I poured out from one side, and another nl green ws 

from tin- other. Fever and bilious vomiting commenced, ami killed 
all save the old woman and children, rhe eagle soared without hi-* 
wings to the clouds, and the chief was never beard "i more by his 

The following legend is from tin- pen of Hon -I -I W 

and was published in tin- Los Angeles Star of February 21, 



The two great spirits who brought all things into existence, haying 
completed the creation of the earth and peopled it with the animal 
kingdom, rested from their labor. The eldest re-ascended to heaven, 
while the youngest remained upon the earth. In the absence ol his 
brother, being weary and lonesome, lie fashioned out of earth a num- 
ber of living suns in human form, with whom be dwelt. The day- 
were pleasantly spent by him and his sons in giving and receiving 

instruction. At this time the moon inhabited the earth, and each 
night when the lather and his sons retired to their dwelling, aha came 
and kept watrh at the entrance of their lodging place. A love fo. the 
moon soon sprang up in the hearts of the children, which ripened into 
intense affection. Uappiness wa- tl I, while the children by 

da\ received the parental instruction oi' their father, and by night the 
affectionate care of their companion and protectress, the moon. This 

state of unalloyed happiness wa- interrupted, in CO! of th" 

discovery made by tin- son-, that the love and affection of theii 
was bestowed less upon themselves than upon their nightly guardian. 
II, so far forgot them that he frequently deserted then dormitory and 
apent whole nights enjoying the light oi'. and dallying with the : 

\',,l many miijith- pa-sed before there was manifested in the actions ol 

the moon a shyness and timidity, whicb occasioned a most heart-felt 
Theii thoughts by day and their dreams at night were con- 
tinually reverting to the incontinency of their beloved moon. It was 

not long before their grief was changed to despair. Awaked in the 
night by an unknown cry, they found themselves not only shrouded in 
gloom, but abandoned by their father. The night was spent in tears 
and regrets at their deserted and forlorn condition, until the first rays 
of morning light dispelled the darkness, when they observed a new- 

born babe in the doorway of their habitation, but their father, the 

spirit, was nowhere to he found. In the midst ol Borrow .m<\ affliction, 

they devoted tbetn-ei ves to the , are of the helpless ml. int. It wa- a 
long and t. dioUS day for them, this lirst. that they passed without the 

protecting care of their father, in Buspenai d anxiety, the 

. and aa the evening shades were drawing around them. 

held the full and blushing moon, irrayed In golden robi 

i and enshrine herself in mid-heaven, \i 

i gladness Riled their heart-, and with rejoic 
ing they devoted tin thi" beautiful pledge which 

had been left to then .are hv the Spin! and ihe mOOU, when 

mded from the earth. \\ ilh unceasing care and watchfulness 

the iir-t female child grew up. fresh a- the m mi' and beautiful us 

light. The periodical ro-appearancc ■■! the moon m her splendor is 

led « i tli deli- ht. in remembrance of her ancient solicitude t"i 

man, as well as with filial feelings as the matornnl an 

ol tin 1 human family; while the fickleness of her daughters, 

instead il love, has evei been the subject of lenlenoy i n 

Biderati f the changeful nature ol the first maternal parent. 



(1771 17711). 

More Mission ■ 3an Vntonio Mission l'"«iur>-b . i Expedition to Ban I Inbriol 

Attack by Savages San Qabrio] Mission Founded Indian ice i 

i i Brutal Treatment Letter from President Dostitul Con vol 

lionol Indians Pears ol ;i Relapse Sorra Visits Son Qabrii I Returns to 

Mi icico Failure "i Supplies Bufiaring Ri m menl I mdition ol 

the Indian Outbreak at San Diego M ardor ol Fathoi Lowl G podi 
tion by < larzes A. cold Reception Em] tin lavages Their Num- 
bers l 1 . itim ited. 

Having now sunn- Blight idea of the people thej came to con 
vert, we will follow once more the fortunes of the Franciscan 


In March, 1771. the San Antonio arrived at San Diego with 
a re-enforcement of ten new missionaries Prom Mexico. The i 
brought with them ten thousand dollars in money, and b vari 
,i. of sacred vessels and ornaments for the ehurche . Thu 
3tn agthened the Father President proceeded to found the mis 
aion of San Antonio de Padua, in the hills of Santa Lucis 
gome twenty leagues from Monterey. This accompli bed the 
establishment of San Gabriel was determined on, and the 
following miraculous account of the expedition undertaken for 
that purpose is extracted from " a life of the Chief Mi ionary 
Father Junipero Serra," written by Father Francisco Palou, 
one of the missionaries, and published in M< rico 1787: 

i 'n the tenth of August, the Father Friar Pedro Cambon, and Fathei 
Angel 8 unera, guarded by ten soldiers, with the muleteei 
requisite to carry the necessaries, set out from San Diego and traveled 
northerly by the same route- an the former expedition for Monteri ■ 

had gone. After proceeding about forty league- they arrived at the 
river called " Temolora" and while they were in the actof examining 
the ground, in order t<- li\ a proper place for the Mission, a multitudi 
of Indians, all armed and headed by two captains, presented them- 
selves, setting up horrid yell-, and seemed determined to oppose the 

establishment of the Mission. The Fathers, fearing that war would 
en^ue. took out a piece of cloth, having thereon the image of Our Lady 




of the barbarian* 

,.,,, fthii most precious image; and throwing on the ground itt 
BotwbIbb Queen, as a proof ol their entire regard; manita tinga U e 


™ blNhment without reserve, and bardlj knew howinneh^ 
„ani!e«t their pleasure that the Spaniards had mm to settle in the 
Dn/er these fa vorabl* auspices the. Fathers ;J^*« d £ 
-itb the accustomed cen monies; and celebrated the 
first mass under a tree on the nativity of the Virgin, the eighth day oi 
September, 1771." 

The account given by the natives of their first impresaiona 
ol the Spaniards, differs somewhat fro n this and is interesting 
by way of comparison; we quote from Mr. Beid's letters, before 

referred to : — 

The IndUns were sadly afraid when they saw the Spaniards coming 
on horseback. Thinking them gods, the women ran to the brush, and 
hid Lhenwolvea, while the men put out the fires in their huts. They 
,1 still more impressed with this idea, when they saw one oi 
Ktrike lire and commence smoking, bavin; 

I'uuml tin- missii 

bird and killed it. 
piece, yet the effect it pro 


their wests take a Hint, 

never seen it produced in this simple manner before. An occurrence 

howevei so sonvinced them that their strange visitors were like 

themselves, mortals, tor one of the Spaniards leveled his musket at a 
killed it. Although greatly ternhed at the report oi the 
duced of taking life, led them to reason, and 
Seduced the impossibility of the*' Giver of Life" to murder animals,. ao 
they themselves did. with bows and arrows. Ibey consequent^ 
them down as huiiiiiii beings, "0/ a nasty whitt color, and lumng ugly blue 
eves'" This party was a small one, and bood lett. Having ottered no 
violence, they were in consequence not disliked. They gave them the 
Qam0 of "Chvcbinabros" or reasonable beings. It is a fact worthy oi notice 
that on becoming acquainted with the tools and instruments oi steel 
used by the Spaniards, they were likewise named ' GJiicbinabros, which 
Bhowl the estimation in which they held their conqueror* 

Another event soon convinced them of their visitors mortality, for 
Bhortly afterward tbev received another visit, from a larger party, who 

,., en ced tying the bands of the adult males behind their backs; 

and making signs of their wish to procure women— these having again 
fled to the thicket on the first appearance of their coming. Harsh 
measures obtained tor them what they sought, but the women were 
considered contaminated, and were put through a long course of 
sweating, drinking of herbs, etc. The natives necessarily became 
accustomed to these things, but their disgust and abhorrence never 

lefl them till many years after. In fact every white child born among 
them for a long period was secretly strangled and buried ! 

The whites made them B number vt' presents prior to using auy 
means to convert them; the presents were never refused, but only 
those consisting of goods were put to any use whatever. All 
kinds and classes of foods and eatables were rejected and held in 
abhorrence. Instead therefore of partaking of them, they were buried 
secretly in the woods. Two old Indians not long since dead, related 
to me the circumstance of having once assisted when boys to inter a 
quantity of frijol and Indian corn just received from the whites. Some 
length of time afterward, being out in the woods amusing themselves, 
the) came where these articles had been deposited. Their surprise 
knew UO bounds to now behold an infinity of stalks and plants unknown 

I., them, protruding through the earth which covered the seed. They 
communicated the fact at home; their story was verified by others, 

and the wizards duly pronounced the whites "witchcrafts!" Even 
panoeha, of which they arc now so fond, was declared to be the exert BWni 
of their new neighbors. 

At the time whereof we write, the site now occupied by the 

San Gabriel Mission buildings and the adjacent vulage, was 

plete forest of oaks, with considerable underwood Je 

wa ter composing the lagoon of the mill one and a ha I mite 
distant), then lodged in a hollow near the mission, on the Los 
Wte road. This hollow was a complete thicket ol syca- 
m ores cotton-wood, larch, ash,. and willow; and was almost 
impassible from the dense undergrowth of brambles, nettles, 
palmacristi, wild-rose, and wild-vines. Cleared of these encum- 
brances, this land (which then possessed a rich, black soil, 
though now a samlv waste served to grow the first crops ever 
produced in Los Angeles county. Near by stood the Indian 
village " Sibag-na." Bears innumerable prowled about the 

dwellings, and deer sported in the neighbor] I. The first 

establishment was, however, at the "Old Mission,' some four 
or live miles away in a south-easterly direction, on the Sao 
Gabriel river, then known as " m M Mode los Temblores" (the 
river of earthquakes), and the building referred to was always 
The Mission Temblores." It was not till some time 
several years) that the present San 
erected, the former one having- been 
daily convulsions of nature then preva- 

known as " 

afterward (probably 

Gabriel Mission was 

injured by the almost 

lent in that locality. 

The priests brought with them a number of vagabonds in 
the various characters of soldiers, masons, carpenters, etc. 
Having "converted" a few Indians by presents of cloth and 
ribbons, and taught them to say "Ameer a bio*" (Love to 
God . they baptized them, and set them to work under direc- 
tion of their " Christian " assistants. Once baptized, the poor 
natives lost caste with their people, and became to them as 
Pariahs. The ceremony was called by the natives 'soyna," 
"being bathed," and was regarded as both ignominious and 
degrading. Unable to revisit their tribe, they remained at the 
mission, and their hopeless submissiveness to their new masters 
was duly accredited to a miraculous change of heart, brought 
about by direct interposition of the blessed Virgin. Yet, in 
the ceremonies they were compelled to pass through, these poor 
creatines "had no more idea they were worshiping God, than 
<ui wnborn child has of astronomy! ' 

The principal uses of the soldiers were, first, to capture new 
converts, and. second, to awe them into submission. Upon 
their expeditions of conversion, however, the priests themselves 
not infrequently assisted. There is a tradition extant con- 
cerning one worthy father who was an expert with the lasso, 
as well as a fearless horseman. Riding at full gallop into a 
village, he would select his man as an old time slaver selected 
his " nigger " in the slave-market, for his brawn), lasso him, 
drag him to the mission, tie him up and whip him into subjec- 
tion, baptize him, Christianize him, and set him to work all 
within the space of one hour; then away for another, without 
rest: "such was his zeal for the conversion of infidels!' 

On one occasion an expedition m nl a fai 
Ranchodel Chino, where they tied and whvppt 

„ m and child vn th lodge" and drove part back with 

them On the way home they did likewise to the lodg 
San Jose. Upon arrival, the men were directed to throw their 
bows and arrows at the feel of the priest in b ; Amis- 

sion The infants were then baptized a were all chil- 
dren under eight years of age. The first were, per force left 
with their mothers, but the latter were kept apart, until 
maternal instinct compelled the poor women to submit to the 
indignity of baptism, in order to see their loved ones again. 
In time the men gave way also, and this contaminated race, 
both in their own sight and in that of their kind. 
"followers of Christ," and laborers in the vineyards of the 
priests! Strange to say, these Indian-, though famous in war- 
fare with other tribes, resisted nol their oppressors. Filled 
with astonishment and fear they sought only to hide from 
them; all of which was duly accredited to the good offii 
" ( >u 1 Sovereign Lady ! " 

For several years no attempt appeal's to have been made by 
"the missionaries," either to learn the Indian tongue or to 
teach the natives Spanish. The soldiers learned enough of the 
former, the better to gratify their lusts; and the Indians were 
instructed in the latter to say, '■ Amar (l Dios" Lovi to God . 
without understanding the phrase- any more- than if it had 
been " Ticdouloureux" or "Jack the Giamt A' 

Having successfully established four missions, the I 
now bent their whole energies to their improvement, and the 
conversion (or rather subjugation] of the neighboring tribes. 
Under date August s, 1772, the Father President writes:— 

There is no fear of being under the necessity of abandoning any of 
the missions now established. The people are chiefly maintained by 
the Indians, and they live— God knows how. The milk of the co 
the vegetables of the garden have been two great ■ buDsisI- 

ence for these establishments; both begin, however, new to get scarce: 
but it is nut for this I feel mortified; it is because we have not been 
able to go on with other missions. All of us feel the vexatious troubles 
and obstacles we have to encounter, but no one thinks of leavii 
mission, or desires to do so. The consolation is. that troubles 
troubles, there are various souls in Heaven from M01 1 Aoto- 

nio, and Ban Diego. From San Gabriel there are none as yd. out 
there are among those Indians many who praise God; whose holy 
name is in their mouths more frequently than in those of mai 
Christians; yet some think that from mild lambs, which they are : 
present, they will return one day to be lions ai d tigers. This may be 
bo if God permits; but we have three years' experience with I 
Monterey, ami with t! we of San Antonio two years, and they appear 
better every day. If all are not already Christians, it is in my opinion 
only owing to "our want of understanding the language. This is a 
trouble which is nol new to me; ami I have always imagined that my 
sins have not permit! ;d me to possess this faculty of lean 
tonguea, which is a great misfortune in a country such as this, where 

no interpreter or master of languages can be bad 111 

natives learn Spanish, which requires 1 long time. At - 
they have already overcome this diiliculty. They now baptize adults 
and" celebrate marriages, and we are here approximating the same 
point. We have begun to explain to the youth in Spanish, and it 
tle-\ could render us a little d ■ another way. ue should IU a 

short time care little about the arrival of the vessels, so far as - 

Residence op EX-GOV. JOHN G.DOWNEY, Main Street, 
Los Angeles, Cal. 



provisions; but as aftaira *tand at present! thi moot much 

advance i poo the whole I confide in God, who most remedy all. 

While matters were thus progri r< the mission 

of San Gabriel had not been idle. 

A sufficient number of Neophytes li;n in iured active 

work was commenced. Ground iva cleared and laid off; 
adobes made; timber cut and hauled; and the mission build- 
ings erected At, firs! these were thatched with nettli -hemp, 
but in time this was replaced with till Tl i m w church had 

;i Bteople erected on it, but tliis being i hal i d d< 

earthquake the pre i at belfry wa abstituted. From 
to year new building were added for thi old id attend- 
ants, and finally for the convert* likewise, but these nevei took 
kindly to the "white men's dwellings, preferring their own 
huts of reeds, which they could burn down when their customs 

In i lie interest of the missions he had established, the worthy 
Father Pr< ident now determined on returning to Mexico, 
With this view he first visited the mission of San Gabriel 
(which he had not before seen), and from there proceeded to 
San Diego overland, and embarked from thai port on board 
the packet boat San Carlos, October 20, 1772, and arrived at 
San Bias "'i the fourth of November following, 

(in his arrival in Mexico, he persuaded the viceroj Bucareli 
to despatch a frigate laden with supplies for the use of the 
upper missions; but owing bo the iinperfecl navigation of the 
time, this vessel missed her course, was driven up bhe gulf, and 
; i ;i consequence, for eight long months both fathers, soldiers, 

and converts were nearlj starved, and had to subsist a] si 

entirely on milk, in September, 1.773, Father Sears s ain 
left the city of Mexico, ac< ipanied bj a Furthei re-enforce- 
ment of missionaries, also officers and soldiers; together with 
various supplies intended for the upper missions, these coi 
ing of maize, beans, flour and clothing to the value of about 
S12.000. Though bound direct to Monterej , his vessel, through 
accident, put into the portof San Diego, and from here the 
Father President proceeded overland desiring to visit tin 
other missions. 

With renewed strength, derived from the supply of creature 
comforts received, and once more inspired by the presence and 
example of their leader, the missionaries strove earnestly to 
save the souls committed to their charge; at the same time 
aot forgetting to tax the bodies of their converts in improi ing 

theii mi uon and adding to the temporal wealth of the a 

The untutored avage, free as bhe deer upon his native hills, 

knowing no God save nature, had suddenly I me a slave, 

shrinking beneath the heavy hand of his task-master, laboring 

yet receiving ght, repeating strange words whose import he 

knew not, and bowing down before pictures and graven images 
whose only merit lay in their extravagance of coloringand 

hideooaneaB of detail. What wonder if at last bis spirit Bhould 
mild lamb return one day to be a. lion or a 
The first serious outbreak occurred at the mi 

night of November 4. 177"' According t" 
Father Palou: — 

tn propoi s and the new Christians were full 

and peace, the i 

his infernal ftiry could not suffer him to see that in the neighborhood 

Diego nu part} of G 

■ brought over to -air true ■ na ol the ardent zeal of 

the mi d the more particularly thai they were about to plant 

another minion between Ban Gabriel and Ban Diego, which would 

i the -ana- with the Indiana in that district, over whom he still 

had the power, and which would of course diminish his party. He 

therefor bath n ghl bim i li oi ■ I only of preventing this 

new establishment, bud of destroying that oi San Diego, which was the 

oldest of tin.- whole, and bo revenge himself on the missionaries, bis 


Upon the night in question, without having given any pre- 
vious intimation of their design, al I a thousand Indians sur- 
rounded the mission, placed guards at the doors, ransacked the 
church, and fired the soldiers' quarters. Path r Lewis and two 
white mechanics were killed at the firsl on-slaught. Father 
Vincente with five others four soldiers and a carpenter 
defended themselves with so much vigor, that al sunrise the 
Indians fled, having sustained con iderabje loss. All of the 
defender were more or less injured, The Indian, had onlj 
bows and arrows, wooden ipears, burning fagots, and stones, 
as weapons; the Spaniards were armed with muskets. 

During the year 177.">, a Mexican Friar named Franci co 
Garzes, made ajourney from Sonora to tin.- missions of upper 
California and preserved a record of Ids trip. H«- naturally 
expected to be received by his brethren of the missions at lea i 
with kindness, and perhaps to be admitted as a coadjutor in 
the work of civilizing, Christianizing, and enslaving the 
natives ; this more especially, as having verified by his mo i 
ful trip the possibility of land communication with Mexico, 
and of connecting in one band the whole territory from the 
Kin Colorado to the Pacific. What, then, was his surprise, on 
arriving at San Gabriel Mission, to Hud that he was treated 
with coldness and neglect, and to be told, "That it was not 
desirable a communicati m should be opi ned, by which Indians 
on the Rio Colorado and intervening plains might be enabled 
to molest the new settlements." So much displeased was the 
Governor of California, at the audacity of this interloper, that 
he refused him provisions wherewith to return home. Chilled 
by treatmenl so til fcerly at variance with what he had expected, 
the worthy father returned home in great haste, thankful to 
have retained even sound bones among such an inhospitable 

Father Garzes traveled on mule-back, and carried a banner 
made of canvas, on one side of which was painted a picture of 

the Virgin Mary, and on the other, one of "the devil in the 
flames of hell." To unfurl tins standard was his tii-i opera 
tit »n on arrivi] q Indian village, and he observes with 

I i the Virgin they 

invaribly exclaimed, " 1!" but on turnin bar side. 

He then questioned them through inter 

as i" their knowled God and the Virgin, the 

names and nui vm l< u 1 1 ihes, and their \\ illing- 

me vassals «<f the king of Spain. He eatimi I 

the total Dumber of Indians on the Gilo river at 0,000, and 

i iver at 16,500 Throughout the inter 

the Pacific, la- considered the natives much 

roue than on these rivers, yel then numboi al this 

time nui msiderablo. 

< ii utki; V. 




:■ Dii o Mi i "' Repaired Exped i to I id Bna Juan attacked b} 

Siti Seleeted Vli lion Founded San Juan tlol Cnpi fcri 

andWi I ' 'al plan of the Mi Hii frulro G da The 

m i--i' B I plol ion Manufacl Gordon Old OllvoOi 

chard Fi I tPuri Dron [the Neophyte The Temblor, 

Having news of the mi fortune which had befallen San 
Diego, di«' Father Presidenl tool hip ind proceeded thither 
from Monterey. He arrived in dun.- 177^'. and al on© el to 

work, aided by the sailors, oldier and Buch e : 

main d, to repair bhe damage done and place the mi ion on 
its former footing. He then proceeded to found the long con 
tern plat n of San Juan ' >api I rano the dread of w bich 

in Fathei Palou opinion, had o •■■■ rci 1 1] I be Eni mj of oul . 
and occasioned the late in urrection. 

< in their way to the proposed Bite, the President's party was 
attacked i>\ wild Endian . and all would probably have boon 
■ red, had no! one of the com erl ■ with rare pre ■ nci of 
mind, cried out in the Indian tongu< thai a large number of 
soldiers were close behind, CJpon thi the assailants javo up 
their intention, and finally joined the Spaniards upon their 
journey, received present* and became friends. 

The -it.- i !■ cted foi the d< al Uv al i mid 

way between the mu ion of 3an Gabriel and San Diego or 
say sixty miles from each Here, in a pretty valley, shut in 
by low rolling bills, and watered bj a tiny bream emptying 
upon the sandy beach two miles away, was the mi ion 
founded* The initial page of the old Spanish n _i h ■ of bap- 

'Excavations were first mod mi B ■ mill iiorlh«east of the 

present location. This site ■■ ■■■ that when thi 

village now stands. The former location ia at ill krmwii oe "I-:' 
Vjeja,' 1 or " The. old Mission," 



tisnis, written by the hand of the venerable President Father 
over a century ago, when the scenes we now relate were being 
enacted, still attests the fact — that the mission of San Juan 
Capistrano was here established November 1, I77<i, in the reign 
of « !harles III, King of Spain. The record is in Spanish, and is 
Bigned simply — Juni/pero Serra. It bears date November 29, 
1 77*i. twenty-eight days after the establishment. The writing 
is yellow with age, and the whole volume hears the impress of 

This wiis the Beventh mission established in Alta California. 
It was named in perpetuate the memory of a noted Franciscan 
Friar, who was born in Capistrano, Italy, of a wealthy ami 
powerful family — long years ago. Early in Life, he practiced 
law in his native country, and attained to considerable success 
in that profession. Fame as an advocate, however, tailed to 
satisfy the yearnings of a noble heart, and he finally renounced 
worldly honor and advantage for the cow] and knotted cord of 
St, Francis. Tradition speaks of him as a good and holy man, 
and in remembrance of his many virtues, the mission of San 
Juan del Capistrano was founded, as above stated, by the 
brethren of his order. 

Thus, while our patriot sires in the East, were declaring 
their independence of European rule, and from many a well 
Eoughl battle-field driving their oppressors to the sea; those of 
(his western people were tamely submitting to physical and 
mental slavery, wrought b) a European power equally cruel 
and equally ambitious as that which the first overthrew. The 
seed of the one has multiplied into a great nation; that of the 
other has dwindled into a mere handful, and these a standing 
reproach to the memory of their race. 

The missions of Upper California were nearly all erected on 
one general plan ; and most of them yet stand in a more or less 
ruinous condition; mute witnesses against a time when man 
oppressed his fellow, and enslaved his body, under specious 
pretense of caring for his soul. The plan followed in their 
erection is described as follows, by Hon. J. J. Warner, in his 
Historical Sketch of Los Angeles County": 

As «xm after the founding of a mission as its circumstances would 
permit, a large pile ol buildup in the form of a quadrangle, composed 
in part ol buint brick, but chiefly of sun-dried ones, was ,•,„.,, .,i '"'j 
aspaeiouBCourt. A large and capacioua church, which usually oceu 
Pjedoneol the outer cornersof t£e quadrangle, was a necessary and 

:, -|:eu us ,,,(< MlK pi In tin- „,„-.,, blllUin . .,. T "j ^ 

radial^ was the habitation of the Friar, rooms for guelts andforthe 
mapr-^moa and their familiea, hospital wards. storf-Ses ^and gran! 
anea, rooms for the carding, spinning, and weaving of woolen fogfa 
shone or blacksmiths .oiners and carters, BtilL^hoemS 
and soap-boilers, and cellars forstorne the ,inj„,t <•«,; , . j v j »' 
ofthe vin. yard . Near the habhatifnof he'rr £ and* in SStS 
the large buildug, another building, of similar mir ■>■ T \ J 
and used as ouarters for a small uuml^^^S^^^ 
soldtara, under command of a non-commissioned office ffth 
Indian neophytes in cluck, a« well as to protect the miiinn f , . 
attocka of hostile [ndians. The mMrnVTSl^S^S^ 
couriers, from mission to mission the covr.spondc^e of the 

Government officer* and the Friars. These small detachments of sol- 
diers, which were stationed at each mission, were famished by one or 
the other ofthe military posts at San Diego or Santa Barbara, both of 
which were military garrisons. 

The first padre in charge of the mission San Juan del Cap- 
istrano, was named Gorgonio. To him is accredited the plan 
of the original church building, conceived as it was on a scale 
much more pretentious than any that had preceded it. The 
main building was of masonry, one hundred, by one hundred 
and fifty feet; with an interior height from floor to belfry of 
nearly eighty feet; and the walls were five feet in thickness. 
The roof was covered with earthenware tiles, and was sur- 
mounted by four domes, surrounding an immense tower of 
masonry, erected upon six columns, which served for a bell- 
tower. The granaries, workshops, ami residences (with inside 
corridors), extended from the main building, completely enclos- 
ing a great square, which was used for games and recreations, 
bull-rights, and exhibitions of horsemanship. Nearly thirty 
years were spent in the erection, and not until .Sept. 8, 1806, 
was the vast structure pronounced complete. 

This mission conducted manufactories of soap, cloth, and 
shoes; also extensive carpenter and blacksmith shops. The 
gardens and grounds covered some eighty acres. Here were 
grown a variety of semi-tropical, and northern fruits. Among 
these were some four hundred olive trees, most of which still 
stand, strong and vigorous, though gnarled and knotted by the 
burden of a century, and bear fruit to-day, as fresh and rich 
as was their primal yield. 

Six years had elapsed since the mission church was com- 
pleted, It was the feast of "La Purissvma" — "The Immaculate 
Conception of the Mother of God ! " which set the hells to chim- 
ing in the gnat church tower, early in the morning of Decem- 
ber S, 1812. Soon that "Sleepy Hollow" of the western coast 
was all astir, and in the gray " dawning of the morning," priest. 
in sacerdotal robes; soldiers in uniform; Indian women in 
many beads, and scant attire; Indian men in less of both; and 
Indian youth in none of either;— all thronged within the open 
door-way, and packed the mighty edifice to its utmost capacity. 
Now the bells have ceased their clangor; the censer swings; 
and, even as one man, the vast audience falls prostrate at the 
raising of "The Boat!" Anon the chant arises. Led by the 
priests and choristers, the refrain is caught up by the congrega- 
tion, and waves of weird melody surge, and swell, and break, 
and lis.' again, as do the waves of ocean on the sandy beach 

It may be, that some dusky native on that morning, traced 
a faint resemblance in this " Chorus of the Christians," to the 
"war-song " of his tribe. Half-dozing, he dreamed himself once 
more— a man! Toil was not now, nor Spanish whips, the past 
had come again. Armed as of old, he faced the foe, and battled 
hand to hand. Ha ! now the pivan swells, and victory is ours ! 

Mark now, the captive bound the Eagol laid, the fire lit 
Peal forth the death-song o'er his agony, -leap madly in the 
dance! -But hark: What sound is that— loud as the crack of 
doom, now blending with his dream ' What mean those hur- 
rying feet, those cries of pain \ Stricken by hands unseen— he 
starts and wakes; lie shrieks and dies ! 

The dreaded "Temblor" bad come; and beneath tin- ruins of 
that costly pile, thirty-six victims lay writhing in their death 
agony; priest and neophyte, old and young,— all in a common 
tomb ! 




Original Intention of the Government— Tlnv.irt'.l l, v ti,,. \i M - |lh lrtl k .._ [,,,.,. 
radation of the Natives— Los Angeles Founded— Origin of Name— Original 
River-bed— Name of the River Changed— The First Settlers— Nature ol 
the Dwellings— Visits to San Gabriel— Dominance of the Priests— Treat- 
ment of Settlers — Table of the Upper California Missions. 

Tub establishment of missions in Alta California seems to 
have been regarded by the Spanish Government — not as an end, 
but only as a preliminary step toward the subjugation, civil- 
ization, and ultimate colonization ofthe country. Thus in the 
regulations under which these missions were primarily i 
lished, it was provided that, at the expiration of ten years 
from the founding- of each mission, such establishment should 
merge and be converted into a municipal organization known 
as a pueblo or town; and that all property hitherto c 
or acquired by the mission, should vest in the Indian neo- 
phytes thereof, as free citizens of such municipal organization 

But as it happened, the good missionaries having once 
obtained a foothold under these liberal regulations, thencefor- 
ward saw fit wholly to disregard ami ignore them. Thi 
of their converts were too dear to them: the bodies of their 
converts were too useful to them; the property already 
acquired and to be acquired, by the labor of these com 
was far too valuable to be thus lightly trusted from under the 
sheltering wings of Mother Church. True, they committed no 
acl in derogation of law ; they did not even refuse to obey the 
letter of the statute, should the civil authorities see tit to 
undertake its enforcement, they simply refrained from instruct- 
ing their people in any of those matters which would tend to 
make them self-supporting, and capable ^>t' self-government, 
when set free; and thus by a system of master^ inactivity. 
tlu\ rendered the humane intent of the government wl 
nugatory. Theystyled the people beasts, and as beasts v. 
they compelled to labor; without hop-', without reason, accom- 
plishing each his allot. d task without interest therein, other 

CENTRAL BLOCK C°. R Spring^ Court S t . s 

Property df the LANFRANCO ESTATE, 


Los Angeles, Cal 


1 i 

than i i the ever ready lash "•;. iral enough, -■ 

expiration of the prescribed tim< found 

to be physically much n ■ helpli and mentally qui! 

incapable as the) were before the advent oi Spanish Friars, 
Latin prayers, and rawhide whip I cuni- 

tancc i h ginal infc ntion wa abandoned, and the pi 

retained con! rol of both propi rty and people. 

But though it. lui'l been found impracticable to converl the 
mission into towns and their neophytes into citizen as lia«l 

originally been intended, yet it had bee a a arj bo pro 

vide some place where mi ion soldiers who had served their 
time, and who still dc ired to remain in thi countrj might 
retire with their families. With this view an ord< i dated al 
San Gabriel Mission An u i 26, L78I, was issued by the then 
Governor of California Felipe de Neve, directing the i tab 
lishment of si pueblo (town) upon the site lately occupied by 
the Indian Pillage Yang na. This new town wa to be 
under the especial patronage and fostering protection of 
•' N nisi iui Seilora I" Ueyna de loa Angeles" (Our Lady the 
Queen of the A.ngoIs) and was to be known by her nam.'. 

The site selected lay about eight miles, westerly, from San 
Gabriel Mis-. inn, near the north-west boundary of an almost 
level plain of great extent, having a slight decline toward the 
south; said plain being bounded upon the one hand by high 

i ntain ranges, and on the other by the Pacific ocean The 

" Poroiivncula river" (henceforth to be known as "Loa 
Angeloa river ") at this time ran easterly oi it present course 
skirt. "mi; the table-land whereon is now situated Easl Loa 
Angeles. Here then under < lovernor Neve's order, bet ween the 
river-bed and the low rolling liills we I thereof, the town of 
Los Angoleswas formally founded September l> 178] ; just ten 
years (lacking fourdaj j) after the establishment of San Gabriel 
Mission. We now quote from ■' •' Warner's "Historical 
Sketch of Los Angeles County," before referred to: — 

The founders of the town (lumbered twelve adult males, all heads of 
families. The Burnames of the twelve settlers were Lara, Navarro, 
Rosas, Mesa. Moreno, Rosas, Villavicencia, Banegas, Rodrigut i, I amero, 
Quintero, nnd Rodriguez. These men bad been soldiers al the Mission 
ot'San Gabriel, and, although relieved or discharged from service, con- 
tinued to ceoeive paj nnd rations from the Spanish Government. The 
total Dumber of souls comprising the settlemenl was fortj -six. Twenty 
of these were children under ten years of age. Of the twelve adult 
men, two were natives of Spain, ow a natin of China and the otbex 
aine of some one of the following places; Sinaloa, Soiiora, and Lower 

For the center of the town ;i parallelogram, one hundred varas long 
ami acventj -five wide, was laid out as a public square. Twelve house- 
lots, fronting on the square, occupied three sides of it, and one-halfol 
the remaining side ofseventj five varas was destined foi public build- 
ings, and the other half an open space. At a sliort distance from the 
public square, and upon the alluvial bottom land of the river, a 
which the water of the rivei for irrigation could be easily conducted, 
there were laid out thirty (folds for cultivation. The Gelds contained 
I thousand square varas each, and were mostly laid out in the form 
ol a square, and separated from eaoh other by narrow lanes. In accord 
with tin- paternal idea of the Spanish Government, the head of each 
family was furnished from the royal treasury with two oxen, two mules, 

two no its, two cows with one calf, one ass, and 

one hoe. and to the settlers in common, the tools for 8 tart-maker. 
Then well as the were all charged to the indi- 

viduals respectively, or to the community at a price fixed by the < lov- 
ernmrnt. and the amount was t" be deducted, in small installments, 
from their | 

Astl combination of military and 

ecclesiastical powers, so the municipal government devbed (hi tfa 
tiers ol political and military govern- 

ment, in which the ' atto lominated. All the municipal 

power was vested in one officer, called Alcalde, who was appointed by 
the Governor— who was himself the military commander of the coun- 
try— or by a military otticer who commanded the military district in 
which the town was situated. 

The houses composing the new pueblo were but mere hovels 
They were built i I high, and had 

flat roofs covered with brea a phaltura brought Erom the 
pring west of the town, [n their tiny fields, imperfectly 
cultivated, the settlers raised a few roots and vegetables for the 
support of their families At this time, and for man} years 
afterward Lo A.ngcles was but a country outpost of San 
Gabriel Mission; and its few people were always glad enough 
to visil the latter, there to purchase their weekly supplies, and 
witness the Sunday festivities — as now the settlers of San 
I rabriel in turn visit. Los Angele 

Sixteen years after the " Pueblo de los A ngeles " was 
founded, am! twenty-six years to a day, after the establishment 
of San Gabriel, upon the eighth day of September, 1797, in 
the great valley lying north-west of the town, and separated 
therefrom by the "Cahuenga Range;" the third and last, Loa 
Angeles County Mi-inn was established. It was named "Sam 
Fernando Rey" in memory of Ferdinand V, King of Spain 
born L452, died L516); consorl of Isabella; conqueror of the 
Moors; patron of Columbus; and founder of the Inquisition 

Hence the whole valley is still known as " the valley ol' San 

< >ver the adjoining country, the padres of each mission held 
regal -way. Presumably they were answerable to the military 
commandant of the presidio within whose territory their 
mission was located. But in reality this offict r was ever their 
most hninUr and obedient servant, eager to do their bidding 
whenever called upon, and thus ingratiate himself with a 
power which lie well knew could, and would at any moment, 
through its far reaching ramifications, cause his ruin and dis- 
grace, or might on the other hand, if so disposed, advance mat- 
erially his worldly prospects. What was true of the petty 
commandant of a presidio was equally true of the Governor 
and the whole territorial government ; ergo, the missions ruled 

Having then absolute power over both life and property, it 
is not to be wondered at, that the Spanish fathers wen: both 
lea red and toadied to by all other inhabitants of the country, 
white as well as colored. If any -wished to till the soil, or 
pasture stock, leave must be first obtained from them: and 

should he subsequently in any manner ofiend, he was uncere 
moniously ousted, havin tsonto be thankful if the total 

loss i<( his property wa^ all the punishment he incurred, 



I.... 1TIOX. 

I s ill . |. 

I'iiI » 

' . ■ ■ 


■ ■ 

i i Solldiul 


- in hi hi I mli I i 
|i I 

Bon Fernando Roj 


Si. Hi:. 111. ■/. . .. 

■ I' ... I 

1 . , 

'. i 

s. I, 


V.i'i 1. 




I'. ■ . l 

1. -.1 

1 ■. , 



oi rbi n, 


i. n 

Jlllll "I, 

i; >. 



■ , 1 1 

i >. 



s- |.i i 17, 

i ■ i 

' . 

i ii 



1 n Dli ■." 

■ ' 'i Sioim i i 

I to I til < ii in. I in ,i 

1 Mi ii. I 

1 Uei ... , , i 


I I i lUtt "I 

' . Uj 
U in. n in '.urn ol Ban ".Hi" I lb rw 

1 '»i - hi i i ■ ■ i 

' VI I mMwnj bi two* n i ■ ■ . \n , i, ■, 

p.. .. 

■ i ii..u i mdi 
i irhom 

■■ l i i 1 1.. i i , i.iiiin i 
i hi On Uinta iin i ih.i 

^ ' »< I Hun I ■ < rai i ■ 

■... i 

iow ll 

1 "i l J nun rlvci 

■ ... i 

■■ W h ...» in ■ 

1 ' ""i a ii iii ii itfiiti Hun 


1 ■■ ■ ' ■ ■ i. ■■ ii- ■ ii.. 1 1 i ,, i. ,, , 

i ol i. i i . .. i. , . 

Bo i, 


' n '-" '■ '.'.i" » Htimboldl h • ■ • !■■, ■ i. a, population of 

"it '■ ""111111 , follow i on i ertud [mil tn . " ■. uu ivhltvti mi i muluitoi i not) 

Total, 10,882; il little n tl unl uopulutlmi ol I ■■ \i-.i.. . n .. ' wild 

• tin ■ ■ U« I, ■■'■' n |.. .i..i.h iniltc mi mi holnu 

■ ■ I ■ lib > ii. ii,, i,i.ii„M 

population "i Lot \ r» —■ . j ■• i .,, follow 

Mali i. iim ilea, Tol ii Brand Total 

Bun Juan i teputi 50 : .1 1 nn; . 

Bun Oahrtel , i . 104; ■ , , 

•■ 1 1 lo si i .'.|, uj 1 I 



Exclusive Policy ol Spanish I ioverumenl Arrest nnd Detention of Fori 

—Missouriani Trapped Gringos and Senoritu in 1 English ipooltino 
Settler— Whittle's Petition Joseph Chapman Graphic account by 8. 0. 
Fostei -Lugo and the 1 tria 

It was ever the policj of Spain fco exclude foreignei from 
her colonial possessions. Thusforthi lit t half century luceeed- 
ing the establishment of missions in Alta ' !alifornia, the coun 
try remained almost wholly unknown fco the outei world. At, 
irregular, and rare intervalflj a trading ship from San i;; :i ,,, 
Acapulco, would bring di patches from the eal of government, 
and carryback such reporta only, as the mi ionarii a\i fit 
to make. Aside from this, California, though in I. In- world 
wa.s not of it. 

To such an extent was this exclusiveness carried, that if, by 
shipwreck or other casualty, foreigners were obliged to land, 
they were at once seized, and carried prisoners into the interior, 
and the,,- compelled to stay for the remainder of their lives. 
Thus tradition tells of two small parties of Americans from 



Missouri, who, entering New Mexico ahoutthe lic^inning of the 
present century, were immediately arrested by the author- 
ities and scattered over the country, singly or in pairs; nor 
did they find opportunity to escape therefrom until the declar- 
ation of Mexican Independence in 1822, Yet such persons 
appear fco have been always kindly treated in every other 
particular, and usually, accepting the situation forced upon him, 
the "grimgo" (greenhorn) married a "seflorita" and quietly 
settled down, making the best of what could not be helped. 

Ah to who was the first English-speaking settler in Los 
Angeles county, there has hern considerable controversy among 
the "old heads." The honor would seem to rest however 
without doubt between two men— W. Whittle and Joseph 
Chapman; the first a native of England, and the second of 

The claims of the first rest upon an old Spanish document, 
now in the City archives. This purports to be the petition of 
one W. Whittle to the Ayv/n&ami&nto of Los Angeles, praying 
for a grant of land. The petition is dated 1835, and recites 
that the petitioner has been a resident for twenty years, and 
was the first Ebiglisk-spealcvng settler m California. Against 
the authenticity of this claim exists the fact that Col. J. J. 
Warner who first reached Los Angeles in 1831— does not 
rememher ever hearing of this man, and was ignorant of the 
existence of any such document, until informed thereof by the 

On the other hand, Col. Warner believes Joseph Chapman 
to have been the first settler who spoke English in Los Angeles 
county, and probably in the State. Mr. Stephen C. Foster 
also contributes the following to the Los Angeles Evenmg K,>- 
pres8, 1876; and claims to have received the story he relates 
direct from the lips of Don Antonio Maria Lu°-o, one of the 
chief actors of the scene portrayed; and again, twenty -nine 
years later, from a son of Lugo, who recollected the circum- 
stances as having occurred "El ano de loa Imwgentes"— the 
year of the Insurgents: — 

< me day in the year 1818, a vessel was seen approaching the town of 
Monterey. As she come nearer ah e was 3een to be armed her 
dei i.- swarming with men. and she Hew some unknown flae irrivino- 
withm gunshot aha opened fire on the town, and her fire was answered 

from the battery, while the lancers st i ready to repel a landiugjfit 

• bould be attempted, or ever the retreat of the families in cW thJl 
effort at repulse should be unsuccessful, for Spain was J?p2£ 'hi 
every maritime uation, and the traditions of the atrocities commuted 
bi the Buccaneers at the end of the 17th century on the BpanisTmafn 
were familiar to the people, after some firing the st °ai . f 

appeared to be injured oy tne lire from the battery, and 1 | L . , , 
disappeared. I he alar,,, spread n |, mi r the cast 'is fast V u i > ■ i 

;;;:■" .:;v ,> i^:':v!,; n ^r ;; ,iii -\ ;ff -'■'>■ v -- -"-^-i;:,^^ 

more. All that ia known of her is that she was a Buenos Ayrean priva- 
teer, and that her captain was a Frenchman, named Bouchard. 

As to those of her erew she left behind, the circumstances, under 
which they were captured, might have justified severe measures, but 
the commandante was a kind-hearted man, and he ordered, that if any 
one would he responsible for their presentation when called for, they 
should be set at liberty until orders should be received from Mexico, 
as to what disposition should be made of them. 

When the alarm was given, < lorporal Antonio Maria Lugo (who, after 
seventeen years of service in the Company of .Santa Barbara, had 
received his discharge and settled with his family in Los Angeles, in 
1810), received orders to proceed to Santa Barbara with all the force the 
little town could spare. ( lie was the youngest son of Private Francisco 
Lugo, who came to California 105 years ago, and who, besides those of 
his own surname, as appears from his will dated at Santa Barbara in 
the year 1801, and still in the possession of some of his grandsons in 
this country, was the ancestor, through his four daughters, of the 
numerous families of the Vallejos, Carrillos, de la (.iuerras, Cotas, 
Ruizes, besides numerous others of Spanish and English surnames. He 
was the venerable old man whose striking form was so familiar to our 
older residents, and who, seventeen years ago, at the ripe age of 8.5 
years, died in this place, honored and respected by all.) 

Some two weeks afterwards. Dona Dolores Lugo, who with other 
wives was anxiously waiting, as she stood after nightfall in the door 
of her house, which still stands on the street now known as Negro 
Alley, heard the welcome sound of cavalry and the jingle of their 
spurs as they defiled along the path north of Fort Hill. They pro- 
ceeded to the guard-house, which then .stood on the north side of the 
plaza, across Upper Main street. The old church was not vet built. 
She heard the orders given, for the citizens still kept watch and ward, 
and presently she saw two horsemen mounted on one horse advancing 
across the plaza towards the house, and heard the stern but welcome 
greeting, "Ave Maria Purissima," upon which the children hurried to 
the door, and, kneeling with clasped hands, uttered their childish 
welcome and received their father's benediction. The two men dis- 
mounted. The one who rode the saddle was a man full six feet high, 
of a spare but sinewy form, which indicated great atrength and activity. 
He was then 43 years of age. His black hair, sprinkled with gray and 
bound with a black handkerchief, reached to his shoulders.' The 
square cut features of his closely shaven face indicated character and 
decision, and their naturally stern expression was relieved by an 
appearance of grim humor— a purely Spanish face. He was in the 
uniform ot a cavalry soldier of that time, the cuera blanca, a Iooaely- 
fitting surtout reaching to below the knees, made of buckskin, doubled 
and quilted, so as to be arrow-proof; on his left arm he carried an 
adarga, an oval shield of bull's hide, and his right hand held a lance, 
while a high-crowned heavy vicuna hat surmounted his head. Sus- 
pended from his saddle was a carbine and a long straight sword. The 
other was a man about twenty-five years of age, perhaps a trifle taller 
than the first. His light hair and blue eyes indicated a different race, 
and he wore the garb of a sailor. 

The expression of his countenance seemed to say, "I am in a darned 
bad scrape, but I guess I'll work out somehow." 

The senora politely addressed the stranger, who replied in an 
unknown tongue. Her curiosity made her forget her feelings of hospi- 
tality, and she turned to her husband for an explanation. 

" Whom have you here, old man ? " 

"He is i, prisoner we took from that buccaneer— may the devil sink 
her— scaring the whole coast and taking honest men away from their 
homes and busim ss. I have gone his security." 

"And what is his name and country ' J " 

"None of us understand his lingo, and he don't understand our. 

ii i. CW J- i ,°' !t m ' hia Dame is Juse - anrl be speaks a language they 
call English. We took a negro anion- them, but he was the only one 
oJ the rogues that showed tight, and so Corporal Ruiz lassoed him and 
brought him head over heel,, .word and all. I left him in Santa Bar- 
bara to repair damages. He is English, too." 

" I- he a Christian or a heretic '.' " 

"I neither know nor care He is a man and a prisoner in my charge 
and I have given the word of a Spaniard and a soldier to my old com- 
mandante tor his sale keeping and his good treatment. I have broueht 
him fifty leagues on the crupper behind me, for he can't ride without 
something to hold to. He knows no more about a horse than k, 

about a ship, and be sure you give him the softest bed. He has the 

face of an honest man, if we did catch him amon 

he is a likely-looking young fellow. If he behaves himself. 

look him up a wife among our pretty girl.-, and then 

the good Padre will settle all that. And now, good wife, 1 have told* 

you all I know, tor you women must know everything; but we have 

had nothing to eat since morning, so hurry up and give as the best you 


Lugo's judgment turned out to be correct, and a few days afterwards 
the Yankee privateersman might have been seen in the mountains, in 
what is known among Call fornians as> the "Church Canon. ' ax in hand- 
helping Lugo to get out timbers for the construction of the church, 
a work which the excitement caused by hi.- arrival had interrupted! 
The church was not finished till four years afterwards, for they did not 
build in Los Angeles, in thosi d tys, as fast as now. Chapman con- 
ducted himself well, always ready and willing to turn his hand to 
anything, and a year afterward he had learned enongh Spanish to 
make himself understood and could ride a horse without the risk of 
tumbling off. and he guessed he liked the country and the people well 
enough to settle down and look around for a wife. So he and Lugo 
started off to Santa Barbara on a matrimonial expedition. Why they 
went to Santa Barbara for that purpose, I do not know, but this' much 
I do know, that in former times the Angelenos always yielded the point 
that the Barbarenos had the largest porportion of pretty women. 

In those days the courtship was always done by the" elders, and the 
only privilege of the fair one. was the choice of saying " yes" or "no." 
Lugo exerted himself, vouched for the good character of the suitor, and 
soon succeeded in making a match. The wedding came off in due 
time, and Lugo gave the bride away, and he feast was over, 

the three started back to Los Angeles. I tne fashion of riding in those 
days was the following: A heavy silk sash, then worn bv the men, was 
looped over the pommel of the saddle, so as to form a Btirrap, and the 
lady rode in the saddle, while her escort mounted behind, the stirrups 
being shifted back, to suit his uew position, and in this stvle Chapman 
once more set out on the long road from Santa Barbara to Los Angeles, for 
the second time, again a prisoner. But now in the saddle before him, 
instead of the grim old soldier, armed with tar-e and lance, rode the 
new-made bride, armed with bright eyes and raven tresses; for the 
Senorita < hiadalupe ' Irtega, daughter of old Sergeant < Irtega, the drl 
who one short year before had fled in terror from die wild rovers of the 
sea, as, pistol and cutlass in hand, they rushed on her father's house, 
and who had first seen her husband a pinioned prisoner, had bravely 
dared to vow to love, honor and obey the fair gringo. And years after. 
when the country whs opened fco foreign intercourse, on the establish- 
ment of Mexican Independence in 1822, and the first American 
adventurers, trappers and mariner-, found their way to California, 
they found Jose Chapman at the Mission ot San Gabriel, fair-haired 
children playing around him. carpenter, mill-wright and general facto- 
tum of good old Father Sanchez; and anion- the vaqueros of old 
they also found Tom Fisher swinging his riata among the wild c 
as he once swung his cutlass when he fought the Spanish lancers on 
the beach at the Ortega ranch. 

Chapman died about the year 1849, and his descendants now live in 
the neighboring county of Ventura. I saw Fisher in Sep:, 
when I met him in the Monte. The news of gold had fust reached 
here and he was on his way to the placers to make his fortune, and Ju- 
lias never been heard from since. 

To my readers of Ca-tilian descent, I would gay that I have not used 

the prefix ol Don, for i preferred to designate them by the rank that ' 

Jjanda opposite to I Cher's uames on tl d ■ - 

then- companies, now in the Spanish archives of California, 

And iii conclusion of my humble contribution to the Centennial his- 
tory of Los Angeles, 1 have only to say, which I do without \\ 
contradiction, that the Brst American pic i 
iar as history and tradition goi s, of all Califorc 
Joseph, the Englishman, a iaa Joe I !hapman, a i 
and EINegro roar, alias Tom Fisher. - | . y 



Main ST Los Angeles, Cal 

Kysor a Hennessy. architects. 

pUBliSHtB ar T*f}*if>sp'v A wfsr. 






(1810 1822.) 

A Voann •■ f'. mi r i b of July ''—Hidalgo's 1 bibbed 

Indian ' !ivil Ben to Eb form I 

dii i I'm it "i Ban "* ni /.. 

On the fifteenth day of September in each yeai 

of I \n-' Ii ■ echo .'i i" l re e< bo fco the cry of " \ rvE Kbiii 

Throughout the day much aguadU nte i con ad a 

great deal of powder i wa ted n i bo all outward appear- 
ance, simply a young "Fourth of July," attired in Mexican 
garb. This is, in fact, the anniversary of the Priest Hidalgo's 

insu :tion againsl Spanish puIi and the origin of thi ccl< 

bration i e plained by a writer in' La Cronwa,' under date 
of September, 1878, which we tran lab as follows: — 

For three hundred years the power of Spain had dominated uexico; 
and during thai long period do man had arisen possessed of the oeces- 
rniry fortitude to combat and reform the rnisgoverninent of the Euro- 
pean tyrants, Alone, without friends, resources, or arms, depending 
solely on the grandeur of bis enterprise, and taking advantage of the 

unguarded security of the op] s, the Priest RJdalgo struck the 

urst blow for independence, on the fifteenth daj of September, L810, 
and in a few months found himself at the bead ot ;i numerous and well- 
dlsoiplined army. It was, however, bis fate to die in the cause. He 
was taken prisoner, and ascended the scaffold to bim a throne of 
glory -and cheerfully surrendered bis life for the regeneration of his 
country. The war which he had inaugurated- oruel, fratricidal, hor- 
rible, continued lor eleven years. The sacred blood oJ Hidalgo was 
the fertilizer which broughl forwards band of hero c martyrs -Morelas, 
Attends, Guerrero, Bravo, Abasolo, Mine, Qaleanar, Matamoras, and 
I; a vmi; nil of whom offered up In b grand bolocausl their lives >>n the 

sacred altar of Liberty. These sanotined and c pleted tin- work 

begun by Hidalgo, 

Ii wns Dot, however, until the year 1822, that the independ- 
ence of Mexico was formallj recognized. Two years later a 
Republican < lonstitution was adopted, under which < 'alifornia 
ranked as n territory. 

Apropos of Mexican Independence, a laughable anecdote is 
related by Father Boscana, indicative of the religious condition 
of the Indians al tliis time, al the oldesl mission in California, 
and their methods of efleel ing changes of rulers. Upon bearing 

that the viceroy had been deposed, and Vturbide proclai i 

Emperor of Mexico, the [ndians of San Diego made a grand 
feast, and im itod the whole neighborhood to attend their fes- 
tivities These were commenced 03 burning tJieir chief alive I 
After this the} elected another, and al the end of eight dai s of 
reveling dispersed. 

When the missionaries heard what had happened, they 

ii.hinni tared a sharp rebuke to those of their converts who 

bared in the entertainment. But not one whit abashed, the 

gentle aborigines replied with gravity: "Have you not done 

the same in Mexico? \mi sa} your king was not good, and 

1 killed him Well, our captain was not g I, and we 

burnedhiml If the new one should prove bad we will bum 

bim also ! " Who shall say that these simple children <>f nature 
had nut bit upon the '1 ue secrel of "Civil S 

The year «<f Mexican [ndependence was marked by insurrec- 
tions among the [ndians of La Purissima and San Ynez. For 
the following anecdote, illustrative of the class of men em- 
ployed as missionaries in (.'alifornia at thai time, w< 
indebted to the able pen of Stephen I ! Fostei . Esq : 

The sight of the old mission of San Yne/ recalled to my mind an 
incident chat occurred tl ■ Lime of the oat-break. When 

Indian rosi then were two S] th priests in the misaioo. One of 

them fell into the hands of the] 

' 1 ol I i atrocious cruelty. The other, ;i powerful 

man, succeeded in breaking away, and escaped t<> tin guard-house, 

where, as in all the Q a uard of four soldiers, commanded by a 

»ral, wa-* always kept as a sort of police force. The Indiana w re 
■ tin- -. I'M 1 their overwhelming numbers and the show- 
ers of arrows they directed against the port-holes had quite demoral- 
ised the garrison, when the priest appeared and t<>i>L command. It 
in 11- 1 have been a singular -rem'. The burlj Friar, with shaven crow n 
and sandaled feet, clad in th irn, L'irt with the cord ol St. 

I ranch), wielding earn 1] wi apoa . now encouraging the little garrison, 
now ! 1 mi ting defiance to the swarming assailants. 

•• Ho, father," cried a young Indian acolyte, " is that the way to say 
mass? " 

"Yes. [ am saying mass, my son. Here (holding up bis cartri 
box) is the chahce; here (.holding up his carbine] is the crucifix, and 
here goes my benediction to you, you — — , using one "t the foulest 
epithets the Spanish language could Bupply, as lie lev. led his cai bine 
and laid the Bcoffer low. 

A Large force was finally collected from the different towns; the 
Indian converts were followed into the Tulare valley and captured; 
the ring-leaders were shot, and the others had been brought hack to 
their missions, when my informant had occasion to go to Monterey, 
and on hi.- way, calling at the mission of San l.uis Obispo, found there 
the hero of San Ynez. 

" Welcome, countryman," was his greeting. 

" The same to you, father," was the reply. "But, father, they tell 
mi j "a are iu trouble." 

"Yes, my Bon, the President of the Missions has suspended me 
from the exercise of clerical functions for one year, <<u account of the 
unclerical language 3 used in that affair at San ynez. The old fool! He 
knew I was a soldier before I became a priest, and when those accursed 
Indians drove me back to my old trade, how could I help using my old 
language?" Then, taking out a couple of decanters from a cupboard, 
he continued, " Here, countryman, help yourself. Here is wine; here 
IS aguadiente. The old fool thinks he is punishing me. Heboid, 1 have 
no mass to say for a year, and nothing whatsoever to do but to eat, 
drink, and sleep." 




Effect of the Change of < Government— < Ibaracb r of the Early Friars — the 
Live Stock — Increase — : Taxation — A Pious Fraud— E 1 1 mates — 

Population — The First Vineyard — Fruits — Later Vineyards — Amu 
— An Old Library — Its nature — Hiudas — Jose Maria Salvadea — A Clerical 
Napoleon — The Maximum of Prosperity — Hugo Reid'd Description of 
Salvadea'a Keigu — Indian Language Translated — Sermons in the Indian 
Tongue — The Lord's Prayer — Death of Salvadea — Jose Bern 
— A Practical Joke — Early Medical Practice — Better times — Qood Clothes 
— Kind Treatment — Daily Routine — Washing Day — Saturday Night- 
Sunday Games — Death of Sanchez — Incident at San Fernando. 

The government had been changed, Official Maths were 

now administered under authority of the Mexican Republic 
instead of, as formerly, under thai of the king ol Spain 
There had been no war, do bloodshed; and to the casual 
er in facf to the p..., do themselves, in this matter of 
• swearing in " was the only change discernible. The missions 
continued as before, and the mission fathers pursued the oven 
tenor of their way, wholly unmindful of "the hand-writing 
on the wall!" As before the} ate and drank of the besl 
mndlj and rose al early .lawn to mumble over a 
sloepj mass thinking in rretfullj the while of ttio warm beds 
the} had jusl foi aaken, 

Tii.\ planted vineyards and orchards; they increased both 

in si ach and in purse; thej ruled th) ii appetites with silken 

and thi ir people with rods of iron, caring naughl For 
presenl political events, and recognizing nol the Pad until 
too late thai Republicanism is ever the inveterate foe of 
church dominai in secular affairs, 

When Junipero Serra and bis band of missionaries entered 
Upper California from the lower territory, they broughl with 
them a number of horses, mules, and cattle, wherewith to 
stock the proposed missions, These wen- duly distributed, 
and in time asses, sheep, goats, and Bwine were added. Favored 
by an almost limitless range of pasturage and a genial climate, 
these creatures all multiplied with marvelous rapidity Even 
favored Israel, in the land of promise, had not mon rea on to 
fce themselve ' the chosen people of God," assigning 
as proof their rapid increase in material wealth, and the 
decadence of neighboring tribes, than had this handful ol ■ as 
deled, gowned, and corded Friars, « ho, like Esrael, had invaded 
the land of a free people, and now held it and them in mbjec 
li'.n, ' iind<.-r divine authority," bj a free use of the musket 
and the lash. 

The missions were taxed for the support of ths presidios 
according to the property owned bj each; and to this end thi 

padres in charge of thi everal establisl intswere required 

by law to make annual returns of all mi ion property to the 
government officers, This being the case, it was naturally to 
the priests 1 advantage always to underi timati their wealth; 
and being firm believers in the doctrine thai " 1 Ihurch is para- 
mount to State and Church property nol rightfully subject to 
State taxation." they found no difficulty in accommodating 
their conscienci to a regular system of false returns, by which 
their missions were constantly enriched, and the State treasury 
kept constantly empty. 

As the time approaehed for making out these Btatemenl 
hundreds of Indian vaqueroa were employed to -hive the 
major portion of all mission stock into the mountainous and 
more remote regions of the territory. The bulk of their 
wealth being thus removed from the prying eyes of tax col- 
lectors; and being "out of sight, out of mind" as to them- 



selves, Ihese piotlfl rogues quietly estimated the few scattered 
herds that remained, and returned theseas "the whole property 
of tin- minHiim. u 

All, or mailv all of the published estimates respecting the 
property owned hy the California!] missions in those early 
days, have been founded on these statements of the priests. 
In the light of what lias been said, it will be readily seen how 
erroneous such must be, and how far short of the mark they 
all probably fall. The following are some of these estimates 
as to the establishments in bus Angeles count}-: — 

(1831.) GRAIN (BUSHELS). 





< urn. 


I Jeans. 


San Fernando Mission 

S:m Gabriel Mission _ 

San Juan Cap. Minion 

Town of Los Angeles 


1.502 «, 

32 ! , 


10-2 1, 


1,387 1.£ 



5, 187 J:,' 





Grand Total , 13,945 


Wheat, 5,(70 bushels @ 80c 
Corn and other grains, 8,475 bushels @ 60c. 
Total value of crops 


89,461 00 

(1831.) DOMESTIC 









San Fernando. . 
San ( Gabriel .... 
San .loan ( lap, 
Los Angeles . . . 















7:i0 i 12 





Oxen. each... ... JJ 5.00 Mules, each SlOOft 

<""-■ " - 5.00 Mares, ■< " r/ 00 

Horses, " _. moo «.„>„„ <> ^oo 

10.00 Sheep. 

( ..T..1..I. .i rrom tablwlD Forbes' '• < iiif^rtuu " (Lontl.m, 1839) 
Tin addition to tin liorau here enumerated, Mr Forbes Bays: "There nre n »r™t „,™ 

uss&sss&s^ " uu " y ■ k,iLi " p2s ttiiajs 


San Gabriel 

( '""^TiTnrs s. I MareT| MuleT| Oxen. I Sheep 

7o - ouo i i '- ,,n 3.'hmi i ju» , -.,,, , ,,,;„; 

;r-" " -fi R^-XWBSLSLaS 

colonel j. j, warner'b estimate* 

_^__^^^ ( 183 1)- DOMEBTIC CATTLE. 

c „ ^aitie. Horse; 

ban I*ernando " on am - n, ^i 

San fifthrifll I -"• nn " l 5,000 

■if™. i. ... .1 . . ! 

Rattle. | Horses. | Mules. I Swine 

On lllin • c nr*r. : — ■ 

1. ; 1.IHH) 

U*d< to thi wriu-i fr..i ,-„.■„<, , ~ ' ' 

Ui Uigelet • ' WM ""- y«w i" « h Colonel Warner first 

According to Mr. Forbes, the population of Los Angeles 
county in the year 1831 was about as follows:— 


San Fernando 
San ( rabriel - - . 
San Juan Cap. 
Los Angeles.. . 

Men. | Women. | Boys. | Girls. | Total. 

349 I 226 I 177 ! 181 j 833 

574 | *440 | *158 | *144 | *1,S16 

464 I »342 *123 j *116 *1,045 

552 421 213 | 202 1,388 

( fraud Total .4,582 

t Exclusive o! wild Indians. 

•The numbers marked thus ( ) ;ir<_- from f/»' totals in Mr. Forbes' tables, not 
being there given separately. 

The first vineyard planted at San Gabriel, contained 3,000 
vines. It was named "Vina Madre*" — "Mother Vineyard," 
and from it sprang the numerous vineyards now existing 
throughout the State. Orchards were also planted, but these 
later; for though the pacbres loved fruit, wine was to them a 
necessity. In time, San Gabriel Mission had both tropical and 
northern fruits in abundance; and her vineyards are said to 
have contained 150,000 vines. 

For amusement, the fathers had their little expeditions of 
conversion, before referred to; but in bad weather, or when 
studiously inclined, they had also a rubbishy collection of old 
books, wherewith to while away the time. These they had 
brought from Mexico,. and embraced a motley collection of 
ancient treatises upon Natural History, Geography, Law, and 
Theology. Those of the first and second classes were composed 
principally of vulgar errors, long since exploded; the third of 
most reverend precedents, justifying injustice; and the fourth 
of " bogey stories," and grossly superstitious humbugs, now 
generally obsolete. But it mattered little what they contained, 
for with but few exceptions, these early padres appear to have 
been a profoundly ignorant, if not indeed an absolutely vici. .us, 
race of men. 

Occasionally Indians deserted and fled to the mountains 
These were termed "hindas," or runaways, and if caught 
were flogged unmercifully. They preyed upon the mission 
herds, and even took life at times; but at best they had but a 
hard time of it, being treated as wild beasts by the soldiers. 

It was under the Padre Jose Maria Salvadea, that the mis- 
sion of San Gabriel attained its maximum of prosperity. He 
is described as having been "a man of powerful mind ambi- 
tious as powerful, and cruel as ambitious." When he arrived 
the mission already owned an abundance of cattle horses 

mares, sheep, and hogs; but in his opinion, only a 1 innnc' 

had been made. According to Hugo Reid :— 

wSS d^ W b?ifi??!f th V arg ° viue >'^s, intersected with fine 

garden, fnnt and olive orchards: built the" mil? and da^; madeS 

of tunas (cactus opuntia) round the fields; made hedg i<u*hes* 

planted trees in the mission square, with a flower garden and hour-di 

in the center ; brought water from long distant 

pletely remodeled the existent system of government. Every artieli 

must henceforth be in place, and every man at his statioi 

"n 'i /■ him wa i organized and thai organization kept up with th< 

The people were now divided into classes and . These 

included vaqueroB, soap-makers, tanners, shoemakers, carpenters black 
smiths, bakers, cooks, general servant-, pages, fishermen, agriculturist*! 
horticulturists, brick and tile maker.-, musicians, angers, tallow meltent 
vignerona, carters, cart-makers, shepherds, poultry-keepers, pigeon 
tenders, weavers, spinners, saddle-makers, store and" key-keepers 
hunters, deer and sheep-skin dressmakers, masons, plasterers, pe. 
all work— everything but coopers, these were foreign: all the rest 
were native Indians. 

Large soap works were erected, tanning yards established tallow 
works, bakery, cooper, blacksmith, carpenter, and other shops Lar^e 
spinning rooms where might be seen 50 or (JO women turning their 
Bpmdles merrily, and looms for weaving wool, flax, and cotton = Then 
large store-rooms were allotted to the various articles, which were kept 
separate. For instance, wheat, barley, peas, beans, lentils, chick-peas 
butter and cheese, soap, candles, wool, leather, flour. lime, sjalt 
hair, wine and spirits, fruit stores, etc., etc. Sugar-cane, flax and 
hemp were added to the other articles cultivated, but cotton wool was 

The principal ranchos belonging at that time to San Gabriel were 
ban Pasqual, Santa Anita, Azusa, San Francisquito, Cucumongo --an 
Antonio, San Bernardino, San Gorgonio, Vucaipa. Jurupa, b 
Kincon, Chino, San Jose, Ybarras, Puente, Mission Vieia, SerranV 
Jiosa Castilla, Coyotes, Jaboneria, Las Bolsas. AJamitos, and Serritos 
11 PV DC1 P al head (Major-domo) commanded and superintended over 
all. Claudio Lopez was the famed one during Padre Salvadea's admin- 
istration, and although only executing the priests plans, in the minds 
of the people he is the real hero. Ask any one who made this or who 
did that, and the answer on all sides is the same, '■ Ei 
and great credit is due to him for carrying out without flogging the 
numerous works entrusted to him. There were a great many other 
major-domos under him, for all kinds of work, from tendin- of horses 
down to those superintending crops, and in charge of vineyards and 

Indian alcaldes were appointed annually by the padre, and chosen 
from among the very laziest of the community", he being of the op 
that they took more pleasure in making the others work than would 
industrious ones, and from my own observation this vs They 

earned a wand to denote their authority, and. what was more terrible. 
an immense scourge of raw-hide, about ten feet in length, plait 
tue thickness ot an ordinary man's wrist! Thev did a great deal of 
chastisement, both by and without orders. One of them alwav* a*ted 
as overseer on work done in gangs, and accompanied carts when on 

The unmarried women and young girls were kept as nuns, under the 
supervision oi an abbess, who slept with them in a large room. Their 
occupations were various ; sometimes they sewed or spun, at others thev 
cleaned weeds out of the garden, with hoes, worked at the ditches, & 

m pa/ticul Cr ° PS ' JU foCt ' tLe - WCre jacka " r - iennie> ot ' no : 

The best looking youths were kept as pages to attend at table, and 
those of most musical talent were reserved foi church service. The 
number oi hog, was great; they were principally used formak og soap, 
(The Indians with some few exceptions refuse to eat pork, all. ring the 
whole familj to b« transformed Spaniards! I Snd tfiis belief current 
im.u,], every nation of Indians in Mexico. \\ h 3 should thev. without 
being aware of it, have each selected the bog more than any other ani- 
raal to nx a stigma upon? It probabh may be 
oi can something appertaining to the Jews be innate in them?) N 
the nussiun at San francisquito were kept the turkeys, of which they 

in ,n , n "'" ' ! ; ia t} ir -'"' ,,,, 1 v, " 0,te ffaa aa^fi "de of the soap v, j 
in an upper story, affording plenty of dung to cure leather and .kins 

The padre had an idea that finery led Indians to run away, fhl 

reason he never gave either men or women any other elothing 

t 'V r" pttecoata) tl,,n coarse Mai. made 

by themselves, which kept the poor wretches all I seased 


Junction of Main ^Spring- S t , s Los Angeles,Cal. 


jrfth the itch. If any handkerchief! or cotton good. were dfacorered 

■ '" " ," , '" bv "» di *n women to wh „'„ 

t-. i.niv. lortli :. hl, i bornchUd, b« ,.. punched. 'II, pe, 

Sohad no predilection to, wizard 
other waaalwave reporting evil of them; kepi them chain 

fforkod, twonbovi and two bob* In thi pit ' 

jm.uI,,,,,!, occurring between man und wife, thej wen totted 
togetbo, by ho eg until thoy agreed toliveagain in harmons 

So«nTtS°mak 3 Z'^ *??* '" ' ** EXtwtJ. 

k ," v ',"" , ;"" n "' ' Bho11 '"»> acta of barbaritj 

I J ' L,|l , U : ", y.bynerelj Baying that h. 

£1 a i mm" "WE* " Bnd ' ll,,lk '" lll " , "-'<"' 

nn) Juki it morning, noon, and night, 

" rv f ice :» nd il I ' bed to sleep on at night Whlnevlr readv to 

m l, :i M, 11;,,^, .!,,,,,, Itl); sur, run. will, the intention of railing in 
an oi iiir vineyards inn sardeiu I'.ui r1h«I ,,,,,1.1 1* M,1 -. J " 

'^{dreffi 5-f.dJj 

who knnv Eia worth and gigantic intellect. re 8«>tted '•> »« 

During Ms pastorate, Salvadea also mastered the Indian 
language, and reduced!) to grammatical rules, being the first 
padre .,1 this section ha> iug either the ability or energy neces- 
sary for such a task. He translated the Church service and 
Pwadwd each Sabbath in the native tongue. His translation 
"' the Lord s prayer, commencing " Ayoinac" "Our Father' 
ls « aid ^3 Hi Reidtobe " a grand specimen of his eloquence 
:, ; hl :,,,ll "> fl " thus gave the natives an insight into the 
C t thohc faifch > "butdidnoi alter their own Those 

T 1 ,, ' :,lm ' ;,,, " rl,mi ^re too indolent to keep up the reforms 
'"' »"» inaugurated. For a time sermons were translated 
sentence by sentence, to the congregation; but this was soon 

" " ,n """- L P»W^y to the great relief of the unfortunate 

Salvadea was succeeded by Padre Jose" Bernardo Sanches 
to * or ™* colleague and assistant. Padre Sanchez is described 
as having been "of a cheerful disposition, and a frank and 


1 !tl1 " "■' ■ uanai..] capital 

nan; in trade, formal- in 

government of the mission, active, lively, and strict; in social 

intercourse, friendly, full of anecdote, and fond of jokes even 

to those of a practical nature." Aprq ,f this last pha 

, " srl ' ; "-"'-' M ' W* relates the following as having act, 

offch « « Uj Picnic parties given by this 

inn ili-lm ing priest: — 

ti< ';;";;';,'';, "' " l d " : ■ «*«iw « mercislrela, 

waTexTee'diote &«, ft£* ^ 

tempt tnemosl n tidiou epicure; and thia was I .cht on - T 

™«'™derthene, | lmb , along with an 

Allpns.M.t (with the exception of the two concerned in the 

' tfjtandnniaed 11 1 ;h \; ei l u d 1 ■ with a elafflofwine 

' 1L ;;| "'I'"'"'!;--:- ■: ruesfa 1 • they relished -/*<■• \ ,! 

would behove the assertion thai this was whal thei had us, 
until the negro made hia appearance with theheaaandC 

nearly kill hunae i with laughter. While the quie pSSoS of hi! 

CtnSeo?mo™t u lr- tb T e ^ and ^ ri d ofthi detLted 

' , ( '' " ,» P u K° aci01 " diapoaition remained to Bghl M. fira! 

intending to do the other afterward. The padre Bnalh orocured 

bai ny.butfoi manyaday after, roast lambud "aalad weHooked 

upon with auspicion b 3 the former partaken »f his choir. 

Col. Warner furnishes us with the following, as sotting 
forth the usual dinner served daily at San Gabriel Mission 
during the years of its prosperity:— 

BILL OF ^X5e£e1<S*~ 



Plaiu broth, in which meat and vegetables had been boiled. 


L< Olla. 

Meat boiled with vegetables, and served separately. 


A 1 Bondigcu, 

Forced meat halls— in gravy. 


Quisado . 
Btews — generally two. 


A ","'/". 
I. >ast — beef, mutton, game, fowls. 


Fruit and sweetmeats. 


Tea, coffee, cigarritoa, 

■Pork was also eaten sparingly at every meal. Wine was served ad 
Ixbitunu On Fridays, hsh followed the caldo, and the meats were dis- 
pensed with. 

It behooved the guests, however, who sat down to such a 
dinner not to overeat, for medical men were scarce in those 
days. Mr. Reid says : — 

i 1 .■■■.!.'."; ;;;.!;,•; ;;;,:,!'■ *"« 

" nfor «<i by hi. preH ■, W0 P8 .(ill 

s """-'"'^ but , G ,,,, „,, tlll evor 

'•" l " r 'osofpunw ,„ weregonorallj adopted 

' ' S - v " ■ i' I , 1 

resu Its for raanj Indian., who had For i-l, proved inaubor 

" | 1 " 1 '" 1 "" '■" Xil "' i " 1 ' P-ril B I,; I I 

""', '"*'■ i "" 1 -•'" i "' 111 "hich a! , toward their npirituol 

and temporal ruler. 

Supplies for the mission were purchased in largo quantitie 

Frequentb amounting to $30,000 al time „l 

V Bfc " '"" un W^hed and printed flannels, oloths 

os, silks, hosiery, sugar, p, ha rice, etc etc Th, e 

•^wew distributed in two stores, fr whence j were 

dea,fcou < tothenatn »old to the public The 1 plowere 

n V u ' befcterdr ' ,h;i " formerly Tl oarso friez » 

otthewomen wa usedonlj a weal clothsfoi horses; and the 

" atn " ladil tt PPe' I •■" church in full-blown glorj of fancy 

'"■""""■"- ,|, ' in 1Al111 ' '" i e variegated korchiefs on their 

beads, and rel md their shouldei Thomen had panfca 

•i'"'^ 1 ttd fancy silk sashes. Even the children plumed 

themselves in gaj coloi and sported shirl and kerchieft. 

Married people were provided with heel 1 P01 their beds, and 
even curtains. The major-domo visited eash hou e weekh to 
see that all wan kept clean, and the priest made a imilar 

round m P erson oncea nth Ra with wineand pint, 

(and occasionally a few dollars in money were di tributed 

' "" b m ! but in addition to this dailj i I ve pi rvided 

cooked, for the laborers We quote further from Mr. 
Reid's letters: — 

The nuation bell, on being rung, arouaed the A!calde» from their 

riumbers,and heee with loud et all the world a , 

waa now heard, and again the bell rang to work. At lleVeo 
notes proclaimed dinner, when in all flockeS, basket in handtoreceive 
"posatt and a piece of beef. ("Posal "con i ted of 

posaU " and b piece 01 oeer. [" Fo al " 1 .,„ isted of beans boiled with 
comor wheat.) u welvo ojelock thev were again warned £ Ttheb 
tabors, which eoncladed a little before sundown, to afford them time to 
receive .upper, which consisted of'ofofi ' 01 mueb. [fflgsng were at 

vided^ood onTe^r 16 "* ^^ — »"" ^ - ^ro- 

After twelve o'clock on Saturdays soap was distributed, and all the 

JZrljV a W " hl S g "', cIothM and P™^- t,J mak « « decent appear- 

"Sf «d with fr n -'■ 8afcarday r,it,,,t wm devoted to 35SJ 

men, women and children, were all generally present. 

After service, on Sunday, foot-ball and race, took place, and in the 
afternoon a game called •■ Shindy » by the Scotch, a,i » Sod? " by the 



l nli li was played, with the men and women on opposing Bides. Peo- 
... I., d in from all pail- h.sce the sport, and heavy bets were made. 
The priest i""i great interest in the game and as the women >cldom 
had (eaa than hall a dozen quarrels among them, in which liair Hew by 
the handful, be wan the more phased. The game being concluded, 
all went to prayers and so ended the Sabbath. 

Padre Sanchez died in 1833, regretted by the whole c<un- 
m unity, and lea^ rag all who knew him sad at bis l<>s-s. 

'Mi. following incident relating t.» the mission of San Fer- 
nando, is from tin- pen of < !oL •'- •'- Warner: — 

hi the early part of the autumn of L838, a little before mid-day, two 
American trappers, clothed in buckskin garments, the one feeble and 
emaciated b) disease) the other, his attentive assistant and companion, 
arrived at the mission upon jaded mules; C ing thither by the moun- 
tain path leading from the San Francisco ranch. They dismounted, 
and the Bick man, aided by bis companion, bud himself down upon bis 
blanket in the porch of the mission. The mules were unsaddled and 
picketed out to feed upon the grass. Neither of the two strange 
travelers had sufficient knowledge of the Spanish language to make 
themselves understood by those they found at the mission; nor could 
they comprehend what was said to them. The travelers attempted to 

mpply this lack of intelligible words by signs which were underst 1 

to mean that they desired to spend the remainder of the day and the 
succeeding night in that locality. By words of which they did not 
understand the meaning, and by signs which were sufficiently plain to 
be understood by men who bail Bpent years in the mountains among 
many tribes of Indians (with whom the usual means of intercourse 
was by signs,) they were given to understand that they could not be 
permitted to remain at San Fernando over night; that the Pxteblo of 
Los Angeles was near at hand, where they must go to rind a sleeping 

When it was intimated by signs to those of the mission that the sick 
man could oot continue his journey, but that he could sleep under any 
one of the trees about the premises, an emphatic negative was given. 

8 after the church bells had announced the culmination of the 

sun, pages earned a bountiful repast to the way-worn travelers. For 
the siek man was brought chicken broth and soups; also a plentiful 
supply of excellent wine for both. A desert of fruits, and a cup of tea 
for the invalid, concluded the repast. 

As the day began to wear away and the priest bad arisen from bis 
aftei dinner nap, a cup of chocolate and a small piece of sponge cake 
was taken to the sick man; neither he nor bis companion, having as 
vel manifested any intention of taking their departure, 

Ii was nut long after the sending of the chocolate, that the priest 
made his appearance in the portico of the building. Keeping himself 
at a safe distance from where the invalid was lying upon bis blankets, 
he talked ami gesticulated in so excited a manner, accompanied with 
such emphatic rigm that the weary travelers concluded that their 
safety would onlj be secured by a prompt departure. 

When about midway across the plain, a man, coming from the oppo- 

>,,,, direction, anted upon a reeking horse, steered out from the path 

and passing the travelers at a respectful distance, sped on bis way 
toward the mission. The two travelers immediately recognized the 
hoiseman as one who bad left the mission while they were prenarine 
to di part therefr b 

On their arrival at Cahuenga Ranch the travelers could not find a 
living sou] about the premises, but unmistakable signs of a recent utter 
precipitate abandonment by the occupants, were plainly to be 
seen. The fire in the kitchen (which was a shed or out-house) bad 
been but recently extinguished with water, notastick of lire-wood was 
to be seen about the place. It. short it was evident that everything 
: the house which might have encouraged the two travelers to 
remain there over night instead of continuing their march on to Los 
Lngi lea, and which could be suddenly removed, bad been carried awa 3 
out ..i light. I he conclusion was that the horseman had been hurried 
away from the mission with orders from the priest to the occupants of 

the ranch to abandon the house and leave nothing to induce them to 


Sfean afterward, this strange treatment of the travelers was explained 
by the priest who bad refused to entertain them. The summer pro- 

ceeding this event a most fearful epidemic bad -wept oil the Indian 
population of the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys. \ ague rumors 
of this pestilence had reached the priest's ears, and when he discovered 
that there were two strangers at bis mission, who bad come from that 
direction, and that one of them was but the shadow of a man and 
suffering from disease, he was seized with fear that this fatal malady 
might be introduced among the thousands of Indians belonging to the 
mission, and all bis powers were aroused to relieve the place from the 
presence of such unwelcome guests. w 

In after years, when the father priest and the once frightful Sick 
man bad become sufficiently acquainted with each other to spend even- 
ings over a social game of " conquien," the respective sensations of each 
at their first meeting, were matters of frequent comment, and mutual 




The Law of Change— The Zenith of Prosperity— Demands of Soldiers—Manu- 
mission of Indians — Action Rescinded — Governor Victoria — The Avila 
Insurrection — Meeting of Avila and Victoria — Death of Avila — Echeandia 
at San Juan — Pio Pico Governor — Governor Figueroa — The Pious Fund 
Order of Secularization— Hijar's Expedition — Capitalists minus Capi- 
tal — The Final Twig — Destruction of Cattle — Buildings, Orchards, and 
Vineyards Destroyed — Come to Prayers — Government Administradors — 
The Indian's Share— An Indian Debate. 

The law of change is inexorable. To individuals, to nations, 
to all mundane organizations, whether of a political, religious, 
or social character, conies a period of decline, following closely 
on the heels of their highest excellence. 

The mission establishments of Alta California proved no 
exception to this genera! rule. They had struggled up from 
small beginnings; they had become great, wealthy, and pow- 
erful; their Indian retainers were numbered by thousands, 
their flocks and herds by hundreds of thousands; they had 
reached the zenith unknowingly, and even while planning 
still higher flights, like Icarus — they fell! 

Scarcely had the Spanish yoke been cast off" and Mexican 
independence established, than discharged soldiers and others 
(many of whom had obtained admission now for the first 
time into the country) became clamorous for a division of the 
mission lands, and the conversion of these establishments into 
j'lwblus, as originally intended by the Spanish Government. 
Acceding to these demands, the Mexican Congress (in L824-2G) 
passed laws proclaiming the manumission of the Indians, and 
suspending the salaries of the priests. 

But it was soon discovered that this action on the part of 
Government had been premature. Released from all restraint, 
the Indians proved idle, shiftless, and dissipated, wholly incap- 
able of self-control, and a nuisance both to themselves and to 
every one with whom they came in contact. Of the three 
missions in Los Angeles county, only one, that of San Juan 
C'apistrano, became at this time a pueblo. One rear later the 

l;iw was rescinded, the Indiana wen- remanded to the custody 
and control of the fathers, all arrears of salary wen 
to the latter, and matters progressed as before. 

In January, 1S:>4% Manuel Victoria succeeded Jose* Maria de 
Echeandia as Governor of California. Victoria would appear 
to have been a man of considerable ability and tor he 

at once set to work resolutely to reform many then i 
abuses. His severity in the punishment of criminals, however, 
was unfortunately made a tool by his enemies to accomplish 
his overthrow. His acts were declared unconstitutional, and 
at last what is popularly known as "The Avila Insurrection" 
broke out at San Diego. We cannot do better than adopt Mr. 
Stephen C. Foster's account of this atfair : — 

During the latter part of the year 1831, considerable dissatisfaction 
was manifested on the part of the native Califhrnians against the 
policy of Don Manuel Victoria, then Governur of California, appointed 
by the Supreme Government of Mexico. This dissatisfaction finally 
culminated in a pronwnciamento :it Wan Diego, in November of that 
year. An outbreak was attempted, but was speedily suppressed by 
tin partisans of Victoria, and the ringdeader, Jose Maria Avila, was 
captured, put in irons, :md confined in tiie guard-house. Governor 
Victoria, with a small escort, had started down the country from 
Monterey, and arrived at the mission of Wan Fernando on the evening 
uf December 4, 1831. A party of San Dieguenoa arrived here that 
evening, and brought the Angelenos over to their side during the 
night. On the morning of December 5, the California party started 
out to meet Victoria. 

Avila was released from his confinement, and when the irons were 
stricken from his limbs, and he found himself once more a free man, 
upon his ^<iod horse, he grasped his lance with savageenergy and swore 
be would kill that Mexican Governor or die in the attempt, and well 
he kept his word. The two parties met about eight miles treat of the 
city, on the Santa Barbara road, this side of the Cahuenga Pass, and 
halted for a parley, when Avila, without uttering a word, put spurs to 
his horse, and alone rushed upon the Mexican partv, and aimed a 
furious thrust at Victoria. 

Captain Jtomauldo Pacheco (a Mexican officer of Victoria's escort i 
with his sword parried the thrust, yet Victoria was wounded severely 
in the side; and before Pacheco could recover his guard, Avila ran him 
through the body; then Avila in his turn, before be could extricate his 
lance, was shot down by Victoria, who had succeeded in drawing a 
pistol from bis holster. Almost at the same moment Avila and 
Pacheco both fell dying from their horses. 

A sudden panic struck both parties. Tin i bliforniaiis -alloped back 
to town, and the Mexicans, with equal precipitation, turned ofl by the 
Feliz Ranch, and proceeded to the Mission San Gabriel, carrying the 
wounded governor with them. 

The next day he dispatched Father Sanchez to Los Angeles, with 
the offer of his abdication, which was accepted, and be was sent back 
to San Bias in the ship Pocahontas. January 1~<. L833. When the 
California^ rallied from their panic later in the day, aud returned to 
the place, they found there the two men dead, lying as they bad 
fallen, Avila -lill grasping the lauce-staff with a death grip, while the 
point had been driven through Pacheco's body. 

The bodies were brought to town, were taken to the same house, the 
same hands rendered them the last sad rites, and they were laid si 
by side. Side by side knelt their widows, and mingled their tears. 
while sympathizing country women chanted tie. solemn prayers of the 
church for the repose of Lheeouls of these untimely dead, side by 

side, beneath the orange and the olive, iii the little "churchvard upon 
our Plaza, sleep the slayer and the slain. 

For some time after the expulsion of Victoria, Los 
Gity was the nominal seal of the territorial eovernment; at 
first for Echeandia, who was upheld by the Avila partv. and 





afterward for Pio Pico appointed ad mt im '■!■ cican 

authoritie: Echi andia dot* retired to San Juan ( 'api«1 ■ 

whi n bi gathered fcoj 

and is said by theii aid bo ■ 

ili" c whooppo ed hi admini tration Bui the northern por 

fci if the territory refused i :ogni» either Echeandiaoi 

Pico, resolutely upholding General Victor! 
ornor, and u baining in offie a bi repri ■ ntatn i < aptain 
Agustin V Zamorano, Nor wo thi breach ever fully healed 
until the ai i ival of I lorn ral Jo i E igm roa in 1833 

But ill mattered little bu the mission 
Governor of California, The fiat bad gone \'<" th and bhoii 
fate was ealed in anj ca e. Congress, with ii manj bvi 
was greedily watching, and with it tnanj mout lyly 

nibbling that " Piou Fund" which reverted to the Francis- 
cans when the ■)«■ nit ■ were c pelled from the lower territory 
Hitherto (his had produced an annual income of some 850 1)00 
which had gone to support the missions, The tomach of 
Congress tlio treasury was empty, and here was s choice 
tit bit. For a time it was played with, as a mouse is played 
with b} a I'.'ii A portion was appropriated; it was fanned 
oul for a series of years; it was restored; it was intrusted to 
the chief of the army Btatf"to be administered; bul ai 
htst Santo Ana swooped down upon it, and "in a jiffy" it 
was gobblod up body ami bone 

Bul no half measures wore intonded In August, 1S34, the 
following document was promulgated: — 


Ai" " ' i L. The political thief, according Lo the spirit of the law of 

August L7, L833, and in c pliunce with instruction received from 

the Supreme Uover out, jointly with the religious missionaries, will 

convert the miss ol this ten iiorj partially into villages be rii ■ 

in the Hpproaching month of August, L83d, vt ,,d the rwa 

thereafter successively. 

S. Religious missionaries shall be relieved fr the administration 

oJ temporalities, and shall only exercise the duties of theii i istrv 

ofai as they relute to spiritual matters, whilst the formal division of 
parishes is in progress, aud the Supreme Diocesan Government shall 
i > i . i \ ide parochial claj gy, 

::. The territorial Government Bhall resume the administration of 
ti mpural concerns, as directed, upon the following foundations. 

t. The approbation of this provisional regulation by the Supreme 
* lovernment shall be requesteu in the most prompt manner. 


Vli " i E ■"-. To each head of a family, and all who are more than 
twenty years old, although without families; will be given from the 
lands oi the mission, whether temporal (lands dependent on the 
season) or watered, a lot of ground not to contain more than four 
hundred yards In length and as many in breadth, nor less than one 
Sufficient land for watering the cattle will be [liven in 

common, rhe outlets or roads shall be marked out by each village 

and at the proper time the corporation lands shall be designated ' 

" ^mong the Baid individuals will be distributed, ratably and 

justly, according to the discretion ol the political chief, the half of 

property, tak - m the last inventory which the 

have presented of all descriptions of cattle. ' 

7. One-hall or less of the implements and seeds iii.iiMK.n~al.],- for 

agriculture shall be allotted to them. 

Ul tbe , ,u 'l irities, and 

all cUtMes, shall be under the 

ent whom the political chief maj name, subject to the di*i 
oi the Supreme hcderal Government. 

m the common - oi this property shall be provided the 

""' "I*"* worship, schools, and other 

matters ol cleanliness or ornament. 

1". rhe political chi< w „i, , be direcli , 

rmineand order beforehand ti 
. ms, all the charges to be distributed, as well toi irn tin-, 

■ <" Foi ration and of the 

' I y. 

. "\ L J* nWunary mioistei ct the place which auiu him 

I ol bis attendants and serve 
o be proi id< d a ith rurnitun s , | ntensile 

. '-■ The library, bol ,nd furnitui | urcli thall 

1 ' "ai -' "i the mis jstera, under the responsibili 

,Im ' '"■'■'• ii w Sciatea s 

. be paid area 

i '■- Lnventori. - shall be ma ■ 
with a propel separation and i iplanation ol ach tli ,.< the 

jes, aud dates ol all sorts of papers : of the i redils 
,iilU ' 1 ; "" 1 " luidated, with their respective remarks and explana- 
tions; ol which a return shall be made to tin Supn me Uovi rnment. 
POLl riCAi Q0\ El 

U. The political government of thi 
accordance with existing laws, rhe political chiei shall tak< i 
urea for Lhe election and es sblishmem of Boards of Magistrates 

L6. The iuicrnal police of tho villages shall bi u 
the Board oi Magistrates; but as to the administration ol juUici in 
matters ol dispute, these shall be undei the cognizance ol inferioi 
judges, established constitutional] y in the places nean si ai band 

M. Those who bave been emancipated shall I bliged to iota in 

such labors ol coi mity ae are indispensable, in the opinion ol 

political chi< f, in the cultivation of the vineyards, gardens and field* 
which for the presenl remain unapportioned, until ilie 
Government sliall determine. 


he may dei m 
any doubt or 

17. Emancipated persons shall render the ministei such servici i 
may be necessary foi bis pei son. 

kee ran no 

is. Ihey shall not sell, rtgage, noi di i I the lands granted to 

them, neither shall they sell their cattle. Contracts made in contra 
ventionoi these prohibitions shall be of no effect, and theGovernmenl 
shall seize the property us belonging t<< the nation, and the purch i 

shall forfeit their ej . 

L9. Lands, the proprietors of which die without heirs, sbal 
to the nation. 

G i WEB \ :.. j ; i . i . i i AI tOKS. 

20. The political chief shall name the commissioners 
oeci ssarj for carrj ing out this \\ stem and its incidents. 

'-•i. The political chief is authorized to deti 
matter involved in the execution of this regulation. 

22. Whilst this regulation is being carried into operation, the mis- 
sionaries are forbidden t.. kill cattle in any large number, 
so far as is usually required for the subsistence of the neophj 
verted Indinnsj without waste. 

23 rhe unliquidated debts of the missions shall be paid, in prefer- 
ence, hum the common fund, at the places and upon the terms which 
the political chief may determine. 


That the fulfillment of this law may be perfect, the following rules 
will be observed: — 

1st. The commissioners, so soon as they shall receive their appoint- 
ment and order-, shall present themselves at the respective mi 
and commence the execution <>f the plan, being governed in all things 
by its tenor and these regulations. They shall present their creden- 
• lectively to the priest under whose care the mission is, with 
whom they shall agree, preserving har ny and proper respect. 

epnestsball immediately hand over, and the comu 
re, the books of accounts and other documents relating to prop 
■ ■ and unliquid ,,„(!. 

nes snail be made out, in accordance with the 13th nrtii 
regulation, of all propert) such ns houses, churches, workshops, 

^nw local things ■ , h 9hopi ,,, , 

utcnsila, furniture ami implements; ilu-n. whal belo borne 

1 1. shall follow those ol tbe Bold, thai i- to saj i 
■rt> that grows, such as vines and vegetables, with on onumoi i 
lIle81 mills, etc; slter t f, . t the cattle and whs ■ . 

appertains lo them; bul aa it will be difficult to counl them, as well 
1 ,,,UhI "' ll " ■ i i the want of bonei thi i h ill bo 

osol intelligence and probity, v i ,u u 

'■• the numbei of oach species in be Inserted 
in the inventory. I n rylhii I a I t» In n ulai form in innkinc the 

inventory, which shall be kepi i the knowledge ol the i»ri< I md 

under the charge ol the commfamfonei m st< wurd, bul there itlmll bu no 
' ' '" lllt- wdei ol tin- work and servlcos, until i tperienoe shall 

snow that it is necessary, except in such matters as are o< U 

■ ed w bene*, or it suits, 

"■' ' ■ '■ with the steward, shall di i with nil 

i i rigid ,,, ,,n thin thai 

require reform. 

1,il ' li * fori hi tal i - an inventory of articles belonging to the field 

l1 "' ' IIM " r "HI Inform the natives, i plalnln to them with 

milauees and patience, that the missions 

are tn be * li 


ilu \ l\ 

onlj '"' undi i the govs ii ol ol the prh ts, bo fai 

"■ |l ' 1 '- to pintual matt rs; that tho lands and property fbi ivhii li 

, ' : "' 1 ' '""■ 'abors arc to belong to bimsi If, aod to be mnlnli id and 

controlled by himself, without depending on nm I,, that the 

11 whu i. the) live are to be theii own, foi which thi j an to 

submit to what is ordered in ii e stloiu, which are to be 

e cplained to then, in tho be I i be lol i will be 

- lw " 11 l " !l " '" immi diati lv, to be worked by them as the 5th i h 

■ I""- Icles. 1 1 in uoni ,. tho prlosts, and the 

1 ~ li:l11 ■ ■' si ' the locatl selecting tho best and i fou 

ien( to the population, and shall give t.. earl, the quantitj ol ro I 

w 1 ii fi lie can cultivate, according to bi utni i itmj the d/.i ul h 

family, without e ceeding tl ixwnum established. Each om ball 

mark his land in such manner as maj be most agreeable to blm, 
■ ,;n I he claims thai are liquidated thall bi paid from thi a ■ 

properly, but neither the c issioner, nor the i toward, shall etth 

them without the express order of the Government, which will inform 

itaeli on the matter, and according to Its judgment dotei tin 

uumbei ofcattli to be a igm d to the iphytes, thai ll maj bi d 

eretofore, in conformity with what ii provided In the Oih an 

Oth. the aeci i Sects and implements for labor ihall i i 

in the quantities -■ pn wed >>■• thi !"th artii U . elthei Individual] . oi 
in common, as the commissioners and priests maj agree upon, The 
will remain undivided, and mail be given to thi neophyti In 
the usual quantities. 

7th. What is called the "priesthood" shall Immediate! j ceasi 

female children they have m charge being handed ove In Ei 

fathers, explaining to them the care thev ihould take ol them, and 
pointing onl their obligation as parents, i be ame hall be dom ivith 

the male children. 

8th. The e mil loner, rding to the knowledge and information 

which he shall acquire, shall name to thi Government .1 is po I 

blc, oneor several individuals, who may appear to him suitable and 
honorable, as stewards, according to the provisions of the Bth artii 

either from ai . erve in the ml 01 -UirM. He 

shall also fix the pay which should bi B I n ed to them, OCCOrdl'll 
r of each mission. 
The settlements which are at a distance from the mission, and 
t of more than twenty-rive families, and which would de in to 
form a separate community, Bhall be gratified, and appropriation ol 
the funds and other property shall he made to them as to the n 
The settlements which do not contain twenty-five families, provl 
they be permanently settled where they now live, shall form llbui b 
and shall be attached to the nearest village. 

10th. The commissioner shall *tate the Dumber of souls which each 
village contains, in order to designate tbe Dumber of municipal offii 



and cause the elections to be held, in which they will proceed con- 
forxnably, us far as possible, lo the law of June 12, 1830. 

Hth. The commissioner shall adopt all executive measure* wLieh 
the condition of things demands, giving an acconnt to the i lovernment, 
ami shall consult! the same upon all grave and doubtful matters. 

l-'th. In everything thai remains, the commissioners, the priests, 
itewards, and natives, will proceed according to the provisions of the 

Secretary. \ 
Monterey, Aug. 9, 1834. 

Still the missionaries had hope. The order might be 
revoked, as had former ones. A revolution might take place. 
A thousand things might happen to avert the threatened 

ral;o.l inpli.v Kill f .} m ■ w.ii'-J was \vt. h, ciiiiic 

During the year 1834, one -Tosr ATaria Hijar was dispatched 
Prom Mexico with a colonization party, bound for Upper Cal- 
ifornia. These colonists win- of both sexes, ami each person 
was promised a gratuity of fifty cents per day, and rations> 
while upon tin: voyage, in addition to a free passage. Hijar 
also bore instructions from the government of President Farias 
to General Ki-nrma, to surrender the governorship to him 
(Hijar) on arrival. 

The ship touched at San Diego, and here a portion of the 
party disembarked. The remainder proceeded to Monterey, 
and, a storm arising, their ship was wrecked upon the beach. 
Hijar now presented his credentials, and was astonished to find 
that a messenger overland from Mexico hail already arrived, 
bringing news of Santa Ann's revolution, together with dis- 
patches from the new president revoking his (Hijar V) appoint- 
ment.; and continuing Figueroa in office. 

In the hitter discussion that followed, it came out that Hijar 
had been authorized to pay lor his ship the Natalia* in mission 
tallow; (hit the colonists were organized into a company 
duly authorized to take charge of the missions, squeeze out of 
them the requisite capital, and control the business of the 
territory, The plan had miscarried by a chance, but it 
showed the missionaries what they had to expect. This was 
the anal twig which fractured tin- spine of the dromedary ! 

With the energy horn of despair eager at any cost to out- 
wit those who sought to profit by their ruin, the mission 
lathers hastened to destroy that, which through more than 
half a century, thousands of human beings had spent their 

Lives to accumulate. A , 1, , u writer has said, that " Icr no 

ranee in one moment, may destroy that for which Wisdom 
has spent a life-time." Surely the same may be said of 
avarice ol despair; of hatred; of revenge. 

"i'herto. cattle had been killed only a, their meat was 
»";■•'•"> »'»'■ '- <"•. a* l-.g intervals perhaps, for the hides and 
t allow alon e, when an overplus of stock rendered such action 

'^^^^^^ Napoleon e^ed from ^ 

necessary. Now they were slaughtered in herds, by contract 
on equal shares, with any who would undertake the task. It 
is claimed by some writers that not less than 100,000 head of 
cattle were thus slain from the herds of San Gabriel Mission 
alone. The same work of destruction was in progress at everj 
other mission throughout the territory, and this vast country 
from end to end was become a mighty shambles, drenched in 
blood, and reeking with the odor of decaying carcasses. There 
was no market for the meat, and this was considered worthless 
The creature was lassoed, thrown, its throat cut; and while 
yet writhing in the death agony its hide was stripped and 
pegged upon the ground to dry. There were no vessels to con- 
tain the tallow, ami this was run into great pits dug for that 
purpose, to be spaded out anon, and shipped with the hides to 
market. All was haste, the maxim being " Save a portion of 
the wreck if possible, bat at an/y rate destroy I" 

Whites and natives alike revelled in gore, and vied with 
each other in destruction. So many cattle were there to kill, 
it seemed as though this profitable and pleasant work must 
last forever. The white settlers were especially pleased with 
the turn affairs had taken, and many of them did not scruple 
unceremoniously to appropriate large herds of young cattle, 
wherewith to stock their ranches. 

Such were the scenes being enacted on the plains. At the 
missions a similar work was going on. The outer buildings 
were unroofed, and the timber converted into firewood. Olive 
groves and orchards were cut down; shrubberies and vine- 
yards torn up* Where the axe and vandal hands failed, fire 
was applied to complete the work of destruction. Then the 
solitary bell left hanging on each solitary and dismantled 
church, called their assistants to a last session of praise and 
prayer, and the worthy padres rested from their labors. 

When the government administradors came, there was but 
little left; and when they went away, there was nothing. 
This was the neophytes' share, and taking it, they retired to 
their huts of tule as did their ancestors of yore. Here they 
called a council, and discussed this problem:— 

"In the light of sixty-five years' experience, if we must be 
civilized, then which form of civilization is the best; Spiritual 
rulers, slavery, and the lath— with food; or civil governnn nt, 
freedom,oMd thieving acknvnistradors—with starvation !" 

The discussion was conducted with great spirit on both sides 
until the meeting adjourned to allow the members to hunt 
acorns for dinner. It never re-convened, and the question 
remains to this day undecided. 

*Be it ever remembered to the credit of the Indians of San Gabriel that 
hen ordered by the priests to dig up the vineyard, they ,vfn 4 lt 1,1 k 
hey cut down the orchards hnm^w 'n,. .-;„ y Iuu f L " P 



They cut down the orchards however The % 
H^o b ^S r M ,WhO " Bedtl,emfor<ireWO01 

Q«l \vere nearly all destroyed 


The Indians — Their Condition — Dana > r -fnnnonKtr- 

Intoxication— The Mexicans- I ►rcas — Mam 
Lovoof Finery — Silver — i iommerce —Revolutions— Murdi 
— Refusal of Authorities to hat American I 

Judge Lynch— Murder of a Mexican — Abridging the Course of Justice- 
Fracas between Indiana— A Different -Vicions ' hars 
cans Socially— Mr. Dana Criticized— Conflicting : 
hy J. J.Warner and B. D, Wilson. 

In anticipation of events to be hereafter narrated, it will h 
well, in passing, to glance briefly at the condition of society ii 
those early times, and to note the various elements of whicl 
that society was composed. 

In the preceding pages we have treated quite fully of thi 
aborigines, both in their wild state, and after their subj 
to the missions. The decline of these establishments work* 
but little change in their condition, for though nominally free 
they were still practically serfs, at first under administration 
appointed by the Government to take charge of the mis 
and later to any one who would provide them with food, and 
receive their labor in payment. In his "Two Years Befon 
the Mast" (1S35-6) Richard H. Dana says:— 

Of the poor Indiana very little tare is taken. The priests, indeed, 
at the missions, are said to keep them very strictly, and some rules arc 
usually made by the Alcaldes to punish their misconduct: vet it all 
amounts to but little. Indeed, to show the entire want of anj • 
morality or domestic duty among them, I Lave frequently known an 
Indian to bring hia wife, to whom he was lawfully married in the 
church, down to the beach and carry her bark again; dividing with her 
the money which she had got from the sailors. If any ol the girls were 
discovered by the Alcalde to be open evil livers, they were whipped, 
and kept at work sweepiug the square of the presidio, and carrying mud 
and bricks for the buildings; yet a leu reals would generally buy them 
off. Intemperance, too, is a common vice among the Indians. The 
Mexicans, on the contrary, are abstemious, and I do not remember e\er 
having seen a Mexican intoxicated. 

Further on, describing the Mexicans, he says: 

The officers were dressed in the costume which we found prevailed 
through the country,— broad-brimmed hat, usually of a black or dark 
brown color, with a gilt or figured band round the crown, and lined 
under the rim with silk; a short jacket ol 31 Ik oi igui i calico the 
European skirted body coat is never worn); the shirt open in th 
ncn waist-coat, if any; pantaloona open at the sides below the knee. 

aced With gilt, usually of velveteen or broad- loth: i 
breeches and white stockings. They wear the deer-skin shoe, which is 
ol a , lark brown color, and (being made by Indians usual h a ^>od 
deal ornamented. They have do . but alwavs wea 

round the waist, which is generalh red, and < ■ 
the means of the wearer, idd to this the aever fai i i or the 

serapa, and you have the dress of the CaUfiirnian. This last garment 

IS always a mark Ol the rank and wealth of the owner. 

razon, or better sort -i people, wear cloaks of black or dark 

cloth, with as much velvet and trimmings as DM} be; and fro 

they go down lo the blanket oi the In, ban. tlu 

a poncho, something like a large square cloth, with a hole in the 

for the head o go through Tins j 

being beautifully woven with various colors, is quite ihowi al 

tanee. Imong the Mexicans the,, is no 

being practically serfs and doing all the hard wo1k ; every rich nnm 

Pacific Hotel, 

Passenger Eating Station, adjoining the Depo 
LOS Angeles, Cal. 

fi/sUSMto ay -• nor' +Boiv A mssi-'. 




i,„,k- hi e a grandee, and evei ■ pool ■■ amp il e a brol ■ n I 

tin i, I bavi often een a man with a fine figure and 

nni i i 'I" i d in broadi loth I velvet, with a noble I 

pletely covered with trappings, without a real in bfi pockets, and 
;i i, olutelj uflei '"■■ foi something to oat, 

The women wore to iture, Bilks, era] 

made afti i the I luropean rle, exec] 

leaving the i bare and thai h< en looai about the ■■■. . 

uoi el i". i i" in I ■■ I In ■ wore hoi 

belts of bright coloi . I aim ox I alwa 

Bonnet* tbcj bad none. I only Ran i on the 

longed i" the wife of an Vmerican soa-i a who Q — "> 

h , ,,, md had imported i be chaotic me and i ibl a« a 

c] :e present to 1 tw wife. They wear their haii (which is almost 

,,, . ;n [ably black 01 a rei ■ dark brown] I""" in tbi lr 
loose, and ometimi - In long braids; though the married women often 
do 1 1 <i|> on a high comb. Their onl> protection against the sun and 
weathei is n large mantle which the] put ovei theii beads, drawing 

it el »und theii faces when they a it-oi doors, which i- generally 

onlj in ploosanl weather. When in tne bouse, oi ittin it in front of 

it, which they often 'I" In line weathi r, tbej u uallj wear a small Bcarf 
or neckerchief of a rich patti rn \ band, also, about the top of the hi ad 
W iili .1 mi i, star, or other orni in1 In front, i- <- ion. Theii com- 
plexions arc variouH, depending, as well as theii dre and mannei , 
upoi] the amount of Spanish blood tbej can laj claim to, which also 

nettles Hun social rank, Those who are of pure Spanish bl I, ha 

never In tor-marrlcd with the aborigines, have cleai brunette com 

pi ex ions, si itiine even a rnii a those of I ngliab women. 'I here 

an- lint few of these families in California, boini itly thc*e in offi- 
cial stations, or, who, on the expirati tfthch terms oi office, have 

settled hero upon property thej acquired; and others who have been 
banished for State offenses- These form tbe upper class, inter-marry- 
ing, and keeping up nn exclusivoi j tte iverj re pect, I bej can &■ 

distinguished, not only bj their complexion, dress, and manners, but also 
\ iy theii peoch; for, ualling themselveaCastilinus, thej an verj ambi 
tiousof speaking the pure Catlilian, while all Spanish la spoken in a 
somewhat corrupted dialed bj the lowei classes. From this uppei 

, i i i the; go down by regulai hniles, growin i i and more dark and 

muddy, until you rum,* to the pure Indian, who runs about with noth- 
ing n| him bul a small piece of i loth, ki pt up !■> n wide leather 

Btrap draw n round his wa t. ' li Derail) sneaking, each person's caste 

ia decided b\ the qualit} of the hi I, which showa itself too plainly 

to be concealed, al Hi il glance 1 1 I the leasl drop ol Spani b bl I, 

ii ii ijo onrj of Quad ii "i Oetoi i, la sufficient to raiao one from 

the position of a serf, and entitle bim to wear ;i Buit of clothes, boots, 
hat, cloak, spurs, long knife, all complete, thou Ii coarse and dirty as 
inaj be, and to call himself Eapaiwi, and to bold property, if be can 
get any. 

The i luess foi dre ■ a n ■ the n en is excessive, and is some- 

t ia their ruin, A present of a fine mantle, or fl oeTcklace, or pair ol 

ear rings, gains the favor of the greater part. Nothing is i « com- 
mon than i" see a woman living in n bou i ol onlj two rooms, with the 
ground for n Door, dros«d in Bpnngled satin tnoes, - Ik gown, high 
comb, and gilt, if not gold, ear ring* and necklace. If their husbands 
do not dress them well enough they "ill soon receive presents from 
others. They used to spend whole day* on board oui vessel, examin- 
ing tbe fine clothes ami ornaments, and frequently making pun 
at a rate which would have made a seamstress or waiting-maid in 

Bos i" ii ber <■> es. 

V'\t to the love of drees, I waa al Btruck with the fineness ol the 

voices, and beauty of tbe intonations of both sexes. Everj common 
mill. i how, with a slouched hat, blanket cloak, dirty under- 

dress, and Boiled leather leggins, appeared i" me to be Bpei 
elegant Spanish. It was a pleasure simply to listen to the Bound of 
the language, before I could attach any meaning in it. They have a 
good deal or the < Ireole drawl, but it is varied by an occasional extreme 
rapidity of utterance, in which they Beam to skip from c 
consonant, until lighting upon a broad open vowel, they rest upon that 
tn restore the balance of sound. Che women carry tin? peculiarity of 
speaking to a much greater extreme than the men, who have more 
evenness and Btatelineea of utterance. A common bullock-drivi 

i.ick, delivering a message, seemed lo speak like an ambass 
at a royal audience. In fact, 

rhom a curse ha<l fallen, and stripped them of ererytl 
tut their pride, their manners, and ll 

Another thing r d me waa the quantity ■ I diver in circu- 

lation. 1 never, in mj iring 

the week that we were at Monterey. The truth is, th< redil 

. nu banks, and no waj of investing munej hut in cattle. 
. ■ t. they have oo circulating medium bul bides, which the 
sailors call "California bank notes I rery thing that they buy they 
must pay for bj one or the other of the The hides they 

■ clown dried and doubled, in clumsy ox-carts, or upon mules* fa - 
and tin- money they carry tied up in a handkerchief, hfty "r a hundred 
dollars and halJ dollars.*' 


I he < ':il i (-ii n i. ni- arc an idle, thriftless people, and can make noth- 
br themselves. The country abounds in ■■ tbej buy, at 
eat price, bad wine madi in Boston and brought round bj us, 
retail il ami m ; liemsi ; ■■ ■ it s tl 12> cen imall wine- 
glass. Their hides, too, which they value at two dollars in ley, 

they barter for something which costs ■•> ■ ■ I oston ; 

and buy shoes (as like as not made of their own hides, which have 
ii. M i Bxried twice round Capi Born) at three and foui dollars, and 

1,-n skin l ts 1 -<t fifteen dollars a pair. Things Bell, on an 

, : ,-, ;,t :in advance ol nearly three hundred percent upon the 
Un ton prices, Thia is partly owing to the beavy duties which the 
Qnvernment, in their wisdom, with an idea, no doubt, of keeping the 
silver in the country, has laid upon imports. These duties, and the 
enormous expenses of so lone . : chants bul those 

n engaging in the trade." 

*** * * * ***** 

Rovolul - are matters of frequent occurrenci in* alifornia i b< ■• 

are got up by men who are at the foot "' the ladder and in des- 
perate circumstances, just as a new political organization may be 
Btartedby such men in our own country- The only object, of course, is 
the loaves and fishes; and instead of wunuring, paragraphing, libel- 
ing, fee 'in . promising and lying, they take muskets and bayonets, 
and seizing upon the presidio and custom'house, divide the 
declare a new dynasty. As for justice, they know little law 
hut will ami fear. A Yankee, who had been naturalized and bed 
a Catholic, and had married in the country, was sitting in bis hou 
the Pueblo de los Angeles with bis wife and children, when e Mexican, 
with whom he had bad a difficulty. entered the house and Btabbed him 
t.i the heart before them all. 'The murderer was seized by some 
Yankees who had settled there, and was kepi in confinement until a 

■ me nt of the whole affair could be si -m to the Governoi General. 
The Governor-General refused to 'I" anything about it. ami the 
countrymen of the murdered man, seeing no prospect bl justice being 
administered, gave notice that if Dothing was done thej would trj 
the man themselves. It chanced that, at this time, there waa a com- 
pany ol some thirty or forty trappera and hunters from the Western 

States, with their rifles, who bad made their headquarters at the 

pueblo; and these, together with the Americans and English who 

were in the place, (who were between twentj and thirty in number), 
took possession of the town, end, waiting a reasonable time, procei di d 
to try the man according to the forms in their own country. A 
and jury were appointed, ami be was tried, c mvicted, senti ai ed to be 
shot, and carried out before the town blindfolded. The nam-., of all 
the men were then put into a hat. and each one pledging himself to 

im his duty, twelve names were drawn out, the imu look their 

stations with their rifles, and. firing at the word, laid him dt^<\. He 
was decently buried, and the place was restored to the proper author- 
\ general, with titles enough for a hidalgo, was at Ban Gabriel, 
and issu d a proclamation as long as the fore-top-bowline, threatening 
destruction of the rebels, but never stirred from his fort; for forty 
Kentucky hunters with their rifles, and a dozen of Yankees and 
lisbmen, were a match for a whole regiment of hungry, drawling, 
la y half-breeds. This affair happened while we were at Ban Pedro, 
the port of the pueblo.'and we had the particulars from those who 
were on the spot." 

Mr. Dana then refer- to another crime, committed in Los 

■ iv some months later, bul as lii- version of the 

matter is rather obscure, and withal erroneous, wo will relate 

Id to the v\ riter by l 'ol •' ■' W ai uer of Lo li 

an eye-witness of the last acl in the tragedy, and 

. familiar with all the fan- 

[n the fall of 1 S35 occurred a murder whicb Btartled the order 

loving citizens of the imu Mo, and created widespiiMul eor 

ti->n A Mexican woman, residing at oi near the mi ion of San 

Gabriel, proved untrue to her husband, and the matter came 

before a < al tribunal in Los A ngeh Ebi roviow, The 

verdict was that she should return to hov husband, aud in cob 

thereto she and her husband Btarted From the city for 

their home both riding upon one hoi -■■ Nol long ofterv 

murdei'cd bodj of the husband was found on tho road leading 

from Los Angeles to the mission, Suspicion al once fell upon 

the woman who was missing) and her paramour. Thej were 

discovered, living b gether, were i ried before the alcaldi . wi ri 

tUtj and i ntenced to death. Ai this I i i he death 

penalty could nol be enforced in Californifl withoul review 

and approbation of the courts of Mexico. This would take 

from a yei b year and a half, for "the law' delays" were 

numerous There was no jail in Loa ingeles, and no place lit 

to confine prisonei's of this class. There was n widi | I 

Belief among both native and foreign re idenl thai If flu-law 

was allowed to take its course the culprits would ultimately 

go "scot free." Under this impression a tribunal of citizens 

native and foreign t, pa ed U] the case, lentenced tho 

|n i oners to in idiate execution, and withoul opposition fr 

the authorities took the man and woman out of the place 

-a here thej were confined, and shot them both. 

When a crime was committed by Indian . the Cfl i 

different. In illustration of this inconi i ti ncy in the od minis 

i ral ion of ju tice in I California at this time, Mr. I 'ana, q 

< Ine Sunday afternoon, while l was at Ban Dioao, an l nil i an was sit- 
ting mi hi- horse, when another, with whom he baa had (ome difficulty, 

[. to him, drew a long knit--, ami plunged it directly Into the 
horse'a heart. The Indian prang from hfa falling horse, drew out the 
I j, ii, ■, inn! plunged it into the other [ndian'i breast over his shoulder, 
;i N il laid him dead. The fellow waa seized at oner, clapped into the 

o, and kept there until an aniwei could be received from Mon- 
terey. A few weeks afterwards, I saw the pooi wretch Bitting on tbi 
mnd in front of tbi < -alabozo, with nil feet chained to 

nd-cufffl about bis wriets. I knew there was very little hope foi 

bim. Although the deed wae done in hoi blood, the hoi which 

he waa sitting being hie own. and a favorite with bim, yet hi 
Indian, and that was enough. In about a wees aftei I saw him, I 
heard that he had been shot. Thwe few Instances will serve to give 
one a notion of the distribution of justice in < 'alifornia. 

Speaking of the habits of the people, h< ays fin ther: — 

In their domestic relatione thene people are not better than in their 
public. The men are thriftless, proud, extravagant, and very much 
given to gaming; and the women, having but little education, and a 

eal of beauty, their morality, of course, is none of the bi 
the instances of infidelity are much lest frequent than one would at first 
suppose. In fact, one vice ia Bet over against another, and thus tome- 
thing like a balance is obtained. If the women have but little virtue, 



the jealousy of their buabanda is extreme, their revenge deadly and 
almost certain. A few inches of cold steel has been the punishment 
of many an anwary man, who has been guilty perhaps of nothing more 
than Indiscretion. The difficulties of the attempt are numerous, and 
the consequences of dincovery fatal, in the better classes. With the 
unmarried women, also, great watchfulness is used. The main object 
of the parents is to marry their daughters well, and to this a fair name 
is necessary. The sharp eyes of a due^fa, and the ready weapons of a 
father or brother, are a protection which the characters of mosl oi 
them men and women— render by no menus useless; for the very 
Mini who would lay down their lives to avenge the dishonor of their 
0WU family, would risk the same lives to complete the dishonor of 

ffarsn as it may appear, Mr. Dana's portrayal of Calif orni an 
society in thai early day has in it doubtless more than a mod- 
icum of truth Yd, as we proceed, we shall find much to 
admire in this people, and meet with many instances of a 
whole-souled and chivalrous generosity among them, highly 
creditable to any nation. The Americans who settled in Cali- 
fornia during Mexican supremacy, and who identified them- 
selves with the interests of the country at that period, have 
placed on record a much kinder criticism of the native popula- 
tion than did Mr. Dana. Nor is this conHiet oi statement to 
be wondered at, when we consider that as a common sailor of 
a trading ship, and but a boy in years, he had access only to 
the ruder classes; while these others, being established in the 
Country, mixed with all classeSj and thus were enabled to form 
a fairer estimate as to the whole. Tims < iolonel J. J. Warner 
bears witness that on his arrival in 1831, the native popula- 
tion was, as a ride, honest, reliable, and generous to a fault, 
(■rime was at a minimum, those of the graver class being of 
exceeding^ rare occurrence. Thus Mr. Benjamin D. Wilson, 
ten years later, was induced to settle permanently in the 
country, by the kindness and hospitality of the natives, and 
has left upon record that at thai time "courts, lawyers, and 
judges were unknown, nor was there any need of them. The 
people were honest and hospitable; their word as good as their 
bond; in fact* bonds and notes of hand were entirely unknown 
to the native population." 




Policj oi Mexico toward Foreigners— Importance of San Pedro— First Settlers 
—Jedediah S. Smith— Trade with Sonora— Condition of Los Angeles 
County in 1831— Census of 1836— Eastern Emigration Societies— Biographic 
Sketches of Early Settlers— MeKinly— John Temple — Ric« — Leandry— 
Ferguson — Laughlin — Pryor — Stearns — Bouchet —White— Domingo- 
Portuguese George— Rocha— Prentice— Warner — Young— Wolfskill— 
Vignes— Bowman— Rhea—Day — Ward— Rice— Pawlding— Williams— 
Carson— Carpenter— Chard— Leeae—JohnBon—H. Reid— Keith— Prud- 
homme — H. Melius— Graham— Hall— Marsh — J. Reed — F. Melius — 
Rowland — Wilson — Workman — F. P. F Temple— Alexander — Bell — 
Den — Dalton— Maacarel. 

We have already referred to the fact, that under Spanish 
rule, all foreigners were excluded from California ; and under 
the title of "The Gringos," have noticed the advent of the first 
English-speaking settlers. After assertion of her independence, 
Mexico, though still jealous of outsiders, adopted a somewhat 
more liberal course toward them. Subject to certain restric 
tions and heavy duties, foreign ships were now permitted to 
trade; and soon the merchants of Boston, and other eastern 
ports, took advantage of that permission — however niggardly 
the manner in which it might be accorded. They brought 
foreign and domestic goods in exchange for hides and tallow ; 
and speedily the little port of San Pedro, unknown till now, 
became the most important point on the whole Pacific coast; 
for was it not the ocean inlet and outlet to three great mis- 
sions, the largest town on this side of the continent, and 
several stock ranches, each larger than the kingdom of many 
a petty European prince. 

As yet there were no foreign settlers, save a few Russians in 
the North. They who came, came only to trade ; ami like 
Dana, hurried back home, cursing the country as barren and 
the inhabitants as barbarous. But gradually these changed 
their opinions, and some came back for a second visit. The 
climate was delightful— all admitted that ; the soil was fruit- 
ful, where water could be procured; upon the whole it was not 
such a bad country alter all, and some stayed. Gradually this 
class of thinkers increased. Sailors, weary of roaming, forsook 
their ships, selected a piece of ground, married a senorita, and 
settled down. They came by land, and they came by water. 
They came of all classes, of all complexions, of all tongues. 
They came — good, bad, and indifferent. They came as come 
the locusts, in a fast-increasing swarm ; and before the sleepy 
natives were half awake to the danger, these restless "gringos" 
had devoured their patrimony. 

Yet not without a struggle did the natives succumb. The 
first American who entered California overland was Jedediah S. 
Smith, of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company. He came from 

the Yellowstone in 1825, — scoring triumph for the 

great " Smith" family ! How he was treated on that fii 
does not appear ; but in the following year, when he 

the mission of San Gabriel in compan} with 

survivors of a large party slain by the Indians on the Rio 

Colorado, destitute, without food or horses, they were all 

promptly seized and hurried off to the presidio of Sat, I 

as spies, caught in the aet. That branch of the Smith family 

might then and there have come to an untimely end, I 

all the American captains on the coast, mad.- common came 

for him, and vouched emphatically for his integrity; this, not 

from any knowledge they had of him personally, but I 

each one was acquainted with some one or m of the 

family tree, of which this Smith was an off-sh 

Strange to sav, there had been no intercourse between 
Sonora and California, up to 1831. Thus Colonel Warner 
writes : — 

With Mr. Wolfrkill's party there were a number of New Mexican*, 
some of whom had taken aerapea and fresaeUu (woolen blankets 
them for the purpose of trading them to the Indians in exchange for 
beaver skins. On their arrival in California they advantageously dis- 
posed of their blankets to the rancheroa in exchange for mules. 
New Mexicans mostly returned to Santa Fe in the summer of 1-^1, 
with the mules they had obtained in California. The appearance of 
these mules in New Mexico, owing to their large size, compared witU 
those at that time used in the Missouri and Santa Fe trade, and their 
very tine form, as well as the price at which they had been bought iu 
barter for blankets, caused quite a sensation in New Mexico, out of 
whicli sprang up a trade, carried on by means of caravans or pack 
animals between the two sections of the same country, which nourished 
for some ten or twelve years. These caravans reacned t 'alifornia yearly 
during the before-mentioned time. They brought the woolen fabrics 
of New Mexico, and carried back mules; also silk, and other Chinese 

Los Angeles was the central point in California of this New M 
trade. Coming by the northern or Green and Virgin river com 
caravans came through the Cajon Pass and reached Los A . 
From thence they scattered themselves over the country fro 
Diego to San Jose, and across tht- Bay to Sonoma and Esau llalael. 
Having bartered and disposed of the goods brought, and procured such 
a 1 * they wished to carry back, and what mules they could drive, they 
concentrated at Los Angeles for their yearly return. 

At this time Los Angeles was the only settlement of any 
importance in the county, and by far the largest in the ter- 
ritory. Old Los Nietos had three or four families. OKI Santa 
Ana about as many. Verdugo's San Rafael the same 
from these settlements, and the three missions, Los Angeles 
county was wholly unoccupied, save by vast bands of untamed 
cattle and horses, which roamed at will, and were preyed upon 
by grizzly bears from the mountains, and wild Indians from 
the desert. 

Among the many interesting documents on file in the Los 
Angeles City archives, is the report of a census taken in : s 
embracing the territory now within the limits oi Los Vng 
eles county It is very similar in plan to such reports at the 
present day, and states the population as follows 



manufacturer or CARRIAGES and BU GGIES, WAG DNS , Etc., 
Nos. 145 & 147 Main Street, Los Angeles Cal. 

t-fiat'S *tD ar TMOMP3QM & ifiteST. 





A. hilt white raali 60S 

" females ii I 

" " children <;.">! 

I p i ■ 1 1 : 1 1 r mali and fi man tlonrn , .... 513 

Indians, wild, not stated. 
The following in a list of the for< appearing 

therein i 











John Temple 
John .1. warnei 
John Rico 
Samuel Prentl a 
Eld hard Laughlfn 
William Woffckill 


John Manual! 
William 1 >[clteni) 

Alexander Dunn 

ii it 

1 H&aO 1 •r.'ilumi 

TitomflA Bldeler 

it ii 

ii ii 

Churlei Hall 

>i ii 

Abel Stearns 
N. M. Pryor 

■i <i 

William Keith 


Daniel Rice 

it ■> 

JtiROph Fergutmn 
Mosph ( IttPHon 
Hiiirh Rold 
William Daj 
t lilbert Bowman 

ii •• 

■ > ■■ 
ii ii 

Thomas ICaton 

ii ii 

Jnmea Johnson 
\\ illiam Stephens 


John Pitzpati iclt 


1 t.uiii'l Ferguson 
Michael White 


I, miis Bouchetle 

Victor Prudhomme 


Jolin Domingo 

< fermauy ... 

Norway _ 

Africa _ 


John 1 lavia 

John Wilson 


In 1837 several societies were organized in the American 
States to promote emigration to the Pacific coast During 
thai and ensuing years, thousands of emigrants journeyed 
across the rocky and snowy mountains, enduring toils and 
hardships indescribable, to settle in California and Oregon 
Others came 03 wa\ of Mexico or Cape Horn, ami soon the 
valleysoi the northern rivers were peopled by American agri 
eulturiste; and the southern and coast towns by An 
traders, who speedilj monopolized the whole business of the 
country, and even in some communities formed the numerical 
strength of the white population, Against Buch influx the 

Mexican Government, like a chained lion, fulminal 
proclamation-, but was wholly powei roe them. 

For tin- following garding the American and 

pioneers of Loe Angeles county prior -to Uu An 
(ion, we are largelj indebted to the good memory and kind 
offices ol Hon J. J. Warner, bo often quoted We havi 

ilted all others of that period, now living in the county, 
Uy or by letter, and many of the relations of 
While we do not pretend to mention all who 
undt i M it an rule, for that were impossible at this 
day, we feel assured thai the information we have col- 
lected and here present, is in the main i 
clas ed thi e pei sons as m bj |j a ma j be in thi order of their 
arrival in the county. 


Santiago McKinly, a native of Scotland, arrived in Los 
Angeles during the year 1824. Il<- was at thai time twenty- 
one years of age. He became a merchant and his ni ■ 

appears on a list of foreigners resident in Los Angeles in 1836, 
now on file in the city archives. He afterward went to 
Monterey, and was reported dead ■ years ago 

John Temple, who may justly rank as the pioi r merchanl 

of Los Angeles, was a uativeof Reading, Mass., and for several 
years prioi to his advent on this coast resided at the Sandwich 
Islands. li«- came to Los Angeles about the year 1 827, and 
forming a partnership with George Rice, opened the first store 
of general merchandise ever established in the pueblo. They 
did business in an adobe building on Main street, where the 
Downey' Block now stands The firm dissolved partnership 
about 1830 or '31, Mr Temple continuing the business alone 
until Is)-.", or '46, when he i ogag I in real estate speculation, 
building and ranching, for some years; becoming one of the 
most extensive landholders and stock owners in the county. 
Later he leased the government mint in the city of Mexico for 
ten years, and bo valuable was the contract considered, that he 
refused $1,000,000 offered by an English company therefor, 
Alioiii the year 1830 he erected the nucleus of what is now 
the Downey Block," at first of adobe, but afterward 1 1 
it to brick. About 1857-8 he built a iarge part of the present 
" Tmi]. If I Mock " He also built the present City Hall. About 
L830 he married Dona Rafaela Cota, a native lady. He died 
at San Francisco May 30, 1866, aged 70 years His widow 
survives him, and lias for souk- time resided in Paris, which 
city was al>o Mr. Temple's home for several years 

George Rice, a native of N< w England, came to Los Angeles 
about the year 1827, from the Sandwich Islands, and was for 
some time a partner of John Temple in the mercantile business. 
After dissolution of their firm, he continued in business on his 

own account in the block on Main street, between Downej 
Cosmopolitan Hotel About the year 1830. he 
married a lady named Lope in Los Angeles, and some five 
:■< \ | i; t ,t with his family. Reported dead. 

J l» Lean dry, a native of Italy, settled in Los ^ngolea 

about the year \s-2~ ||,. opened n ton Dear thi pie a on 

ira i iter purchased an interest in the 

San Pedro Ranch, with one Johnson as partner, Hi n ided 

■ ne time, and then purchase I thi Ram lioLosl toyi ti 

he lived unl i ii m 1842 

Jesse Fergusons American, came to Los Vngole from 

\,w Mexico, by way of Gila river, in c (.any with R, 

L lughlin and \ M Pi vor, about the yoar 1828. He con 

m Main itreel uoar Second, for \\ in. G I lana 

of Santa Barbara Hi married in Los Angeles a Mi i Randon, 

1 ' the year 1835 went to Lower California, whore he 

died a few y ars later, 

Rich lrd Lai ghlin, about the year 1828, came as a trapper 
from New Mexico, by way of Gila river, in company with 
1 Ferguson, N M Pryor, and others He wonl fir i to 
Low.,- California, where he and his party were ari'ested by 

bhi authorities, probably for trapping wit I i a license In 

1829 he reached Los Angeles, where he worked at his trade 
of carpenter and joiner, occasionally trapping and bunting 
Finally he started a vineyard on the east ido of Via 
meda street, and married a native lady, by whom he hod 
several children He <li"'l about the year 1855. 

Nathaniel M Pryor was an American, and came to Los 
Lngeleswith Richard Laughlins party in 1828 9 Bj trade 
he was a silversmith, and divided his time between this bu i 
nesa and ottei hunting. He was also at one time in thi 
employ of Abel strains, at San Pedro and in Los Angeles, as 
warehouse-keeper. He married Dona Sepulveda, in Lo An 
and subsequently purchased all the property extending 
from AUso Btreet bo First, on Alameda, There hi resided with 
his family, and died there in May, L850, leaving several 
descendants still resident in the county, 

Lbel Stearns, a native of Salem, Ma s. spent conaidoi 
able time in Mexico, and Bettled in Los Angeles as a merchant, in 
the year ls2s. He married Dona Arcadia, daughter of I 'on. I nan 
Kan-lini II-- ol.tained large granta of land throughout the 
and accumulated much wealth. He was a member 
of the ' institutional I !onvention, L849 and of the 8tate Leo; 
lature, 1851; also 1861. He died at San Franci co Lugo I 
23, 1871. His widow subsequently married Col. K. S Baker — 
residence, Los Angeles, 

Louis Bouchette was a native of France, and came to Los 
Angeles about 1828 or '29. Hie purchased a small vineyard 



■«— *- 

Qeai w here the Si tei chool now is, and cultivated it 
up to the time of bis death. He resided where the Bakei 
Hl.irk now stand*. Died October 23,1847. His widow still 
m idea in the city. 

Michael White, a native of Kent, England (1801). Emi- 
grated to Lower California in 1817, and remained about a 
\,,. n , after which he spent some eight years as a sailor on 
various trading vessels in the California gulf; thence to the 
Sandwich [stands, in 1826, where he remained a year, and in 
1828 returned to the Californian coast as commander of the 
brig Dolly. He remained at Santa Barbara until the fall 
of 1829, when he wen! bo San Pedro to assist in saving the 
wrecked brig Danube. He remained here until 1839, when 
he wont to New Mexico, and returned two years later with 
the Wilson and Rowland party Has ever since resided in Los 
Angeles, and still resides there. Was at onetime uuite wealthy. 

John Domingo, a Hollander by birth, was carpenter on the 
brig Danube, which was wrecked in the harbor of San 
Pedro in 1829. tie remained in Los Angeles and worked at 
his trade. Ho purchased property opposite where the Baker 
block now stands, and here resided with his family, having 
married a Miss Feliz of Los Angeles. He subsequently 
planted a vineyard Oil Alameda- street, near Aliso. and lived 
there until his death, December L8, 1858. He left a numerous 
family, and many warm friends. 

"PORTUGUESE GEORGE" was a native of Portugal. He set- 
tled in Los Angeles at an early day, prior to 1831, and possi- 
bly before 1830. But little is known of him save that he 
married a native woman, and died there many years ago. 

ANTONIO Rocha was here, and married to a native lady 
named Alvarado, when Colonel Warner came in 1831. He 
was a native of Portugal -a gunsmith by trade, and was at 
one time in the employ of San Gabriel Mission. He died in 
Los Angeles several years ago. 

SAMUEL PRENTISS, a native of Rhode Island, was a 
Railor, who deserted from an American man-of-war in South 
Aim r'aa, and was subsequently one of the crew of the 
American brig Danube. When she was wrecked at San 
Pedro (1830 31) he came to Los Angeles, and from that time 
spent his life on this coast, hunting and fishing. He died on 
the island of Santa Catalina, about the year 1865, and was 
there buried, 

Jonathan Trumbull Warneb better known as Don Juan 
J. Warner was born in the town of Lyme. New Loudon 
county, Connecticut, November '20, 1807. I n the fall of 1830 
he lefl his nativ< Stati for [llinois, and remained there until 
bhi springof 1831, when he removed to St. Louis, Missouri. 
In Lpril, 1831, he entered the service of Jedediah S. Smith, 

who was then fitting out an expedition for Santa Fe, New 
Mexico. On their way out the leader, Smith, was killed by 
Indians, but the remainder of the party arrived safely, and 
remained from July till September, selling goods. In Sep- 
tember of that year he took service with Jackson, Waldo & 
Young, trappersand traders, and accompanied them to Cali- 
fornia, arriving there in November, following. 

He first entered Los Angeles December 5, 1831. At that 
period nearly the whole town was comprised between the 
junction of Spring and Main streets on the south, and the 
cross street next to the plaza on the north. There were only 
three or four houses north of these bounds. The furthest 
house south on Spring street was that now used by the mayor 
as an office; the furthest one south on Main street was about 
Second street. There was not a house on the east side of 
Alameda street, and but few east of Los Angeles street; there 
were no houses west of Main and Spring streets. The houses 
were all of adobe — one story only in height. Three or four 
of these were covered with tiles manufactured at San Gabriel, 
the rest had flat roofs covered with brea (asphaltum). At 
this time Los Angeles had less than one thousand inhabitants, 
and these with but few exceptions, all Mexicans, Indians, and 
half-breeds. There were a few Americans and Europeans, 
(other than Spanish), and of these he remembers the following: 

John Temple American 

William Wolfskill 

George Rice " 

Samuel J. Shields 

John Rhea " 

Richard Laughlin " 

Nathaniel Pryor " 

Jesse Ferguson " 

Samuel Prentiss " 

Louis Bouchet Frenchman 

John Domingo Hollander 

Portuguese George Portuguese 

Mocho Dan Irish 

The summer of 1832 was spent by Mr. Warner in hunting 
otter along th.3 Californian coast ami among the islands adja- 
cent thereto — from San Pedro to Point Conception. In the 
fall of 1833 he settled in Los Angeles, and during 1834-5 
acted as clerk for Abel Stearns and John Temple successively. 
During 1830-7-8 he was engaged in mercantile business, part 
of that time being associated with Henry Melius. Their place 
of business was on Main street, on the lot now occupied by 
Myers & I o. Ill health compelled him finally to retire from 
business, and for several years he remained in Los Angeles an 
invalid. In 1840 he visited the East, and in a lecture on 
California delivered at Rochester, N. Y„ and afterward at 

Upper Middletown, Connecticut, advanced and demonstrated 
the proposition that the trade of Europe and the Atlantic 
States, could be carried across the continent by rail more 
advantageously than by ship canal at Panama. This n 
claimed to have been the first suggestion of that great enter- 
prise now known as "the Transcontinental Railroad." 

In the fall of 1843 Mr. Warner went to _ , ami 

settled upon what has since been known as " Warner's ranch." 
In 1851-2 he represented that county in the Stat.- S -nate In 
1857 lie returned to Los Angeles, where he has since i 
From March 1858 to June I860 he published the L s Ai 
Southern Vineyard; and in the last-named year was member 
of the Assembly from this count}-. In 1876 he was appointed 
U. S. Register in Bankruptcy for the Southern District, which 
office he still holds. 

In the year 1836, at San Luis Rey, Mr. Warrior married 
Dona Anita Gale, by whom he had five children of whom two 
are now living. Mrs. Warner died in Los Angeles in 1858. 

EwiNG Yotjng was a native of Tennessee, and for a num- 
ber of years was engaged in New Mexico trapping beaver. In 
1828-9 he visited California; trapped on Tulare lake, the San 
Joaquin river and tributaries; returned to New Mexico about 
1830, and fitted out the Wolfskill party, with whom he came 
to Los Angeles. In 1836 he settled in Oregon, and became 
quite wealthy dealing in stock. He died there some thirty 
years ago. 

William WOLFSKILL was born March 20, 1798, near Rich- 
mond, Kentucky. Until the year 1831 he roamed thi 
the great Westas a hunter and trapper. In February of that 
year he reached Los Angeles with a Dumber of others, and 
here the party broke up. Aided by Friar Sanchez, then in 
charge of San Gabriel Mission, he, in company with Nathmiel 
Pryor, Richard Laughlin. Samuel Prentiss, and George Vount 
(all Americans) built a schooner at San Pedro for the pi 
of hunting sea-otter. This vessel they named thi 
They made but one trip in her. and meeting with onlj 
success, sold her. He next turned his attention to pom 
and horticulture at Los Angeles, and planted his first vineyard 
in 1838. In 1841 his first orange orchard was planted. From 
this period he devoted his life to these industries, assisted for a 
time by his brother John, who reached Los Ing les i 
Mr. Win. Wolfskill died at Los Angeles October 3, IS66, leav- 
ing four children. His wife, Dona Magdalena Lugo, died 
before him — Jul) 6, 1862 At the time of his death Mr. 
Wolfskill's Los Angeles property was si *ked with some - 
thousand bearing vines, two thousan iud lemon I 

also bearing, and a large assortment of miscellaneous fruits. 
He was the owner tit' much real estate in Los \ mty. 

Residence of ISAIAS W. HELLMAN, Cor. Main % Fourth ST, 9 
LosAngeles, Cal. 


ISMS* #/" THOMPSON & rtf-Sr. 


including the ranchc Santa Anita and Azuaa; he also owned 

largo tracts in other pari of the Stab 

Loi i \ i'.Ni:S was a native of France, and in 1831 came to 
Los Angeles by way of the Sandwich I land bringing with 
him a stock of devotional ornament and brinkel . which he 
• t i ] p - ' - 1 of to the mi ion and people at such good profits 

i hat he beci ■ quite wi althj ft va oi fi tniliai ly t d 

a Old Aliso" from his owner hip oi the Aliso vineyard In 
is.">l he offered this property for ale, and in hi men! 

Btatos: " There are two orange garden thai yield from five 
tl sand I-" six thousand oranges in the season. The vine- 
yard, with forty thou and vinei thirty-two thou and now beai 
ing grapes, will yield one thou and barrels of wine pei annum, 
the quality of which i well known to be superior Hi i 
believed to bo the fir I who planted orangi in Lo tngi li 
bringing his cuttings from San * labriel, The date of Ms death 
.Iocs not. appear. The old alieu sycamore tree still stands 

mi ancient landmark of the city, and is supposed to be 
centuries of ago. 

Joseph Bowman (usually Known as .1 ruin Bowman was 

a Kentuckian, and one of Jedediah S. Smith's party of L831, 
Hi' became miller for the mission of San Gabriel soon after liis 
arrival, and retained that position until his death, several 
years later. 

John Kim;\ was a native of North Carolina, and emigrated 
to New Moxico aboul L828 9; thence to California as one of 
Wolfskill i party, in 1831 He remained in Los Angeles, where 
lie kept a saloon and grocen also a billiard room Be at one 

time owned the lot whereon the ' '<>■■ politan Hotel now stands. 

In 183G he sol. I out liis property to William Wolfskill, and 
returned East. I !*■ is reported dead. 

William Day, an American, was a member of the si i 

part} (CTedediah S. Smith's which Col. J, .1 Warner accom- 
panied to Now Mexico He reached Los Angeles in 1831, 
with Jackson's or ( 'arson's party, and settled there, keeping a 
-in ill groggery neat the Catholic church, He died in Sonora 
some years later 

John Vyaud was born in Richmond, Virginia, in L765, from 
whence he removed with liis parents while yol a child. He 
took part in the battle of Nev Orleans, being then resident at 
that place Soon after the opening of Mexican territory bo 
foreigners, he entered Santa rV. liis being the first American 
wagon train to that point. Ho visited Los Angeles in 1832, 
stayed two years and returned to Missouri. In 1st:; he 
iv entered California by the Gila river route, in the first 
eastern carriage ever seen in the territory. In 1846 It..- left 
here for Chihuahua bul again returned in 1 s tv* He died at 
Los Angeles 1859. 

Daniel Rice, an American, \\a- a carpenter by trade, and 
came to Los Angeles about I s -:;:.' or '33 He married here a 
Miss Romero, about 1835 6, and died 

Joseph Pawlding was a native of Maryland, and entered 

California from New Mexico in the winter of 1832 '■* by way 

Qila river. He afterward traveled a good deal in Imtli 

countries, tie was a carpenter bj trade and made the first 

two billiard tables ever made in < falifornia ; the first foi ■ 

i I tl md for John Rhea. Il«- died at Los Angeles, 

June 2, 186C 

Isaac Williams, a native of V v. York or Pennsylvania), 
came t" ' !alifornia in L832. He owned the China Ranch, and 
resided there with his family in September, L846, wh< n 
Benjamin l> Wilson and company were there captured by the 
Mexicans, under Varela. Mr. Wilson has lefl on record, that 
Williams, in that affair, played the disgraceful pari of a traitor 
to liis native flag, selling into captivity and probable death 
countrymen who were at the time liis guests, whom he had 
long known as near neighbors, and to whom he professed 
fealtj and friendship, while planning and carrying oul their 
ruin. He died at his ranch, Sepl L3, L856. 

Moses Carson, a brother of the celebrated scout, Kit i ta 3on 
came to Los Angeles in March, 1832. He followed trapping 
for Borne years; was also connected with tin- warehouse al San 
Pedro. IK- finally removed to Russian river, and is reported 

Lemuel Carpenter, of Missouri, is represented as having 
been one of Wolfsk ill's party in 1831 I listorical Sketch of L. A. 
Co., p. 19), but Col. Warner says this is a mistake, and thai he 
came from New Mexico by way of Sonora in 1832 or '33, in 

company with Chard, Pawlding, Ward and s others. He 

established a soap factory i.n the right bank of the San Gabriel 
river, not far from the present road to Los Nietos. He Bubse- 
rruently purchased the Santa Gertrude's Ranch, and resided 
there until Ins death. Owing to financial troubles he com- 
mitted suicide Nov. 6, 1859 

William Chard is said to have been one of Wolfekill's 
party in 1831 (Historical Sketch of L. A. Co., p. 19), but Col. 
Warner says this is a mistake, and that he did not reach Los 
Angeles until L832 or '33, with a small party Carpenter, Pawld- 
ing, Ward and others . who came through from New Mexico 
by way of Sonora. He was a butcher, and did quite an exten- 
sive business. He also sawed the lumber for Steam's house. 
In company with Lemuel Carpenter h<- subsequently planted a 
vineyard on the east side of Alameda street, opposite the W olf- 
skill place. After some years he removed to the Sacramento 
valley, and is reported dead. 

•Lv< or. P. LEECE, an American, came to Los Angeles from 

New Mexico in the winter of 1833, and remained aboul two 
_ int.. business general merchandise* with Wm. 

.rid Hugh Reid. From here he went to Mont i 

stablished a house, with Nathan Spear and \Y. s 
Hinckley as partners. In July. 1836, he erected th 
building at Verba Buena, now San Francisco, and opened o 

He was the second white Bottler at thai place, Capt 
w \ Richardson having preceded him the year previous 
En ^pril following he married a sister of General M <: Valtejo, 

place, and in 1841 removed to Soi a. Reported dead. 

James Johnson, an Englishman, come to Los ^ngeli 
Sonora by water, in 1833, w ith a cargo of Chinese and Mead 
■i Lftei di iposing ol tht - hi n I urni d bo Sonora, 
and in 1835 brought his family here to li\<' Shortly after 

ward he purchased the San Pedro Ranch and tool 

L2,000 head of cattli from M Qutien . and lived thore for 

some years as n cattle rancher. He subsequently re ved to 

Los Angeli and engaged in the warehouse and forwarding 
business a1 San Pedro. He died prior to 1862. 

Hugh Reid a native of Scotland, came to Lo Angeles in 
1835, and was a merchant there in company with Wm, Keith 
and Jacob P Leece He had formerly resided in New Me ico 
and disappointment in a love affair while there is uppo ad bo 
have soured him. Il«- i- said to have been verj eccentric, and 
finally retired to San Gabriel, where he married an [ndian 
woman, and devoted himself to the stud} of the aborigines, 
Mr has lefl to posterity some vny valuable o aj on tht Ion 
history, customs, and legends of the Cahuilla Indians, 
which we have made use of in preparing our chapter on " The 
Aborigine He al one time owned the Santa Anita Ranch 
;iii' 1 al-o a i;u'jr purl, of the property subsequently acquired l>\ 
Mr. li 1> Wilson, and now held l>y that gentleman's widow, 
and by liis son-in law, .). 1>«- Bath Shorb, Esq. Mr Reid died 
al Lis Angeles, December 12, 1852. 

William K kith, an American, was a physician, who .-; 

from Sonora to Los Angele about 1835. Here he went into 
partnership with Jacob I'. Leece and Hugh Reid, and these 
three opened a atore He returned to Sonora afterward, but 
came bark to Los Angeles abniit \HV.I, when he went to the 
gold mines with a quantity of goods, and settled somewhere in 

the Upper country Imported dead. 

L. V Prudhomme was a native of France, and arrived in 
Los Angeles in 1835. He was a worker in wood (cabinet 
maker and cooper). He married a native lady named Tapia, 
who was at one time part owner of the Cucamonga Ranch 
Be died May S. 1871, 

Henby MELLUS, a native of Boston, -Mas-,, came to this coast 
in the brig PUgrvm, made famous by Richard H. Dana in 



his "Two V,;,, bef the Mast," 1835-6. At fire* Mi 

Melius acted as a common sailor, but was promoted to the 
berth of supercai o clerk, and subsequently remained on 
shore as agent's clerk. Here he settled, married a Mexican 
lady, and on Mr. Dana'f return fcwenty-four years later, he 
found his old companion a prominent citizen, and was by him 
driven around to view the memorable scenes of "hide-droghing 
times." Mr. Melius was elected mayor of Los Angeles in May' 
L860, and died while holding that office, on December 26 fol- 
lowing his election. He was a brother of Francis Melius. 

Isaac Graham whs a native of Tennessee. Early in life he 
went to New Mexico, and Benjamin D. Wilson met him at 
Taos, Mr. Wilson has described him as being at that time a 
very disreputable character. He also says that Graham left a 
family in Tennessee, being obliged to flee that State to escape 
the consequences of some offence he had committed. He 
reached Los Angeles in company with Henry Naile about 1835, 
and remained there until the following year, when he removed 
to the " N'atividad" Monterey county, and (according to Mr. 
Wilson) "established a small distillery in a tule hut, which 
soon became a nuisance owing to the disreputable character of 
those who frequented it." He was finally arrested (1840) on a 
charge of cm pir:n-\ against the government of Alvarado, and 
in company with a number of others, was sent to Mexico to be 
tried. Two years later these persons were returned to Cali- 
fornia, the charges no! having been proven; and Mexico was 
obliged to pay them a heavy indemnity to avoid serious com- 
plication with the American Government. Graham died seve- 
ral years ago. 

< 'n \i;i,i;s HALL was a native of Massachusetts, and came to 
Los Angeles prior to 1836. He was a merchant, but failed; 
and was subsequently in the employ of John Temple. He was 
dead in L862, 

JOHN Marsh, a physician, came to Los Angeles from New 
Mexico aboui L83U, with a party of traders. He practiced 
medicine for some years alter his arrival, and finally located on 
a ranch near Mount Diablo, where he was subsequently mur- 

JOHN REED, a native of Missouri or No th Carolina, came to 
Los Angeles about 1837. While in New Mexico'he married a 
daughter of John Rowland, and on his arrival here, engaged in 
ranching at La Puente. He enlisted in the American army of 
1846, and toot pari in all the battles fought on the march from 
San Diego to Los Angeles. He died at La Puente July 11, 
[874, aged 56 years. (There is possibly a mistake about the 
of Mi. Reed's arrival, as Benjamin D. Wilson claimed him 
b one of his party in L841] Hie widow resides at La Puente. 

Francis Mellus, of Salem, Mass., followed his brother 

Kenrj to Los Angi !es He came here in theemploy of Boston 
merchants, and landed at Santa Barbara January 5, 1839. He 
was for some years a partner of David W. Alexander in mer- 
cantile matters 1 1850-56), and died in Los Angeles city Septem- 
ber 19, 1863 He was married to Miss- Adelaida Johnson, who 
survived him, with seven children. 

John Rowland came to Los Angeles in the fall of 1841, as 
leader of a party from New Mexico. He was a partner of 
William Workman at Santa Fe, and subsequently joint-owner 
with him of the Puente ranch, where he died October 14*, 1873, 
aged S'2 years. The following is a translation of a Spanish 
document on file in the Los Angeles city archives: — 

" List of the persons who accompanied the undersigned on his arrival 
in the Territory of Upper California: — 

William Workman ' aDtl familiefJ> 
• William Gordon \ 

James D. Meade. Physician. 

Benjamin L). Wilson. 


Jacob Frankfort, Tailor. 

William Campbell, Naturalist- 

Thomas Lindsay, Mineralogist. 

Hiram Taylor, Musician. 

Wade Hampton, Gunsmith. 

Isaac Given.", Engineer. 

John McClure. 

James Dokes, 

L. Lyman, Physician. 

Daniel Sinton. Carpenter. 

Albert G. Tibiana. 

Batchelder, Cooper. 

Francis Bedebry, Carpenter. 

Francis Gwinn, Blacksmith. 

Michael White. 

Juan Manuel Bara / , « .,. 

Lorenzo Trujillo f and famil "»- 

Ygnacio Salazar and servants. 

Tomes, Carpenter. 

William Moon, Cooper. 
Each one with his fire-arm, which is needed for defense on the 

Those with families have come with the intention of settling in this 
Department, and those who have trades, in pursuit of employment, 
and some of the others to see and examine this Department with a 
view of settling now, or of reluming after they go back to their 

John Rowland. 
Copy. Office of the First Justice of the Peace, Los Angeles, Feb- 
ruary 29, 1842. Maxi, DoMlNGUEZ." 

Benjamin Davis Wilson was born December 1, 1811, in 
Nashville, Tennessee. At fifteen years of age he went into I msi- 
ness for himself at Yazoo City, above Vicksburg. He traded 
here with the Choc'aw and Chickasaw Indians, until compelled 
to leave by bad health, when he went to Fort Smith— an out- 
post up the Arkansas river. From here he went to Missouri, 
and joining the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, crossed the 
plains with them. In the fall of 1833, he reached Santa 1'Y. 
and here joined a trapping party bound for the Gila river, and 
Apache country, to trap beaver. This expedition met with 
considerable success, and in the spring of 1835, he returned 

to Santa I'"'-. He now fitted out a company him-- 
Lack to the Gila. In one of these expedition • rered a 

ruined town, and many evidences of a past civilization, wholly 
unaccountable to the Mexicans 

At this time the Apaches were on the best of terms with 
American frontiersmen, and their chief — -loan Jose— a well- 
educated man, was frequently in Mr. Wil ■ i, n 
the other hand, a, deadly feud exisl en the A 
and Mexicans; and the Americans, trap ling in the Mexican 
country without authority, there was, to bent, a 
feeling of "common cause" between them ami the Apaches. 
About this time the Mexicans procured one Jain-.- Johnson 
(au American), assisted by a man named Gleason, to betray 
and murder the chief, Juan Jose. In retaliation the 
Apaches massacred a party of American trappers under 
Charles Kemp, ami then took Mr. Wilson and two 
panions prisoners, with the avowed object of putting them 
also to death. By connivance of the new chief, Mangas, Mr. 
Wilson was allowed to escape. He was pursued by the infu- 
riated warriors on horseback, but succeeded in making cover 
before daylight. By forced marches, almost wholly without 
food, and nearly naked, he succeeded in eluding tl 
and reached Santa Fe (over 100 miles distant , entirely di sta- 
tute.* Two days later he conducted a party to "Point of 
Rocks," 150 miles south of Santa Fe on the EI Paso road, and 
buried the remains of twelve men there slain by the Indians. 

He now spent some time in Santa Ft- merchandising forother 
parties. The good chief, Mangas, afterwards visited him there, 
and long partook of his bounty. In 1837, a revolution broke out 
in this town; Governor Percy and many others were murdered, 
and the mob carried the heads of their victims through the 
streets on poles, crying, LL 1 >eath to the Americans; death to the 

gn ngoa 

Mr. Wilson and six other Americans concealed them- 

selves until peace was restored, but only escaped I 

good offices of an Indian chief named Pedro Leon, who was 

friendly to Mv, Wilson. 

Mr. Wilson now bought out the stock of goods 
had hitherto taken charge of, and remained in Santa 
Fe until the fall of 1841. Finding that the hatred 
felt for Americans made it unsafe to remain longer in 
New Mexico, he, in company with John Rowland, Win. 
Workman, William Gordon, William Wright, and others. 
to the number of about forty, started overland for California 
early in Septembe: They drove -keep with them for food, 
ami all readied Los Angeles in safety, about two months 
later. These others came to settle, but Mr. Wilson's 

"Johnson's treachery met with its just rewud. The Mes 
1 ram* nt iii ver paid aim the ngi d ■ ■ id money," ami I 
vengeance ol the ipaohos, he fledto California, where he ttvw 
obscurity aud poverty. Mr Wilson aarued subsequently that tl 
panions he left sick at the Apache camp had also escaped. 

Residence or H. W.HELLMAN, N° 3, 4-™ S^ 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

J ^^^J^^^^^jgM*^^^^^^ 



to vi it China, and from thi irnl Failing, how< 

to procure a hip for China, he finally purchased the Jurupa 
Ranch Btockcd it with cai I the place 

where Rivei idc now band to i he lifi cher 

In 1844, he married Dona Ramona Vorba, daughter ol Don 
Bernardo Verba, one of th< ownci of the Santa Ana Ranch. 
iiith.' fall of that yeai hi wa i erelj wounded by a grizzly 
(which had «lain one of his eofl )whili tracking il thi ugh the 
woods. CJpon recovering from his wound hi ambu cadod the 
bear, wounded him, and in a ■■< m pal hunl m ' day, killed the 

feroc fsbea I bul a econd time narrowlj escaped death. In 

the fall "i' 1845, he took charge of an expedition into the 
Mojave country to puni h marauding Indians On theii 
liis party camped at a lake whore the bears wi re so numerou 

that twenty two men li I eleven in one evening, and the 

same feat was repeated on their waj home, making twenty- 
two bears killed on the trip, Hence, he named this "Beai 
Lake," which name it h ls ever incc reta : ned. 

During this campaign he was severely wounded by an Indian 
outlawnamed Joaquin, with a poisoned arrow, bui killed liis 

adversary in the em iter; and his own life was saved 03 an 

Indian servant who Bucked the wound. After resting and refit- 
ting, Mr. Wilson marched his command into the Cahuilla countn 
in search of two renegade mission Indians, who were commit- 
ting depredations on the ranchers Taking the chief, " < larbe 
zun" ! Big Head), a prisoner, he succeeded in inducing the tribe 
to deliver up the heads of the outlaws, So thon organized a 
Bccond expedition against the Mojaves and succeeded in killing 

a number of men and bringing in many -u m and children 

captives. These had all formei l> been mission ne »phytes, and 
wi-re now returned to San Gabriel Mission. 

In 1845, he raised o company to assist in the defense of Los 
Angeles against Miehcltorena, and was one of the two emba 

sadors who, under a flag of true*, suc< led in winning Michel- 

torena's American force over to the side of Governor Pico, the 
i. sul I being Micheltorena's abandonment of hostilities and 
embarkation at San Pedro next day. 

Upon the breaking out of war with the United States, 
Mr. Wilson was ordered by Governor Pico to raise a com 
pany and prepare for active service against the American 
but this la- refused to do, on the ground that he was him- 
Belf an American citizen. He was threatened with arrest, 
but on sending his parole was allowed to remain pea 
ably on Ms ranch. Ho refused Governor Pico's friendly offer 
U> grant him an} large tract of land in the State he might 
desire and bore that gentleman's parting compliments to Com- 
modore Stockton. He accompanied the Commodore into Los 

rmj following in the evening), and not a I 
was struck. Com. Stockton somi days later, handed him his 
commission as < 'aptain, and detailed him to watch the frontier, 

and guard against a surprise from the Mexican General I 
To aid him in this duty, .Mr. H ganized a company of 

twenty-two Americana Aflei ,„. ;u -. 

bag t-» In- safe in that neigh borh < lKiU \ 

into the mountains on a hunt, and while thus eng 
learned of the revolt by the natives against Lieutenant 
Gillespie, whom Stockton bad It fi in «-! .. 
Mr. Wilson now repaired n. his Jurupa Ranch, and I 

"■'"' ; ' letter from ( Sol Isaac Williams ol the < Jhino Ranch, 

inviting him and hi* pari ad promising them plenty 

mmunition. Thia proved to be a piece of treachery on 

William- part. an. I while here the \ unded 

b native force undei Van la who fired the building in which 

they hail fortified thomselvi 9 and comp lied a u lei ■ 

wholi part] From this time until the n occupation of Loa 
Angeles by Stockton and Kearney, Mti Wilson and the othei 
Americana w re held p Ifter the n occupation, 

he performed many signal services for the American c - 

mandera, and aided, perhaps, more than anj other man in 

southern < 'alifornia, in restoring peace ind _ 1 feeling 

between the Americans and natives. 

During all this time he had been heavilj engaged in mer- 
chandising in Los Angeles, as well as in cattli ranching at 
Jurupa. In 1850 he was a delegate to a convention held at 
Santa Barbara for the purpose of procuring a division of 
the State the southern portion to remain a a Perriton 
This project, however, failed. Aftei organization of the 
State, he was elected the first County Clerk of Los Angeles 
county, Dr. Wilson W, Jones acting as his deputy and recen - 
ing all emoluments of the office. Mr. Wilson was also 
elected Mayor of the city in 1851. In 1852, he was appointed 
Indian agent for the southern district, by President Kill- 

1 ''• and assisted Gen. Beale in forming the reservation at 

FortTejon. In 1854, he succeeded the widow of Hugh Reid 
in ownership of large landed interests at San Gabriel. In 
1855, he was elected State Senator from Los Angeles, and 
served the ensuing term; also in L869-70. From that time 
until liis death, March II, 1878, he resided on liis Lake Vim 
yard Ranch in San Gabriel valley. His first wife having died 
March 21, 1849, he married Mrs. Margaret s Hereford, Febru- 
ary 1, 1*53, who survives him, and still resides at Lake Vine- 
yard with her two unmarried daughters. A daughter of Mr. 
Wilson, by liis first wife, is married to J. De Bath Shorb, 
Esq., of San Gabriel valley. 

William Workman was hum in England, A. D. 1800, and 
came to America while quite young. He settled in St. Louis, 
Missouri, then a frontier town, ami engaged in business. 
From there to Santa >V New Mexico, where for a nun 
years he followed trapping and trading. He accompanied las 
partner Rowland to Los Angeles in 1S-H, ami they settled 

theronthe Puente Ranch II,- wasa partner of K I' K 
remple in the banking business at Los Angeles, L868 to 
1875 6, and the failure of that enterprise so preyed upon his 
mind that he committed iuicid< Maj 17. L876. Mis remains 
were interred in the little chapel al I 

v P. F Ti mi-li i nativt of Massachusotl arrived in Los 

Ees by water during tht summei of 1841, and - n ■ igud in 

business with his brother, John Temple, then a leading met 

He su |a :,„ i.. ,,,,,,.), 

1 Tejon, and disposed ol thia 1868 to on ;age in 

banking al Loa Angeles, in partnership with I \\ . Hell man 

and William Workman In isTl this tiim dissolved, and the 

ind \\ orkman succeeded Thia hunk 

failed 1875 I Mr Temple died al his ranch Ipril 30 I I 10 

l»\\ ro \\ Alia \mm i:, an Irishman bj bii th, 1 1 to Los 

om New Mi ico al 1841 oi 12 Ho ranohod at 

the Rincon Ranch, San Bernardino c ity, for a ti also 

kepta Btore in Los Angeles. He wa olecl d Sheriff of the 

count} Septembei 5, 1855; served the en uing i. and 

again filled that office in the years 1870 and 77 Ho now 
resides at Wilmington, 

Aii s \mm i; Bell was born in Pennsylvania, 1801. In 
L823 In' emigrated to the eitj of Mexico, where ho resided 
until 1842, when he came to Loa Angeles. In 1844 he marriod 
Dona Nieves Guirado. They had do children, but according 
to If l> Barrows, Esq., sustained the relation of ' padrinaa" 

Ifather and godmother bo i e children than am other 

couple in California He was engaged in mercantile pui uil 
in Los Angeles until 1854, and built the block of buildings 
knownas "Bell's Row, fronting on Los Angeles and Ali a 

treete I ng the wai of occupation he co anded a c 

| ( .in\ as Captain. Ilt'dirdat Lns Angelea Juty 2 i, 1871. 

Rich vbd S Den, M. I> , a native of Ireland, landed at Sunt;, 
Barbara Septembei I, 1843,* and soon afterward removed to 
I Jjageles, where he was Licensed to practice medicine by the 
Mexican authorities. During the war of L846 7, he acted as 
chief physician and surgeon of the Mexican for© in outhein 
' California. He al o treated the American prisonej confined 
al Los Angeles during the war, including Benjamin D. Wil on 
and party, captured al the Chino Ranch; Tho . ' >. Larkin, the 
only American consul ever appointed in California, etc., etc 
Dr Denhasnevei changed his nationality. Il«: still r< id< i 
in Los Angeles. 

Henby Dalton, En ded in J." Angel prior to 

1845, and was a merchant there at the time of the k.mi rican 
occupation, Jl«,- still resides at 

Jose Mascabel, French, arrived in Los Angles in J s 4 1 , 
and ha- resided there ever since. He was elected Mayor of 



the city in 1865, and has served several terms in the Common 
Council. He has erected Beveral fine blocks of buildings in the 
city, and has also been largely identified with orchards and 
\ ineyards in the neighborhood. I* still a resident. 




Hijar'fl Revolution M Result -Figueroa'a Death — Jose Castro — Nicolas Gu- 
tierroz— Mariano ' Irico Gutierrez Reetored — Graham's Revolution — Al- 
porado Governor War with Carillo— Carillo Imprisoned — Arrests at Los 
Angeles Arrestol Graham and Hib Companions— Character of Alvarado'e 
Governmenl Revenue Frauds— Arrival of Manuel Micholtorena — Fetes 
and Festivities- Seizure of Monterey by * tonunodora Jones — All a Mistake 
A Terrified Governor The Earthworks mm Fort Hill — A Disputed Ques- 
tion— Aco i ■ "i Com. Jones' Visit to Los Angeles— Physical Appearance 

of the Country — A Brilliant Reception — Extraordinary Demands — The 
Ball Return ol the Articles Unapproved — The Departure — A Historic 
Bouse Micheltorens Assumes Control — In Bad Odor — Alvarado *s Revo- 
lution — Americans versus Americans — A Terrible Engagement — Fearful 
1 1] Ished— I liplomacy— An irmiBl ice — Capitulation — Micholtorena Ban- 
ished — l'ii> Pico Governor — " T/utt Mule.*' 

In a former chapter (X) we have described Hijar s colonization 
expedition of L834, and how lie failed of becoming Governor in 
place of Ifigueroa He appears to have been treated by the 
latter with all courtesy, and was given territory at San Fran- 
cisco Solano on the north side of San Francisco Harbor — for 
his colony. But this was not what he wanted. He had come 
to i lalifornia as Governor thereof, and he set about accomplish- 
in- his original purpose, in true Mexican style. Two of his 

agents, nai I respectively Torres and Apalatey, departed 

secretly for Los Angeles; organized a force of some fifty mal- 
contents at Los Nietos Ranch; proclaimed Hijar Governor: 
marched into Los Angeles on March 7, 183j; took possession 
of the town; were betrayed by their followers the same after- 
noon, and were packed off to Mexico by Governor Figueroa, a 
few days later as prisoners, along with the man whose cause 
they had so unwisely espoused. Thus began and ended the 
Hijar revolution all in one day. Upon September 29, 1835, 
Governor Figueroa died, and his remains were interred with 
many ceremonies at Santa Barbara. He hadKenagood Gov- 
ernor, and verj popular with the better classes of people, who 
sincerely mourned his loss 

He was succeeded bj Jose* Castro, who acted as Governor 
advnterim, from August, 1835, to January, 1S36, when he 
place bo Nicolas Gutierrez, who assumed control under 
the will of Figueroa and served from January, 1836, to April, 
1836 when he was in turn displaced by Mariano Chico, sent 
up by the home government, Ghico's tyranny, however, made 

him so unpopular that a few months later he was expelled from 
! the Territory, and in August, 1836, Nicolas Gutierrez once 
more assumed the gubernatorial seat. 

In November following, a revolution was inaugurated at 
Monterey, by Isaac Graham and other American residents, 
against Gutieirez, in favor of Juan Bautista Alvarado, a native 
Californian, who for some years had been Secretary of the 
Territorial Deputation. One shot from a brass four-pounder, 
directed at the presidio — where the Governor had intrenched 
himself — brought him to terms, and Alvarado became Gov- 
ernor. He immediately proclaimed California a free and 
independent State. Mexico, as usual, fulminated many 
quires of furious proclamations; promised dire vengeance to 
Alvarado, and appointed his uncle Carlos Carillo, Governor of 
the Territory. Los Angeles espoused the cause of Carillo, and 
declared its adherence to Mexico. Carillo immediately declared 
war; but Alvarado sent Graham and a few more Americans 
down, took his belligerent uncle captive, imprisoned him at 
Santa Barbara, despatched a letter of explanation to Mexico 
detailing all he had done, was duly applauded — his acts ratified 
— and his seat confirmed by the pusillanimous Home Govern- 

Yet he was not wholly at ease, as the following incident 
will show: We quote from Col. "Warner's "Historical Sketch," 
before referred to. 

In April, 1838, a small body of men, under the command of Clemente 
Espinosa, an ensign, was sent from Santa Barbara by Colonel Jose 
Maria Villa, apartizan of Governor Alvarado and General Castro, to 
capture certain persons suspected of being engaged in a plan to over- 
throw the government of Alvarado, and replace Governor Carillo in 
authority. The party of Espinosa entered Los Angeles in the night, 
and camped on the open space in front of tho old Catholic church. 
The inhabitants discovered upon opening the doors of their dwellings 
on the following morning that the town had been captured, or rather 
that it was then held by armed men from abroad, who soon commenced 
a general search in the houses of the citizens for suspected persons. 
Quite a num.' er were arrested, among whom were Jose Antonio Car- 
rillo, a brother of the deposed Governor: Pio Pico, Andres Pico and 
Gil Ybarra, the then Alcalde of Los Angeles, together with about half 
a dozen more of the most prominent native citizens of the place. They 
were all taken north as prisoners of war. The only casualty which 
occurred was the breaking of the arm of J. J. Warner, by one of Espi- 
nosas men, in consequence of his inability to inform them where 
Don Pio Pico could be found, and his resistance to an order of arrest 
for refusing permission to have his house searched for suspected per- 
sons. ' 

In 1840, occurred a disturbance which, as it involved the 
liberties of many Americans and other foreigners, requires 
more than a passing notice. There have been many accounts 
of the affair, more or less conflicting in detail. We select that 
contained in " Tuthill's History of California," page 145. 

As Alvarado grew easy in his seat, the rememberance that he owed 
nw elevation to foreigners began to chafe him. There were subjects 
oi his who stopped him on the shoulder, and forgot the dignity that 
belonged to the executive. Graham, the Teunessean, was especially 
obnoxious, for lie did not mind telling the Governor to his face that 
but for his aid, his excellency would still be simply a clerk. It was at 

last an absolute necessity to get the Tennessean out of the way. The 
nuisance was intolerable, and fortune provided an early 
for abating it. Graham had challenged all the country to produce a 
swifter horse on the race-course than the one be had trained. ,\ y an _ 
kee accepted the challenge, and, to make the bargain Mire, the 
of the race were drawn up in writing. The frpies of Alvarad 
passing glimpse of the document, and construed it into a terrible plot 
to overthrow all that was stable in California. 

Castro was sent with an armed force to arrest < fraham, in the dead 
of night. Other Americans, and some Europeans, about a hundred in 
all, wre seized and taken to -Monterey. Some, who were considered 
the most dangerous, were conducted to Santa Barbara, and afterwards 
fifteen or twenty of them were embarked, in chains, to San Bias. This 
event, which was celebrated with a mass and a general thanksgiving, 
occurred in May. 1840. Two months later, a French ship, and the 
American man-of-war St. Louis entered the harbor of Monterey. Now 
was Alvarado in a most unhappy predicament. Vallejo was not pres- 
ent, and Castro had gone to Mexico with the prisoners. Fortunately, 
in the very nick of time, be heard, or feigned to hear, of a disturbance 
among the Indians in the interior. He slipped oil' at once to attend to 
that, nor did he return till the ships of war, finding no party to get an 
apology from, bad .sailed again. Then everything went on iu its old 
career of quiet dilapidation until 1842. 

To the consternation of Alvarado, and the amazement of everybody, 
in July of that year the exiled foreigners returned to Monterey. 
They came in a Mexican vessel, were much improved in personal ap 
pearance, and admirably armed. In their absence they had been 
maintained by government, and now they were sent home at its 
expense. This extraordinary issue of their exile had been accomplished 
through the urgency of the British consul at Mexico, who succeeded 
besides in getting the guard of the prisoners themselves imprisoned. 

In opposition to this, we refer the reader back to what Mr. 
Benjamin D. Wilson relates of Graham's character, and to his 
version of the affair. < lhapter XII, " Pioneers/' biography of 
Isaac Graham.) 

From the record of the United States Exploring Expedition, 
1841, it would seem that Alvarado's government was none of 
the best. Referring to the ports of Monterey, Santa Barbara 
and San Pedro, the writer says: — 

The destruction of the missions, and the onerous laws, duties and 
prohibitions, have nearly destroyed the little traffic that once e 
and it is now all transferred to the Bay ol San Francisco. There a 
few hulks maybe seen lying, furnished with every needful article, 
Dheae keep up an illicit intercourse by connivance with the offici 
the Customs, by whose cupidity the Revenue laws are openly infringed, 
and what of right belongs to the Government goes to enrich the Gov- 
ernor and his officers. Although I was prepared lor anarchy and con- 
fusion, I was surprised when I found a total absence ol Lent in 
California, and even its forms and ceremonies thrown aside. When 
soldiers were drafted, they insolently refused to serve. 

In August, 1842, General Manuel Micheltorena arrived at 
San Diego from Mexico, empowered to assume control as Gov- 
ernor of the Californias, He had already achieved some repu- 
tation as a soldier, under Santa Ana, in the Texan campaign, 
and everywhere the people received him with demonstra 
of joy. 

He marched to Los Angeles, and his progress through the 
country was marked by a series of ovations Arrived in the 
city, he was received with distinguished honor. A serte of 
grand dinners, fandangoes and bull-fights kepi him so well 
amused, that it was the middle of October before he again 
resumed his journey toward Monterey 

VILLA DE PAREDON BLANCO - ," Residence of J.E.HOLLENBECK.l, '+ MILES South-East of LosANGELES, Cal 



At this time ( lomroodore Ap I late bj Jom commanded the 
United Stati • quadron in the Pacific Searing a rumor thai 
wai had been declared between the United States and Hi 
he waited not foi confirmation thereof, bui straightway 
pounced down with the frigate United Slates and jloop of 
war Cya/ne, and took po c ion of Monterey, Thi 
the I 'h.I. of < >ctobi r, 1842. Alvarado ui rendered thi I 

without a blow, and Commodore J ay hoisted 

the Stan and Stripes over the prcsidio.and declared Calii 
a pari of the United States. Twenty-four hours latei hi 
learned of lii 1 - mi take and hauling down the Hag so proms 
turely raised, apologized to the local authorities for the scare" 
ho had given them, and departed a addi i and b 


General Miche'torena had reached the neighborl I oi 

Buenaventura on the twent) fourth, when the news of Com 
modore Jones' action of the nineteenth reached him by expn 

"There was mounting in hot haste." 

He waited not to hoar the sequel, bul fled baca to Loi 
Angeles with such precipitation that his camp equipage was 
scattered along the tine of liis flight, and lost; the United 
States Government having subsequently to pay therefor upon 
hills presented by this shameless poltroon. 

According to Colonel Warner, upon reaching Los Angeles, 
Micheltorena at once set liis men to work throwing up earth 
works upon Fort Hill, overlooking the citj . and had made 
considerable progress, when word came that Monterey had been 
restored, an apology made, and that Commodore Jones would 
bo happy I" wan mi his Excellency, at Los Angeles, and pay 
liis respects to him. The work was then abandoned,* 

Relieved of lii* terrors, General Micheltorena Bpcedily 
resumed all liis won ted pomposity. He now prepared to 
receive this presumptuous gringo, who had dared to frighten 
liim nearly nut of his wits, The following (somewhat 

flowery) accounl of C lore Junes' visit to him at Los 

Angeles is compiled from a narrative thereof, written 03 1 

tit' the Commodore's staff, and published in the Los Angeles 
Soutfiem Vvnegard t 1858 D; 

On January 17. 1843, the United States sloop-of-war Oyane 
anchored in the porl of San Pedro, and aboul 7 P. M a light 
was hoisted on shore as a Bignal This was also followed by a 
discharge of small arms at intervals. A boat was thereupon 
dispatched to ascertain whal was wanted, and shortly returned 
with an aid-de-camp, bearing a letter of invitation to the 
pueblo, IV General Micheltorena to Commodore Jones" 

riiia statement by Colonel Warner baa called forth cousiderabli oontro- 
■" < -\ from Stephen C. Foster and several others, who maintain that ground 
" ' - oei 1 1 broken upon this hill until the arrival of Cook'a Mormon battalion, 
"" 1847; and that thej performed the first and only earth-work ever done there. 
Nevertheless, Colonel Warner stands by the statement contained in the text. 

The invitation •• i on the t wing morning 

modore and his staff disembarked On reaching the 
the party v. ibly surprised to find thai 

bad arrived, and preparations been mai them with a 

hot lunch before starting The onrj house then 
was a large warehouse and hotel in one, quadrangular in form 
with transvi owned bj without 

tine building Richard H I 'ana hs I 

■ a ' before, but - -what enlai _ 

The esi General Micheltorena consisted "f the 

n n i>\ three hi 
in which was seated Major Medina, his chiel 
full staff costume displaying 
won on ;is man} battle 61 Id 
them rich!} 3 caparisoned a retinue 1 i 

and a military 1 sci rl 0! ti\ e and twenty lancers, under a portly 
and happy look in j ca] 

Alighting From the carriage, the aid-decamp 
biro elf to < 'ominodore Jom s, jaj ing >bi dience to the 

commands of liis chief he had the honor to repoi I himself, and 

1 commands fr the Commodore After dinnei the 

party started for Los Angeles, the Commodore and chief offi 
cars of his staff being Beat ;d in the carriage, while the others 
followed "ii horseback. We now quote from the publj hed 
narrative: — 

As already said, the carriage was drawn by three horses; bul these 
»■«■(«■ attached to it in a manner peculiar to the Spanish people in the 
Lmericas. Harness is entirely dispensed with, save the pole and 

strap", which are huhed to tin- logger-head ol the saddle of tl bi 

borse, and b single trace or tug-rope leading from tin- pommels of the 
saddles of the outside horses to the fore-axle-tree ol the carriage. 
The horses art* not coupled, nor in any manner attached to each other, 
consequently each one id governed by its own rider. In tins manner 
the horses are urged on at the top of their power on level ground, and 
■ >n rising hill. While descending a hill, the two outai le hoi 1 
ilenly foil to the rear of the carriage, veering out enough of the tug 
ropes to clear the hind wheels, when all the power of these two horses 
it exerted in holding back, tokvep the carriage from running ovei the 
<>ne at the pule end, which it is clear from what has been said, cannot 
hold back, or do more than keep out of the way of the pursuing 

1 in this occasion our postillions were taken from the military escort, 
so that the novelty of the equipage was not a little heightened by the 
gaj dress, the painted lance with its tri-colored Bag Birting in the 
wind, and the carbine dangling mi the thigh of the rider, or 
011 the think of the steed as he danced over the plain. The rate of 
traveling on level ground was tenor twelve mile- per hour, s<_, that a 

of horses was frequently necessary; hut this was effected with- 
out a moment's loss of tune. The order given, a lancer from the rear 
WOUld dart up to the horse lie wa> to relieve, receive the tUg-rODS from 
the previous occupant, who, wheeling out of the track, would tall in 
the rear, when all would he right again, the -peed of the carriage 
being not in the least interrupted. 

Now fairly on the road, our party consisted of about forty, all told, 
and a more grotesque troop has seldom been *eeo anywhere, and 
never in the United >t:ites. Imagine the society of "Odd Fellows," 
mounted upon odd-looking horses, oddly caparisoned, and no less oddly 
appointed, and yon may form a faint idea of our triumphant entry 
into the "City of the Angels." 

Th..' route of tlii- gn tesque cavalcade lay over an arid plain 

in extent, Furrowed by deep, drj ravine*, wholly 

and with no tre.- or shrub in sighl tor the 
wl >" ' wstua \- it happened, thi 

a dry year, and though uow the middle of January . little or no 

run had fallen \ ls g evidence of 

table life if Hon. a' present The writer continues 

Bat notwithsUndii ( sbs»n< f living vogetatlnn in 

this plain, we had ample proof of the an the mil In 

rowlh of black mustard, then in a dry state, rhis plant, which 
in the besl culth | a leldnm attain- threi el in 

bight, on the plains ol San Pedro reaches to eight 01 nine. Verily, 
not onlj do the birds of the air take teller under Its h 1 
ol a thousand bills , It; ,,, 1 tho I nil 

country use the drj stalk- as palings to enclose then vnrd evou 
"i the town of the Angels are th It, 

'" the following he probably n fei to Si pu veda 

1 v., \ eat bi fore thi u 1 I 
p. 222, note 

! w " ''' ' [ues thi porl 1- the Di I and onlj h ibitation foi man 

between th< ,j \ .. , , 

■■ head of bii arm of thi i\ ..1 thi rai 

■ 1 ibi d disembogue themselves, ami n bi 1 

living springs cni gle with the salt of ocean Here, then, in two 

■ ' I"' llOall li and ma ■nam Q of COttlfl ilh. i.i,,|. III 

irnia) round al one and the same spot. It Is to thi 1 
ol horned cattle and of hones resort for watei and ialt, and on 
tin- accounl pounds have been h.-re provided, within which to collect 

the herds at stated period-, whether for the purj 1 bra id In md 

marking, or for slaughti dn the bides and tallow, the flesh 

being 01 Imh- value, owing to lark of demand. 

The whole of our journey was enlivened by Innumerable Hoi 
varieties of birds, which covered the plain in every direction as fur an 
the eye could see. Iter.- were the lai Ith 11 iroral 

varieties of plover, the sweet little skylark, which al Is on thi 

shores ol the Potomac, the wild ( e and white brnn 1 cot 

ering acres and acres [round, and bo tame that they mlghl hs 1 
been shot from the carriage windows had ive been provided with fow 
ing pieces. 

**** * # # * 

our journey was uninterrupted by accident, though not without 
lent, a short distance beyond the rancfao or lettlemenl before 
mentioned, our attention was attracted to a native hoi eman cm lug 
the plain at full speed, and directing bfs com e toward a numbei ol 
unfettered horses browsing on the dry mustard. \ the horseman 
approached the pai 1 . brandishing fail lasso ovei bis bead, and uttering 

a certain peculiar sound, to which the hones ol this counti r\ 

deaf, they suddenly formed into compact order, solid quare, ami at the 
word moved offal b rapid gait, taking b direction k> as to intersect the 
main road at a point we were then approaching. We were Informed 
that this pack ol horses were unclaimed property , lubji ct to the u •■ ol 
any traveler* needing them, and that the drove would attend u 

the purpose of fui ays, »* tlnwe of our cavalcade tired lei 

the severe duty of re double trip of thirty milei each way, without 
food, and without water more than one.-. Thi* new acquisition i" OUI 

retinue formed what I BuppoH I must ''all th* , and I' 11 to 

the rear, hut not until a sufficient number had relieved such of tho 1 duty as had become too much v.- arled I ntiuue the rapid peed 

at wliieh we were traveling. 

It was nightfall before tl,.- travel* - n achi d tl it 1 it I oi 

Los Angeles, when a halt was called and couriers wen di 

bed to give notice ol their arrival. They then once more 
moved forward at tin- same, headlong pae<- ami dn R up 
before the residence of Don Abel Stearns, win. wa to h theii 
host. Tho writer continues: — 



The mansion before which we stopped proved to be that of Mr. Abel 
Stearns, a nativi of Philadelphia, but now a naturalized citizen of 

Mexico. A i fifteen years ago Mr. Stearns entered Mexico, and for 

some years n ided in its capital. He baa subsequently visited all the 
principal mining and commercial districts of Mexico proper, and the 
t W o< alifornias, and finally pitched upon the " Pueblo de LosAngi 
:I - ill.- place of his permanent abode; and lien- lie has since married 
intooncol the best and most influential families in California, and is 
now enjoying the reward of his industry and frugality in the comfort 
of an ample fortune, and the societj of a lady, who for beauty, amia- 
bility and accomplishments, would not lose by comparison with our 
own fair country women. 

The ( reneral entered the large and spacious hall (in which the Com- 
modore and bis party, now amounting to Bomo twenty citizens of the 
United States, had osiembledj at the head of his staff, attended by the 
entire "tftat Major" of the division, and by the lipid officers generally, 

amounting in all to - • uftet Q or twenty fine looking men of military 

bei -. and richly uniformed- 
Accustomed as l have been to see well-dressed officers m the service 
of many princes, I must confess that I have never seen more splendid 
or better-ntting uniforms than graced this group. Kich gold embroid- 
ery on dark blue cloth predominated: of such was the General-in- 
Chief's dress, to which was added an elegant laced cocked hat, with 
Bplendid white feathers. His aide-de-camp wore scarlet and gold, 
whilst his military secretary, with some cavalry officers, wore sky blue 

and silver. This variety in colors, whilst it served to distinguish 

corps, was not without a pleasing effect upon the eye. The uniformity 
oj Mi i iii and lit of every dress was perfect, even to the gloves and 
the Deal little cane which adorned the hand of each and every Mexican 

officer present. 

1 * * * * * * * * 

The ceremony of introduction being over iin the course of which 
the two chiefs introduced their respective officers individually] general 
conversation ensued. The general was most marked and particular 
in his expression of gratitude for the honor conferred by the Com- 
modore's visit, and reiterated in Bt ong terms his regret that he had 
uot the means of honoring the visit with such demonstrations of 
respect as he and bis companions in arms, with the inhabitants of the 
pueblo, entertained, and would like to publicly manifest. The Com- 
modore acknowledged himself under great obligation to the General 
for the honor he had already bestowed on him as being far beyond 
what he expected or could lay claim to. During this visit the General 

invited the Con dorr and' his party to a ball which he, General 

Micheltorena, designed to give in honor of the visitors on the follow- 
ing eveuing, winch the Commodore felt bound to accept, although it 
l 1: ,\l b e en his intention to return to the ship as soon as the official 
interview, which was to take place at twelve the next day, should be 

During this visit, eight o'clock— the time for posting sentinels, and 
giving oul the watch-word and countersign, customary in all military 
camps and garrisoned towns— came around, whereupon a trim little 
Lieutenant, in full dres?, entered the room, and in a very soldier-like 
manner delivered a Bealed dispatch into the hand-* (if the Commodore, 
mad./ his bow, and retired without a word. 

The following is a literal translation of the note presented, viz.: 

" Aim tan'i Major's Office. 

"Sib:- By order of his Excellency, the General, I have the honor of 
making known to you the watch-word for this night, at all the posts of 
these headquai tera, 

" Sto, Amatio, Amores, Amistad. 
■■ i .i>d and Liberty, Angels. January 18, 1843. 
■ ■ (Signed i Rapeal Telles. 

" To the Commodore-in-< hief of the United States Naval Force, 

"Tuos. Ar C. Jokes, Esq." 

'I he termination of the General's visit was quickly succeeded by 

another manifestation of bis sincere desire to honor the Commodore. 

ewhal suddenly, and altogether unexpectedly to us, an otlieer in 

lull unit. .mi. at the load of live and twenty infantry, presented him- 

• This is a mistake. Mr. Stearns was a native nf Salem, Mass, See his 
. tj m < Ihapb r on Pi 

s; lf to the Commodore, and after a most elegant and graceful display 

oj bis mastery in the sword exercise (so far at least as regards •■the 
officer's salute"), he stated that in obpdience to the orders of his 
Excellency, General Micheltorena, Governor-General, etc., etc., etc., 

he reported himself to the Commodore with a lift- guard ol five and 
twenty men, and bad the honor to await bis commands. 

The Commodore lafeen by surprise, seemed at a loss what to do or to 
aay. Soon recovering himself, however, he politely declined the honor 
thus lender.-d, saving that alter so many demonstrations ol confidence 
and respect a- bad been manifested by bis Excellency and all others 
since bis landing at the port, he could not but feel himself in the midst 
of friends, and begged the officer to return to his quarters. 

All forms and ceremonies being now closed for the evening, supper 
was soon announced to which we quickly repaired, with appetites not 
a little excited by our ride of ten long leagues from the port. 

**#* * ******* 

At the appointed hour (12 o'clock) our party, led by the Commodore, 
sallied forth announced by drum and trumpet, which in an instant 
brought the guard at the General's quarters under arms, and made the 
wondering inhabitants of that part of the town, throng windows and 
doors, to see the "North Americans" who bad so recently spread wars 
alarm among them. The (reneral attended by bis "Etat Major, 
received the Commodore at the threshold with an air of grace and 
cordiality, which could not fail to make a favorable impression on the 
minds of all present. The first few minutes were given to common- 
place remarks, and casual observations. At Ieugth champagne was 
introduced, when, in accordance with the custom of the country, short 
speeches or long toasts, were given, which on this occasion were appro- 
priate, touching the relations, past and present, subsisting between 
Mexico and the United States. These preliminaries gotten through 
with, to the apparent satisfaction of all present, the General took from 
his desk a manuscript which be asked leave to read to the Commodore; 
premising that it had been drawn up in November, as its date indi- 
cated, and at the time he bad expected the Commodore's visit. The 
document he held in his band, purported to be Articles of a "Conven- 
tion " celebrated, or entered into, by himself as the representative of 
the Republic of Mexico, aud Commander General etc., etc., of the 
California.", on one part; and Commodore Thomas Ap. Jones, Com- 
mander-in-chief of the United States Naval Forces, etc., etc., on the 
other part. The General also remarked that in drawing up these 
articles, he had left broad margin for the purpose of recording, if any, 
such objections as the Commodore might entertain to any of the articles 
he might be unwilling to subscribe. The General then proceeded to 
read the articles in Spanish, which language the Commodore not under- 
standing, was verbally reudered into English by the Commodore's 
Secretary, as the reading proceeded. 

The Commodore, astonished at the character of the articles, at the 
conclusion of the reading said, that a literal translation into English, 
was indispensably necessary before he would intimate his views in 
regard to them. The General retaiued the paper for the purpose of 
Laving a translation made by his own linguist aud between seven and 
eight o'clock, p. m., sent them in quadruplicates, both in Spanish and 
English, to the Commodore, then preparing for the ball which was to 
assemble at nine that evening. 

The requirements of the articles* were so preposterous as to excite 
for the moment feelings of disgust mingled with commiseration, and to 
make it a matter of serious reflection aud consultation between the 
Commodore aDd Captain Stribling, as to the course most proper to 

The Commodore's first impulse was to return the papers without 
comment, and to refuse further communication with the man wdio 
could have the effrontery to trump up such charges as those for which 
indemnification was claimed. While thus reflecting upon the proper 
course to pursue, the time for the ball came and with it a drenching 
rain. The Governor sent an aid-d"e-camp to the Commodore to ascer- 
tain if he could not remain another night at the pueblo, in which case 
the ball should be postponed on account of the rain, which as there 
were but few carriages in the village, would prevent most of the ladies 

"These articles were officially published in Mexico on December 23d, 
oa a part of tin.- correspoudenee between Com. Jones ami General Micheltorena; 
nearly a month before (_\nii. Jones' visit to the pueblo and before he had ever 
heard of such demands. 

all anxious to be present, from attending. The Commodore feeling 

bound to return to the ship as s as ins public duties were completed, 

1,, ;ed the General to postpone the ball, but could not 
attendance on next evening, in a half-hour more the aid-de-camp 
returned and announced the General's carriage in waiting, to convey 
the Commodore and the ladies of the house to the ball. 

With much repugnance produced by the Quixotic claims Bet up by 
General Micheltorena, fhi damages never sustained, and forexpensea 
never incurred, the Commodore laid aside all personal feelings and 
demlrd on meeting the General at the ball, when' in the coursi i 
evening, be hoped by observations and personal intercourse, as well na 
by inquiry, to [earn something more of the Mexican character, with 
which, however, he felt himself pretty well acquainted. The ball was 
well and brilliantly attended, supper was not served until after one 
o'clock, and i he dancing ceased only with the rising of the sun of next 
morning. Not alto-ether disappointed in his anticipation?, the Com- 
modore left the ball about two o'clock with a far better understanding 
of the character and expectations of General Micheltorena, than be 
before had. All who know the General speak of him as a gentleman 
of great respectability; certainly his personal appearance, manners, 
and education, eutiile'him to the rank of an elegant gentleman. Such 
he might be considered at any court. His merits as a soldier and 
servant in the Republic's cause are told by no less than live orders of 
merit, won in as many battles, and are sealed by bis blood, freely shed 
on no lew occasions. But General Micheltorena is a Mexican, a 
descendant of the once proud and haughty CastilianS, so celebrated lor 
bombast in diplomacy, demanding everything and insisting on nothing 
but the privilege of using high- ton td ami unmeaning words. I ln- 
pristinc trait has descended from generation to generation, and now 
flourishes with more than pristine vigor in the cabinet and councils of 
Santa Ads. 

On the 20th, Commodore Jones returned the articles pre- 
sented by Micheltorena without signature or approval, but 
accompanied by a note, in which lie replied to the demand 
"that be should salute the Mexican rl ig af S m Pedro," thai he 
would do so upon assurance that gun for gun would be 
returned, that Wing the only condition upon which United 
States ships were allowed to salute Eoreign flags. To this note 
Micheltorena made no reply, nor did lie afterward allude to the 
elaborate articles he had so grandiloquently presented ' m the 
following day Commodore Jones paid bis final adieus, andl rag 
accompanied by the former escort and several American resi 
dents to San Pedro, lie there embarked with his offic 

(According to Colonel Warner, the house within which the 
ball given by Micheltorena to < lommo lore Jones was held, was 
at that time the only two-story house in Los Angeles 
years later the upper story was razed, and the remaining por 
tion now forms one of the dwellings in Chinatow Q. 

Mic'ieltorena n iw repaired to .Monterey and assumed con- 
trol, but to guard against any further freaks on the part of 
United States ships of war, he stored his ammunition at the 
Mission of San Juan Bautista, where in November, 1844, it 
was captured by the deposed Governor Alvarado, aided by 
( lenerals Vallejo and < 'astro. 

At tiiis time Micheltorena was in bad odor at I.-- Lag - 
not so much on personal, or even political grounds, as on 
account of the vile rabble who composed hisarmy, these having 
made themselves very obnoxious to the p many dis- 

graceful acts during their stay in the pueblo. tJpon hoe 


View op 

OF Los Angeles, 68 Main St. 

E F. S^ence , Cashier. 

'U61/SHS4 BY rHQMP&QN * V**Sl 


of AJvarados insurrection the Lo V.n elian native and for- 
eign, declared for him en manse, and prepared foi war 

In this extremity Micheltorena ap John A Sutter 

for aid, and he consented to espouse the Go pro 

vidr-l the latter would insure to him and hi friend certain 
■ I anl of land which they desired. Tbi agreed to 
about one hundred other foreignci principal!) Americ 
placed themselves under Micheltorena's orders, and the lattoi 
marchdd towards Los Angeles; but so slow was the progr 

made, and so little anxiety for the f i of hi enemies did he 

display, that many of his foreign allies left him in di [u '< 

Upon the 21st of February the rcvolutioni I undei the 
leadership of Gen Josd Oa tro Gen Andres Pico, and Gen Pio 

I' , pushed out. from Loa Angelc and enterc I the I 

pallej here, baking a podtion, th.33 awaited the on laughl of 
their foes, Atnon.3 this force were Benjamin !> Wilson, of 
Jurupa; William Workman and John R. Rowland, of La 
Puente; James McKinlay, <■!' Monl >roy, and many other well- 
known names, the foreigners on this side i bering aboul 

fifty. Those with Mieholtorona were about as many, undei 
leadership of Captain Brandt and Major Banol There were 
also several hun trod Mexicans on each side, Both parties 

c monced firing with small cannon direct' y they >■■■ ■ in 

night of each other. The comb it ants, according to Mr. Wilson, 
were situated in the sum- ravine, I' it. about om miU apart 

Tin- tide of battle ragod with varying bucccss throughoul 
that eventful afternoon M\nj trees had their limbs broken, 
and the mountain rabbits were frightened almost to death by 
the constant explosion, of gun powder The engagemenl was 
quite as noisy as an American Fourth of July, if •*• «* *.. disas- 
trous in its consequences At last, Mr Bonjamin l> Wilsonand 
James Mchanlay, undercover of a white flag, bravely pene- 
trated tho ravine far enough to attract ill- ittention "I' their 
opposing countrymen, These consented to a parley, and 
finally, upon being assured bj Gen Pio Pico that, if he secured 
the governorship, he would do by them quite as well, and evi □ 
p^rbapi better in the matter of land grants, than would Mich- 
eltorena, they deserted from the latter < " masst 

Thus weakened, Micheltorena withdrew in great haste -(ill 
further up tin- ravine, on I tin- opposing foreigners returned to 
Los Angeles, leaving the native forces to fighl il ou1 between 
them, well knowing thorc was not much danger t,> either aide. 
\ truce w i- now had betwe :n the contending forces to bury their 
de id, consisting in all of orn node, whose head had been accident- 
al^ blown off < arlj in the engagemenl Horrified at this fearful 
carnage, ami wishing to save further sacrifice, Micheltorena 
itulated on the following morning; was shipped off to 
Mexico via San Pedro; Pio Pico was duly declared Governor; 
Castro General in command of the military; the Americans 
their land granta • ■% erj bod} was decorated with emblems 

of bravi-ry. and glowing accounts of the tragic death of tJi 

. patched post-haste to the Home Government Once 
more the country was saved and everybody was happy. 



[March I, L846 March 1. 1847.1 

J A !■'[.■■• t 'ir. m Indian Am ii ! I :n Waal) 

Mcrritt and [dc < 'aptu i a I I I 

It. dan '■'• tr Kearni I 

Captures M I Los Angel pture of 

Sbd1 b Bai bm I 

Military Trick— B K ' ' 

Ci i Pio Pico i ... ' 

I. ,11 mi I ii.n :■ Hi I;- i r i: ■. ..|r ol the ' 'aliforni in i i 

mation B D. Wilson Pal I lM ' ■ ■ ted ' >i)Iespio 

Capitulate! A ' ■ ISamnritan VIi rvineReachi ■ San I'i 

Plorca 1 Sih. mi \\ 1. 1 km. i a Circumvents 1 I I b furnot! Pacifi 
cation Desii d Stock! m Arrives at San Podi B 

Saila for Saa Diegn Erroneous History Joined by Kei ■> 3ti 

i in- Am i .. ■>■! - Prii m - Lib iral <\ Mi a 1 Si ockton'i 

Roplj Battle "i Rio Ban Gabriel Battl if thi Mi i Lo 
Recaptured Stockton's General Ordei Californiaui Retire to San Pai 
qual- Flight i>t Floret Fremont's Insubordination He U > I 

A Disputed Point— Fremont Camps at San I iabriel tndignati f Stock 

ton and Kearney Relics of the Wai A Disputed Governorship 
Qi in ill Kearney Governor. 

A in i; the expulsion of Micheltorena, and the installati f 

Governor Ptco, matters resumed their usual sleepy and uninter- 
esting course. The first ripple was caused early in March 
L84U by the arrival of Brevet-* laptain John ' '. Fremont, ;i young 
Anii'i ican engineer and explorer in the service of the United 
States He came to the northern frontier with a surveying 
party of sixtj two men. and petitioned General Castro, com- 
mander-in-chief of the Mexican forces, fa- permission to 
encamp in the San Joaquin valley This was accorded, but 
scarcely had the American party pitched their tents, before 
tin \ were peremptorily ordered by ' 'asi ra to leave the country ; 
he, in excuse for this extraordinary behavior, pleading fresh 
instructions from Mexico. Fremont refused to leave, and 
entrenching himself on an eminence known as " Hawk's Peak,' 
thirty piles from Monterey, bid defiance to Castro, who 
! maneuvered his forces day after day with a great display of 
skillful horsemanship on tli<- plains below. The Americans 
greatly enjoyed tin- exhibition, but werenot one whit intimi- 
dated thereby, Leaving here after afew days iv-t Captain 
Fremont marched his party toward Oregon, but was overtaken 
by Lieutenant Gillespie of the United States army, with dis- 
patches from Washington. That night Fremont's camp was 
attacked by Indians instigated presumably by Castroj and 
four of liis men killed. Tin- party now returned 

June 15, 1846, Capt S Merritt and William B Ide 
l"»tli native Americans, either by direction <>!" ''apt Fremont, 
i-t with his Full concurrence, seised upon the railitan 
post of Sonoma, imprisoned the Mexican Governor thereof, 
hoisted tli<- historic " Bear Flag" a sheel of cotton cloth, hav- 
ing the rude semblance of a grissl) bear smeared thereon in 

berry juice, by. means of a blacking-brush), and b) pixtel g 

tion avowed their intention to overthrow the mle of Mexico in 
California, an ish the independence of that territory. 

At a subsequent meeting of American resident ■ these acl wore 
■ and Fremont was declared Govei noi 

In tile in. anl imi ' '■ in jn - ha I unknot n to tl 

n-i Mexico, and an exp idil i hip tin 

six hundred I d St phon U Kearni \ . \\ as 

ing i In continent in tin din cl ion ol i he Pai inV Siinitl 

taneousl) with Frei it's action in the north ' ' i lore Sloal 

-.!■.. I upon Monterey; and bis ucci or (J nodore Stock 

ton pii pared at once for the reduction of the then principal 
city of Los \ ii 

With this end in view, I rganized a battalion of ted 

riflemen, of which Fremont was appointed Majm and Gillespie 
< laptain, This force was embarked on the iloop of w av ty/amt 
and dispatched to San I liego with ordei to co-operate with the 

* iommodore in liis proposed vi menl on the Ciudad >!•■ los 

Angeles. On August 1st Stockton sjii| ( -,| in the Congress 
and on the 6th arrived at San Pe^lro having taken poHsesHion 

of Santa Barban his waj He now learned thai the enemy 

under Generals Castro and Andres Pico wore itronglj posted 
near Los Angeles witha force estimated al fifteen hundred 

men. He learned further thai Major Fr ml had landed at 

San Diego, luit was unable to procure horses, and therefore 
could nol join him. In the absence of Fremont 1 battalion 
Stockton was wholly destitute of cavalry; yet, impressed with 
the importance of celerity of movement, he disembarked his 
men The anchorage al San Pedro was at this time almost. 
wholly unprotected; there could be no certainty of finding their 
ships awaiting them in the eventof retreat; and all felt that 

victory or death" must therefore bo the result of their enter 
prise. The force consisted only of from three hundred to Foui 
hundred marines wholly ignorant of military drill; and their 
onlj artillery- lix small guns, rudely mounted and dragged by 

A few days after landing, a flag of truce approached ovei it" 
hills, borne by commissioners from Castro, l>< firing to impre . 

.nil an exaggerated idea of the strength of hi Eorci 
Stork ion directed hia little army to march at interval of t wenty 
or thirty paces apart, to a position where they would tx 
tered from observation. In tins manner the commi ionei 
weii completely deceived, and when on their arrival they were 
marched up to the mouth of an immense mortar, shrouded in 



skins save its huge aperture, their terror and discomfiture were 
plainly discernible Stockton receiver] them with a stern and 
forbidding countenance, harshly demanding their mission, which 
t!n\ disclosed in great confusion. They bore a letter from 
< lastro proposing a truce, each party to hold its own possessions 
until ;i general pacification should be had. This proposal Stock- 
ton rejected with contempt, and dismissed the commissioners 
with the assurance thai only an immediate disbandment of his 
forces and an unconditional surrender, would shield * (astro from 
the vengeance of an incensed foe The messengera remounted 
their horses in dismay, and Bped back to Castro, evidently 
fully impressed with the strength and sanguinary spirit of "los 

Amn-icii tms!" 

Two days later other messengers arrived from ('astro, bring- 
ing a bombastic letter, in which he rejected the termsoffered 
by Stockton, and concluded in these words: " 1 will not with- 
hold any sacrifice to oppose your intentions: and if through 
misfortune, the flag of the United States waves in California, it 
will not be by my acquiescence nor by that of the last of my 
compatriots." These commissioners were treated as were the 
others, and dismissed with disdain. 

Having now completed his arrangements, Stockton prepared 
to march upon Los Angeles. He dispatched a courier to Fre- 
mont with instructions to join him on the plains of the mesa, 
and on the Uth of August commenced his march. The most 
constanl vigilance was necessary to prevent surprise. The 
enemy's skirmishers were almost continually in sight, and it 
was impossible to estimate their numbers. The only provisions 
of the American force were afforded by their cattle, which 
were driven along in hollow squares, The guns were dragged 
by hand; yet notwithstanding all drawbacks, the distance from 
San Pedro to the vicinity of Los Angeles (nearly thirty miles), 
was traversed in one day. While en route Stockton was 
informed by courier from ' astro, "that if he marched upon the 
town, he would find it the grave of himself and men." '•Then," 

answered the Conn lore, "tell the General to have the bells 

ready to toll at eight o'clock, as I shall be there by that time." 
Ami he kept his word; but General ('astro, though posted 

advantag isly upon the high ground commanding the pueblo 

and surrounding country, with nearly a thousand troops, and 
several pieces of artillery never fired ashot; but, despite all 
his previous gasconade and boastful threats— disbanded his 
forces, and fled to Sonora by way of the Colorado river. Gov- 

ernor ''"' ! ' ;i1 -" abandoned the city, and reached Sonora by 

way of San Diego. Some effort was made to capture them, but 

without juCO ss 

1 i Fremont's arrival, Commodore Stockton formally took 

I »on "'" Los Angeles August 15, L846). A number of 

prominent Mi fricans surrendered themselves as prisonei-sof war 
among whom were Don Jose* Maria Flores and Don Andres 

Pico n ho u. re permitted to go at large on their parole of honor 
no) again to beaT anus against the United States Commo- 
dore Stockton now issued a ] damation declaring California a 

territory of the United States, and as all resistance had ceased, 
proceeded to organize a civil and military government, himself 
retaining the position of Commander-in-chief and Governor, 
The people were invited to assemble on September 15th, and 
choose their officers. 

About tliis time Stockton first learned that war had been 
declared between the United States and Mexico; and leaving 
fifty men under command of Lieutenant A. H. Gillespie to gar- 
rison Los Angeles, he proceeded north, to look after affairs in 
that quarter Tims the whole great territory of Uppei < lalifor- 
nia bad been subjected to American rule without bloodshed 
or even the firing of a gun. 

It is claimed that immediately following Stockton's departure, 
Lieutenant Gillespie inaugurated a series of rigorous reforms in 
the habits rami pastimes of the inhabitants of Los Angeles; seek- 
ing to reduce them— at a step— to his standard of propriety, in a 
manner smacking somewhat of tyrcmny to a people so lately 
subjugated. This action, with his insignificant force of half- 
disciplined soldiers, cannot be too highly condemned, and 
amounted to an almost criminal imprudence. The result of 
such rashness was easy to foresee The American camp was 
attacked and besieged by a party of Californians under one 
Cervol Varelas, a native of Los Angeles. General Floras, in 
violation of his parole, rallied his scattered forces, and upon the 
23d day of September, 1846, once more took possession of the 
city. He then issued the following- proclamation; 

Mexican Army, .Section of Operations, i 
Angeles, October 1, 1840. | 

f fl ^m L T C ; TI ^ 8:_It i f. flmonth and a half that, by lamentable 
fatality, fruit of the cowardice and inability of the first authorities of 
the department, we behold ourselves subjected and oppressed by an 
lnsigmhcaut force of adventurers of the United States of America 
placing us in a worse condition than that of slaves 

They are dictating to us despotic and arbitrary laws, and loading us 
with contribution!, and oneroid burdens, which have for an object the 
nZ5/? r t! ldU8trya ^ d a S r i? ultu 'e, and to force us to abandon our 
property to be possessed and divided among themselves 

And shall we be capable to allow ourselves to be subjugated, and to 
uZ P ;%T men ^ tlie /r ifihty el *»'™of slavery? Shall we permit 
Wood ifrf ™ inhent * d if <™<™ fathers, which cost them so much 
hood and so .many sacrifices? Shall we make nur families victims 
ot the most barbarous slavery? Shall we wait to see our w=ves violated 
e T?vLXf ntCh, i dr6I ! pUni8h / d b >' the American whips-our prop- 
eStenee fTll^f Upl n P™*™*""* '»%• to drag through an 

S?nf™«2 ^ ,nR u Ut and Hhame? No! a thousand times no! 
Countrymen, first death ! 

&Jm!?. i/2 1°^ nut feeI his heart beat with vwtanM ! "'ho does not 
teei nis blood boil, to contemplate our situation ; who will be the 
Mexican who will not feel indignant; and who will not take up arm* 
to destroy our oppressors? We believe there is not one so vile and 
cowardly. U ith such a motive the majority of the inhabitants of the 
aistrict, justly indignant against our tyrants, raise the cry of war 
with arms in their hands, and of one accord swear to sustain the 
iollmvine articles : — 

1st. We, the inhabitants of the department of California, us mem- 

bers of the great Mexican nation, d iclare that it is, and b u been our 
wish to belong to her alone, free and independent. 

2d. Consequently the authorities intended and nam id by theinrad 
ing force* ol ths United States are held null and void. 

3d. All the North American* being enemies of Mexico we swear 
not to lay down our arms till they are expelled from the Mexican 

ith. All Mexican citizens, from the age of fifteen to sixty who do 
not take up arms to forward the present plan, are declared traitor* 
iio*l under pain of deal b, 

5th. Every Mexican or foreigner who may directly or indirectly aid 
the enemies of Mexico will be punished in the ai ■' manner 

6th. The property of the North Americana in the department who 
may directly or indirect!) have taken part with, or aided the enemies 
shall be confiscated and used for the expenses of the war- and their 
persons anal! be taken to the interior of the Republic, 

7th. All those who may oppose the present plan will he punished 

With arm-. ' 

8th. All the inhabitants of Santa Karl. in. and the district of the 
north, will be invited immediately to adhere to the present plan, 
Camp in Angeles. September 24, 1846. 

Jose M\. Flores. 

Tins proclamation was signed by more than three] Ired 


I pon ( lommodore Stockton's departure, he had commissioned 
Benjamin J>. Wilson as captain to raise a company of men, and 
from his ranch at Jurupa to watch the frontier, for fear I lastro 

might undertake to return Ai the time of tl utbreah in 

Los Angeles, Captain Wilson and company were in the moun- 
tainsnearhis ranch engaged in hunting They had wa b I 
nearly all their ammunition, when a courier arrived From Gilles 
pie, apprising Captain Wilson of his critical position, and com 
manding him to join him (Gillespie) at once with all the force 
at his disposal. Captain Wilson has left on record an account 
of liis movements, which is in substance about as follows : ■ 

By the sain.- messengers who brought him word of the revoll 
in Los Angeles, came also a letter from Colonel Isaac William 
(an American of the Chino Ranch, requesting him to bring his 
force to that place, where he would find plenty of ammunition 
< Captain Wilson thereupon marched his men to the < Ihino Ranch, 
hut upon arriving there, was told l>y William- thai an officer 
and soldiers of the California brigade had just been there, and 
taken all the ammunition he had. 

Captain Wilson now desired a messenger by whom he might 
apprise Gillespie of his helpless condition, and total inabilit} to 
aid him. Colonel Williams provided one Felix Gallardo to 
whom Capt; Wilson intrusted his dispatches As the messen 
ger was departing, Colonel Williams held some private conver- 
sation with him, and the man ever afterward maintained that 
at that last interview, Colonel William- persuaded him by 
thn-afs to deliver ('apt. Wilson's dispatch to the Mexican 
General Flora instead of to Gillespie) with Colonel Williams 
compliments, as a proof of his entire devotion fco the Mexican 
cans.. This Gallardo did. 

Upon the following morning Captain Wilson's party was 
surrounded by a Mexican cavalry force, eighty or one hundred 

* ^W6ViJW/£*> 

Thompson tr vi tar. 

Residence of O.W.CHILDS. Main Street. 
Between 11T h £3 12™ Streets, Lds Angeles, Cala 



trohg, under the leadership of < !i rvoj Varela Th) \jm ri 
, rrtrenched themselves in an adobe building and from the win- 
flow fired upon the M< ciean but thi ■ elo ing in set fire to 

the asphaltum roof and compelled a urrender ler 

of good treatment; but this not until one M< i been 

killed and everal had been wounded upon both id) 

< Mi their way back i" town Captain Wilson rode with thi 
leader Varclaf omi distance in advance of the lattei \ company, 
which had in charge all of Captain Wilson men aa prisoi 
Noticing that the troop had halted the two leadci put pui 

to their horses and dashed bael to a certi I" cause The} 

were just in time, for the troacherou* Mexican bad drawn 

their prisoners up in fil no side of the road, and were about 

t ossacre the whole lot. Varelas bravely dashed between 

and swore he would tun his sword through the first of 
liis command who dared to fire a shot, That he had pledged 
his honor as a man and as a commander for thesafetj of the 
prisoners; and only over his dead body might thoj uftei hi 

In ( !aptain Wilson's party, among others, were the following : 

It. V Alexander Living at Wilmington 

Mat Harbin Living i rthern * California 

t Irii Walters Living in Los Angeles 

Michael White " " 

John Rowland I lead 

Isaac < lallaghan 

Evan * lallaghan 

Joseph Pendre 

William Skene " 

L. Etubidoux 

The prisoners were .-ill huddled into a small adobe room on 
B03 le Heights," opposite tho city ; and a pries! coming in to 
confess them, they began to think they would yet be shot 

All this time Gillespie was encamped on Fort Hill, closelj 
watched by the Mexicans, who felt much hatred for him per- 
onallj "'I account of real or fanoied ill-treatment The Mexi- 
can General* Flores, now sent for Captain WiLson, and 
dispatched him as a messenger to Gillespie, offering i«» allow 
him to march his men to San Pedro, carrying their arms, and 
there embark unmolested. The offer was accepted, and early 
th, ,,,,i morning September 30th) Gillespie marched his men 
to San Pedro, and embarked on board an Ajnerican merchant 
ship, lying there at anchor. Thus, by the injudicious acta of 
.,,, inferior officer, the southern country was again lost, and 
all had to be done over again. 

The Wijson part) of prisoners were then marched into town, 
and imprisoned in a building standing on the site now 

Hi gallant conduct upon tins occasion wan never forgotten bj the Amer- 

,n,i tbou [h in afti 1 yean lie b 1 1 Lissipated and reckleas. En [u« nth 

in the hands of the law for petty offences, to vrti nevei rofferedtoat thi 
ne amerii iu was always "n hand to pay h« 

occupied by the St Charles Hotel: and now for the first time 
were the wounded allowed the services of a physician- who 
was none other than l»i Richard S Den a British subji 
-till resident in the -it\ The) were in a wretched condil 
without beds, blankets, or even necessary clothes Here m 
chance for "the good Samaritan," and that worthy gentleman 
who, thank Heaven, knows no race; his broader perception 
^nizing the "Divine brotherhood of man' was not slow 
live in th< person of Don 1 Celis, a natu ■■ of Old 

Spain and strongly imbued with the spirit of true 1 
chivalry. He supplied the prisoi >m his private st 

with beds, blankets, clothin 

with to while awaj thi? irksomeness "t captivity. Let such 
humanity, at a time when Americans wore regarded 03 the 
natives as worse than dogs, ever be remembered; and honored 
be the name of 1 >- *i ■ Eulogio de Celis! Soon after this, Cap! 
Wilson was offered liberty for himself and men on parole, but 
refused it, as Flores would not incorporate a stipulation agree 
■ .hi exchange of prisoners. 

Upon hearing of the turn affairs had taken at Los i} 
Commodore Stockton dispatched Captain Mervine in the 1 S 
Bloop "1' war Snvawtioh with three hundred and twenty men to 
San Pedro. Here he was joined by Gillespie, and on Octobei 
7th they landed, and marched toward La Vngeles A short 
distance from the landing, the Americans were attacked by a 
body of native cavalry some seventy five strong under Jose* 
Maria Flores and Antonio Carillo, carrying also a small piece of 
artillery So bravely «li'l this little band fight, and so skillfull] 
did they manage their tiny cannon, that Mervine was com 
pelled on the next day to retreat onboard his ships, with the 
loss of five men killed and six wounded. Flores gave orders to 
have the prisoners shot but to this < larillo would not consent 

A scheme was now concocted by General Flores and one or 
two others, to send all the Ajnerican prisoners as trophies to 
Mexico, William Workman an Englishman of La Puente, 
getting word of this plot, set himself to circumvent it. In 
conjunction with Don [gnacio Palomares and other prominent 
Cahfomians, he organized a revolution against the rule of Flores 
whoa headquarters were attacked in the night, himself cap- 
tured and placed in irons, while the prisoners were removed t<> 
San Gabriel. Subsequently the matter was arranged, and 
Flores once more assumed command, having pledged himself 
hereafter to respect the usages of civilized warfare in his treat- 
ment of prisoners. Mr. Wilson and companions were then 
returned to Los Angeles. 

Soon after this Captain Wilson's men were removed by Don 
Jose* Antonio Carillo, temporarily in command, to the Cerritos 
Ranch now owned by J. Bixby, but at that time by John 
Temple ; while Captain Wilson was himself placed upon the 
mesa near San Pedro landing, to await the coming of Com- 

wh ■ » 1- sli trtly expectel in the 
His instructions were th it while thi Vn 

lauded he should, on an agreed signal from 
Carillo, run up a white Hag; an I unlerco\ irof that boar a 
of pacification from Carillo t- Commodore Stockton, 
asking for a cessation of hostilities until the war then pro 
ing in Mexico should b ■ decide I, thus settling the fate of < 'ali 
forma, one waj 01 the 

Under this arrangement Captain Wilson, in charge of a 

Mexican sergeant t.^-.h up his p sition n tai the Ian ling With 

a view to impress Commodore Stockton with an exaggerated 

his strength, and thus ensure a favo ibli an wer, Carillo 

now assembled a vast cavalcade of wild h n 1 Pi tm tlio plain 

and dispersing his mounted troops ai [these tho whole both 

m\ in motion, passing and repassing a gap in 
tho foot-hills, plainly discernible from the roadstead. Owing 
to the dust raised bj this cavalcade it was impoesiblo to discern 
and no one would suspect, Boeing some that all the hoi had 
not rid 1 - I |' 'ii at rn al of th 1 Congi\ n, Novomb 1 11 I101 

boats wen tent on si 1 laden with wai material, but before 

an} porti 1 it could be disembarked, the) were ignalod IV 

bhi ve iel, and returning to her, the anchoi 1 wore hoisted, and 
the Commodore proceeded to San Diego Carillo hoy wnl for 
Captain Wilson, and regretting that he had so overreached his 
aims by msktng too much of a deinonetration, and thu driving 
Stockton away, the two returned with tho Mexican forces to 
Los Angeles.* 

Soon after his arrival at San Diego, Commodore Stockton 

wb joined by General Kearney and his escort of dra 

with which he had just arrived from N«-\\ Mexico having 
suffered defeat by the Mexicans at San Pasqual, with a I" of 
eighteen killed and as many wounded. On December 29th 
the march for Los Angeles commenced, tho entire force con 
listing of five hundred and forty sailors and marim and i ' ■■ 
dragoons, with si\ pieces of artillery. The men were foi the 
most part poorly clothed, having no shoes but such as they had 
made for themselves out of canvas Upon thi march Kit 
' arson acted as chii f of a small corps of scout 

Upon January 6th Don Andre Pico and everal other prom 
in. at I laliforaians, came to the prison where I aptain B \> Wilson 
companion were confined in Loa Ang< [1 gavi them their 
liberty and advised them to look out for their own afety, as 
no force could be spared to guard them from the rabble. Don 
Andres presented Captain Wilson and John Rowland with his 
two famous horses, Tht Blanco ' noted for their incomparable 
speed and thus mounted they next day sought their respective 

* It will be noticed that this account differs from those generalli ii 1 

■ 1 hitherto written. These o# maintain '/<"/ Stockton disembarked M 
e even go- so a£ to way that he gave partial battle 
l ■ 1 before re^embarking, Mr. Wilson deni 

to, and gives thia aa what he him •'' ■■•>■ 



homes, while their companions distributed themselvefl anion 
the mam friendly vineros in the neighborhood, and carefully 
avoided the public street*?. 

At San Juan Capistrano, Stockton was met by William 
Workman English and Charles Flugge- German), both old 
and prominent residenteof Los Angeles, sent by General Florea 

to obtain the terms u] which the submission of the insurgi nl 

forces would be received. They were told by Commodore 
Stockton that he would guarantee the lives and property of al] 
others, only on the unconditional surrender to him of General 
Florea. He, having forfeited bis honor as a soldier by breaking 
his parole, would receive no mercy, but would be shot immedi- 
ately, if captured. To these terms neither the commissioners, 
nor ;ni> of the < laUfbrnians, were prepared to accede. 

On the evening of January 7th, the < lommodore dispatched a 
spy under cover of night, to discover the Btrengfch and position 
of the enemy in front. They were formed between the Ameri- 
can ai my and the Rio San Gabriel, apparently waiting to give 
battle, and were estimated at from one thousand to twelve hun- 
dred men, almost wholly cavalry. On the morning of the 
8th Stockton ordered all the guns of his men to be fired off and 
reloaded, then passing through their ranks, reminded them that 
it was the anniversary of the battle of New Orleans. They 
were then formed in a square, with the baggage and cattle in 
the center, and in this form approached the river, where the 
enemy were observed prepared for their reception, being also 
strongly posted on theopposite heights. The banks commanding 
the ford (occupied by the Mexican artillery) were about fifty 
yards from the river, quite steep, and about fifty feet in height. 
When within a quarter of a mile of the ford, the Americans 
were formed in line, and orders were given that not a gun 
should be fired until the crossing was effected. In the act of 
crossing (the water being four Beet deep), word was Bent by 
General Kearney to the Commander-in-chief, that the bed of the 
river consisted of quicksand, and could not be passed with the 
guns. Stockton instantly repaired to the head of the column, 
seized the ropes, and with Ins own hands helped to drag over 
il„. artillery. The passage accomplished, the troops were again 
formed for battle. 'Efoa < tommodore took charge of the artillery 
and personally pointed the gnus with such deadly precision, 
that the enemy were soon compelled to abandon theirs, when 
hesent Lieutenant Graj with orders to Kearney to charge up 
the bank and sieze them, while he prepared to receive a charge 
which was about being made on his Hank. Before Kearney 
could reach the ascent however, the Californians returned and? 
withdrew their guns. The greater part of their force after 
making a circuit of several hundred yards) now descended to 
the level of the river and attacked Stockton on his left Hank, 
but were so warmly received that they retreated up the hill, 
bj the Commodore, who charged up the ascent with 

his artillery. Upon reaching the heights, the enemj were dis 
co ered a short distance away drawn up in line of battle, with 
their artillery in front The Americans were now ordered to 

lie down, while their leader ran out his guns, and himself ail 1 

each piece as fast as it was loaded, with such fatal effect that 
the California artillerymen were repeatedly driven from their 
guns. cavalry mad.- several attempts to charge, but each 
in turn proved ineffectual Dispersed in every direction on the 
heights, a portion of their right wing wheeled upon the rear of 
the American forces and attacked < aptain < Ullespie, who, encum- 
bered as In- was with baggage and cattle, received them so 
warmly that they rled across the river. Their main bodj 
retreated before the assailants until, reaching a ravine thej 
renewedabrisk fire, when Stockton again took eharge of the 
guns, and by his well directed shots, drove them from their 
position. They then rapidly fled, carrying otJ their killed and 
wounded, whose numbers could not be ascertained. The 
Americans lost only "no man killed and nine wounded, in this 

On January 9th Stockton pursued the retiring foe in the 
direction of Los Angeles, and after a march of six miles, came 
u]) with them on the plains of the mesa, some four or five miles 
south-easterly from the city. They were well posted with a 
ravine to the left of their lane, which masked their artillery. 
When the Americans were about six hundred yards distant, 
the Mexican guns opened fire on the advancing column. Prep- 
arations for a charge were visible, and they had evidently been 
strongly re-enforced. Stockton formed his whole force into a 
square, with the baggage, horses, and oxen in the center; and gave 
imperative orders to his men not to fire a shot until he gave the 
signal, which he said would be when he could s< e the eyt s of th\ 
enemy The ( Jalifomians made a gallant charge, said by those 
who witnessed it to have been a most brilliant spectacle. With 
banners flying, mounted on fleet horses gaily caparisoned, 
they bounded on, the very earth seeming to tremble beneath 
their tread. As a wall of adamant stood the Americans, calmly 
awaiting the signal of their leader. The signal is given, ami a 
volley of leaden hail smites horse and rider to the dust ! Thrown 
into momentary confusion again they form, again charge, and 
with like result. A third time they form, and attack three 
sides of the square simultaneously, but the effort is fruitless; 
and at last in despair, they scatter and fly in all directions, 
each regarding only his own individual safety. On January 
10th. at the head of his advance guard, on the principal road 
leading into Los Angeles, with banners waving and drums 
beating, Commodore Stockton entered the city accompanied by 
I ieneral Kearney. He directed I 'aptain Gillespie once more to 
raise the flag which he had been compelled to strike on Sep- 
tember 30th, previous; and on the next day issued the 
following general order: — 

HkADQUARTERS, ClODAD ni; I. os \ ...I ii» 

January llth, IW7. i 

rheC aander-in-chiel congratulates the officers and men of the 

southern division of 'lie i rrited States' forces in California on the 

brilliant victories obtained by them over the enemy on the 8th 1 

J)th instants, and on once 'e taking possession of Ciudad '< lot ingelet. 

Betakes the earliest i nent co c mend their gallantry and g I 

conduct, both in the battle fought on the 8th on the banks of the Rto 
s ,n Gabrit i. and on the 9th inst. on the Plains of tin Afi 1 1. 

The steady courage of the troops in forcing their passage across the Rio 
iNow Qabt u ■'. where the officers and men were alike employed in dragging 
the guns through the water, against the galling fire of the enemy, 

without exchanging a shot ; and their gallant charge up the 1 u 

against the enemy's cavalry— has perhaps never been surpassed : and 
the cool determination with which, in the battle oi the nth, they 
repulsed the charge of cavalry made by the enemy al the aame time 
on their front and rear, has extorted the admiration of the enemy, and 
deserves the best thanks of their countrymen. 

I;. P. Stoc v 

Governor and Commander-in-chief of the Territory of California. 

The Mexican force, under Flores, failing to make an^ impres 
siun upon or staj the American advance, retreated to San 
Pasqual, some five or six miles north-east of Cos Angeles. < In 
the evening of the Llth, 'ieneral Flores with forty or fifty men. 
left this place for Sonora, going by way of San Qorgonio Pass 
and < lolora lo rivei\ < ieneral An Ires Pico thereup m su sceeded 
Flores in command of the Mexican forces 

The day following Commodore Stockton's departure from 
San Diego, on his waj to Los Angeles, he sent dispatches to 
Fremont, commanding him to meet him (Stockton on the plains 
south of the latter city. It has been freelj charged by 
Captain Wilson and others, that Fremont wilfully neglected to 
obey these instructions; and by taking circuitous routes 
through the mountains, purposely waste I time, thus avoiding a 
junction with Stockton, and consequent participation in the 
engagements, which he well knew must, precede the re-occupa 

tion of Los Angeles. However this may be, certainly Fre nl 

did not reach the mission of San Fernando until January 
llth; one day after Stockton's triumphant entry into the prin- 
cipal city. 

Fremont had with him at this time a native Calif omian 
named Jose" Jesus Picoi who had been captured as a spy, ana 
been condemned by court-martial to be shot. Fremont had, 
however, remitted his sentence, and this man acting apparently 
under instru itions from Fremont, entere 1 the i lalifornian camp 
at midnight on January llth. and advised the Mex'u 

to treat with Fremont at San Fernando, rather than with*' 

mo-lore Stockton at Los Angeles. The result vra ■ a m eting on 

the following i -ning near Cahuenga, b3tween Fremont and 

the Mexican leaders, and articles of capitulation were then and 
there agreed upon, by which the usual consequences of broken 
paroles and all such small matters were waived andageneral 
pacification provided for. The treaty was signed by Major P 
II. Reading, Captain Louis McLane and Colonel William B 
Russell on behalf of the Americans; and i>\ Jose Antonio 
Carillo and Aueustin Olvera for the Californians. It was 


Residence or W¥ H.PERRY, Lumber Dealer, East Suburbs of Los Angeles, California. 

"*-%«[ i-o "' ■-■ »■ io* * *CSI 

gr Z L 3M 

it* us ei-f sr. H.F. 


approved January 13, 184/7, by John C. Fremont, aa "mi I 

commandant of California,' and by Andn ?'u» mmand 

:m t of aquadron and chief of the national forces in C^fornia, ' 
Copies were duly exchanged, and the war in ' 


According to Tuthil] and other hi torian ' ol I Fremoni 

now entered !«* Angeles and reported to * fcmmodore Stockton 

and fcwodaj i later received f th. lattei hi comn 

Governor But Captain Wilson, in bis memo ainl 

thai !■•„,, i. marched his force dired to San Gabriel Mi 

and there encamped, making no reporl whatevei However 
this may be, thefactof his having executed a treat) with fchi 
Oalifornian loaders, without consultation with hia iiperioi 

officer caused great indignation in the breasts of C lor 

Stockton an I General Kearaej (them h i oppo ed in inter. I 
and led to hia (Fremont's) subsequent court-martial and dis- 
grace. Tho treaty ho had signed was however, honored by 
Stockton and became the basis of ageneral pacification aa U 
purported by ita terma to ba Thus ended all military opera 
tbn ■ within the bounds of Los ^lgeles county, 

A i. his first interview with Commodore Stockton, General 
\,,hvs Pico disclosed to the fanner where hejiad concealed two 

of hiscannon. As these were of but little vi sas cannon the 

Commodore presented them to Captain Benjamin 1*. Wilson, 
who planted themes posts at the head of Commercial streel 
Whore they remain to this day, 

Soon after this Commodore Stockton repaired to San Diego, 
( aecor ding to Captain Wilson's memoirs), leaving Kearney m 
possession of Los Angeles as Governor of California, with a 
morG body-guard of about twenty soldiers under Major Emorj 
Fremontal San Gabriel, still refused to acknowledge Kearney 
as Governor; claiming that he himself held that office under 
previous appointment from Commodore Stockton. After some 
days receiving no word from Fremont, and fearing foul play 
to his person from that quarter. General Kearnej loft Los froigeles 
EorSanDiego. By his special request, Captain WUson and some of 
ma Oalifornian friends, among whom were Don Jose Sepulveda 
Eatuor of Judge YgnacioSepulveda of Los Angeles) and one of the 
Lugoa accompanied General Kearney a portion of the distance 
At San Diego the lattei was joined oj Colonel St. George Cooke 
with Mormon battalion; and shortly afterward dispatches 
arrived from Washington conni-ming Kearney a authority as 
Governor Fremont now succumbed to the inevitable and upon 
March l, L847, General Stephen W Kearney became Governor 
of California, now a territory of the United States 

_^| .■■-- • 



i. Philosophy rations Th* First 11*11— 


Uanni in Explosion Finl Civil Mai 

n.„, ii, el tonstitnti ■ 

l -The Thirty 

Finl Btate. 

There is much of philosophy in the Spanish modes of 
thought The I lastiliana of Loa An 
with their own poet, < '■ rvanto - that 

"The more thou stir it tin- worse it will be," 

Submitted to gp^ngo " rule as something not perhaps ■■ 

,l, 1M .,i but also as n mi thin ■ thai i ould not be helped. The 
bettei classe i of ' lalifornians likewise aoon Fraternized with the 

American officers; but the lower ele nte -till clung to the 

hope that sooner or later G m rnor Pi ■■ G m ral « lastro 

would return from Sonora, and by Force of arma expel lot 

,\ ■/ from the Territory In all the principal towns 

the following rude rhyme might be heard, chanted derisively 
on the Btreets by the native women: 

\"i. ru Castro 

I \ni mucho •!• "'■ - 

Vamot -l "■ ■ 1 1 
To guard against possible surprise, Loa Angeles waa for 
some time, kept garriaonedby Kearney's dragoons, i looke's Mor- 
mon battalion andaportion of Col. J D. Stevenson's New 
York regiment. The following account of thefirst ball held in 
the city in the spring of 1847 under American rule, ia con- 
densed from ' &.n Old-time Sketch' by Hon Stephen C Foster: 

s after Col. Stevenson took the c mand, the marriage of Dona 

\ - de V a rich and beautiful widow, to Dod tt. <'.. both ol tho best 
famiiieB in California, toot place, and the officers ol th< garrison 
concluded to get up a ball in honor of the event, and 
the friendly relations just established between the ' ahfornians and 
Americans. The ball took plan- in the largest room in the city, which 

had been originally built for a ball-r a. and which Btood where Mc 

Donald's block dow stands, on Main street. Ml the American and 
California officers were there, as well as many civilians id both nation- 
alities, and th« senoritas were there in numbers, their black eyes flash- 
ing from beneath reboso and mantilla. 

The ball was a moat amusing one; none of the ladies understood 

Eneliah.and noneof the American officers undent 1 Spanish. Ihe 

dancing commenced, some one calling out the motions ol thedanceiu 
Spanish and English, and many were the blunders committed, although 
afi seemed determined to enjoy themselves. I particularly observed a 
Die red-haired Mormon Lieutenant, dressed in the uniform 
NSuvoo Legion, who was dancingwith a very pretty brunette of fifteen, 
and noticed the half amused and half embarrassed airs w.ih which she 
went through the dance with her awkward partner. (She is a matron 

now. and wins of i worthy burghei ol Aoaheim.l old Don Joae 

I arrillo, who had held the rank of Major, and who commanded 

linthi df of the Dominguei Ranch, and Captain l . 

, who had come to California mam 

before, and who bad married a Carrillo, wen seated together looking 

ie couple referred t.., and remarked 
1-".. "look at that red-hea hi dances like a 

Caps. F. unlortuoately to remark and ii reached the oaraol 

. i e highh enraged, and a won bi 

challenge C. if he did ad 

. ition to preserve harmon 
between the miUtarj and the citiiens, and Ii 
determined character, concluded !■■ call a meeting ol Ii 

old Aiiuti. an in I use the influen i ■■ ll,Ml ll * 

settle tin difficulty. 1 !«<■ meeting t.--k pis house ol Don 

i Pryor, an old retidi ol i l ha old house still il inds juil below 

Perry WoodworthV lumber yard. Col. BJiaaartera were In tin house 

i | .,, A Mel ■ : ■ rriHo lived i 

house, irhi re now stands thi Pico H i Carrillo had Ion 

■ a I man in Calif a. He wi : rother*. 

i [oCai ' ' :MI ■ '"' 

. ■ 
Utter thin ■-. fndifleri nl ■-■ 

his acquaintance Boon after mj arrival, and we al mi d i 

frii ads. I ws ordi red to m and ootlf: bin i I il tl il 

time , !■!■ v ■ t< d to him thai the Col. wa 

. hlofa now exist) d, ind tl il In wl hi d 
. itisfy the wounded feelings ol the ol 

With Castilian politeness, he rep I, t< Uinu ma to In thi 

I i him tbnl be had hi ard thai his m pi | ■''«'<' "»; 

,, m nl. made al I tl r, wbii h hi ghl ool to have dom . and 

that he learni I tl ei and bis comi idi ' u " 

it waa the dutj of a gentleman, when he nd he w« wroii ■. ■ i 

retract ;in ,i apologiz. i ■■ I "I "Id the offlcei danced llki n 
bear. Thai be had thought over the matter, and found b< was wrong, 

as the beai waa the bettei dancei ol the two. Thai t rl 

Californlan like himself, and the An i '"' i"' 1 

rioti< thems! Ives to bi bard upon a mi ■• luse ha stood up foi i 

countryman, and wonnd up bj iayln thai be would be al thi 
in- at the time- appointed, readj to apologise. 

Before Carrillo i ■■■! to nnaki hi apology tin Vrrn rican 

offic. i all bei i p drunk, and a m-oal manj vorj 

muddled apeechee wore made; the upabol oi tho matt, i i 
related \>\ Mi Fo tei a follows; 

In themidstofthe confusion, I I <<■■■ l "'" ' ' ■ ' 'i' 1 , 1 ", 1 ' 

whose tale-bearing had caused all the trouble, and who had beei 

called asa witness, walking uptownasfasl b hi I Id i trrj bim, 

and be wasoff foi his b« In Ban Di« ra wit! in i aft. i i^ard 

Carrillo, who had been grimly viewing thi " ""j 

porch and ilowlj walked towards the hou i Pryor a id 

mygell he growled out. - i Miguel, tbeae new country m< 

are a set ol drunk. md nted I alowji rod. 

Sow that meeting adjourned, I new, could tell La ked Don U 

a -hurt tin,-.,. be could tell, md be [aid ooj i recollected 

had the ball ovei again thi nd ry thing wen I offal 

rieht \nd I can .mlv say there was no duel and do apology, and ro 
the two ^ears the town w l " 1 citlzona 

together in !<■• 

In April, I s+7 reguli icnthlj mail w« n i tabliahed 

between San I ' 

Thia bit of enterprise waa the fa I encroacl i 

tiempo' of California; to "' '■' L .v " n 


May 31 Genera] Kearney eded by ' 

pochard B Mason oe Governor oi Jlll > '■ i] " 



following notice was posted about Loa Angeles, causing a buzz 
pectation among all the inhabitants, both foreign and 
native: — 


The anniversary of American Independence will be celebrated, by 
,i l( oldiereofthe I nited States at this Post, on the 4th inst., in the 
following manner :— , 

At sunrise a Federal Balute will be fired, and the American standard 
displayed upon the new field-works on the hill, 

w 1 1 o'clocli i 1"' i roops will assemble at the fortification on the hill, 
:|I ,,I the I leclaration of Independence will he read in the English and 

'' lanauflges. ,,,.,ii ■ , ,i 

At L2o*cloch the new Meld-work will be appropriately named and 
dedicated, and a National salute Bred. 

fjj v i] officers of the I rovernment and every lover of freedom in 
Los Angeles and ita vicinity, of native or foreign birth, with their 
families, are respectfully invited to unite in the celebration. 

J. D. Stevenson, 
Col, commanding South Military Department. 
July, L847. 

Ami according bo programme, the "fourth of July" was 
duly celebrated, for the first time in the history of Los Angeles. 
The fort was christened "Fort Moore," in honor of Captain 
Ben C, Moore, of the First United States Dragoons, who fell at 
San Pa iqual, December 6, 1846. 

July 9th Col. Henry S. Burton left Los Angeles for La Paz, 
by way of San Pedro* in the United States Store ship, Lexing- 
ton. He took with him two six-pounders, and had, besides his 
own force of one hundred and ten men, two companies of the 
First New York regiment. 

li was at this ti the policy of the American Government 

in California fco make as few changes as possible in the admin- 
istration of public affairs. The country had once been lost by 
Lieutenant < Kllespie's mistake, and it behooved all to make no 
further rasb attempts at reforming or changing cherished insti- 
tutions With this aim the " Aywntamiento " (town council) 
of Los Angeles, and other officers of Mexican rule, were 
,, .,,,,,! almosi immediately after the occupation, and gradu- 
ally both native and foreign residents settled down with a 

,,. able feeling of trust and security, each toward the other. 

V. t there was occasional discord in the midst of the general 
hai ny. Thus Benjamin Hays writes: — 

There were person?, however, who were not content to keep for 
themselves « bed of roses, Occasionally sentinels were disturbed by 
false alarms, in o»»e of which (December, 1847), a little after midnight 
:i careless soldier, while preparing to load a cannon at the guard house 
(situated on the hillside where is the mansion of Senator Bush), 
I i irtridires. Everything was thrown into the air — 
walls, Boldierej some of the timbers fell over into Main street. Not 
one adobe was left Btanding upon another. Four were killed outright 
and twelve wounded, dragoons and men of Si evenson's regiment. The 

lent is the more si runs, this alarm having been produced by a 

ho hailed a horse or cow grazing upon the hill, and for want 
v.-r fired. Carefully inquiring among residents of that period, 
and consulting the archives which are fully extant, not the slightest 
trace of any movement is visible among the Californians against the 
existing authorities, nor any real ground for suspicion or alarm at any 
time after January, 1*17. 

This accident gave occasion for the first civil marriage ever 

Celebrated in Los Angeles; for the widow of Sergeant Tim 
one of the killed, at the end of three months, wearied of single 
blessedness and unable to procure matrimony in the Catholic 
church, being a Protestant, and there being no other church on 
the coast at that time, applied to Stephen C. Foster, then 
alcalde of Los Angeles, to have a civil ceremony performed. 
The result was that the following document was drawn up 
and duly executed by the parties, and may still be seen among 
the old archives of the Recorder's office: — 

We the undersigned, selected witnesses, in conformity to the deci- 
sion of the Superior Judicial Tribunal of the State of New York, of 
which named State the party of the first part, James C. Burton, claims 
to be a citizen, now serving the United States as a soldier, during the 
the war with Mexico; and the party of the second part. Emma C. 
Travers, widow of Sergeant Wm K. Travels, deceased, claims to he a 
citizeness, now residing in Alta California, in the military occupation 
of the United States, do declare upon oath, that the said parties, Jas. 
C. Burton and Emma C. Travers, did in our presence, at this place, 
Pueblo de Los Angeles, Alta California, March 0, 1848, of their own 
free will and choice, assume the civil contract of marriage, to wit.: 
The said James C. Burton did freely, and of bis own choice, promise 
and agree to take the said Emma C. Travers as his lawful wedded wife, 
to cherish, love and protect, defend and support her, and in every 
respect to assume the obligations of a husband, as imposed by the laws 
of the State of New York; and the said Emma C. Travers did freely, 
and of her own choice, promise and agree to assume the civil contract 
of marriage, to wit: To take the said James C. Burton as her lawful 
husband, to obey, love, respect and serve him, and in every respect to 
assume the legal obligations of a lawfully wedded woman, as imposed 
by the laws of the State of New York. 

Witnesses — James Vanderbeck, John M. Smith, Thomas L. Ver- 
mule, John Kays and Charles A. Webster. 

Pueblo de Los Angeles, ) 
Upper California, March 8, 1848. f 
Personally appeared before the subscriber, alcalde of this District, 
invested with judicial powers as a magistrate, the above-named and 
signed James Vanderbeck, John Smith, Thomas L. Vermule, John 
Kays and Charles Webster, and depose and say, upon oath, that the 
above statement, referring to the marriage of James C. Burton and 
Emma C. Travers, is true. 

Stephen C. Foster, 

First Alcalde. 
N, B. — The original to be retained and filed in the alcalde's office, 
and a copy to be furnished the bride, in the nature of a marriage cer- 

The alcalde should receive a reasonable fee. 

In reporting the above, under a late date, to the Los Angeles 
Express, Mr. Foster admits having received the " reasonable 
fee" alluded to, but maintains that he did not Jcies the bride. 
Possibly his memory fails him. 

The treaty of peace between the United States and Mexico 
was signed at Guadalupe Hidalgo, February 2,1848; ratifica- 
tions were exchanged at Queretaro, May 30th, following. Under 
this treaty the United States assumed the Mexican debt to 
American subjects, and paid into the Mexican treasury 
815,000,000 in money, receiving in exchange Texas, New 
Mexico and Upper California, and the right of free navigation 
on the Colorado river and the Gulf of California. 

President Polk's proclamation of peace (July 4, 1848) 

reached Los Angeles just in time to snv the life of a Mexican, 
then on trial by court-martial for appearing in arms against 
the American Government in California, after subjugation of 
thai territory. 

About this time Moating reports of great gold discoveries 
in the north were verified, and a pertVrt e\odus of Los Angeles 
— and in fact of all southern California — began. Cold had 
been discovered in Los Angeles county six years before, but 
ha<l attracted but little attention. Now the auri sacra fames 

had seized upon the] pie, and the whole world went mad. 

Regarding this epoch, lion Benjamin Hays writes; 

The discovery of "The Mines" in the year L848, carried away many 
of the native population; created a new demand Cur the horses and 
cattle which the rancheros could bo amply supply; brought a multitude 
of emigrants from Sonora, as well as from the 1'nited States; left the 
people at home here in a stale of perpetual exaltation and excite- 
ment. During the summer of 1849 and winter and spring of I860, 
Loa Angeles was a thoroughfare of travel. Few could be induced to 
stop long. Every head was turned toward El Dorado. Through theaum< 
mer of i860 only thirty Americans could be ruunted, and nm-d. of these 
without families. With or without means the incomers had crowded 
forward ; seldom destitute. Cor their necessities when known had met 
a generous response from the hountv of the " Lugo family " at San 
Bernardino, a Williams at Chi no, a Rowland and a Workman at La 
Puente. Nor only from these— Native Californian liberality every- 
where opened its full hand to the way-worn stranger. 

< >n April 13, 1S49, General Bennet Riley succeeded Colonel 
Mason as Military Governor of California. Congress having 
adjourned without making provision for the permanent gov- 
ernment of the territory. Governor Riley, on June 3, L849, 
(in accordance with instructions received by him from Waeh- 
ton), issued a proclamation calling upon the people of Cal- 
ifornia to elect delegates to a convention, to meet at Monte- 
rey on September 1st. ensuing; such convention bo adopt 
either a State Constitution or territorial organization, as 
should by it be decided upon. This proclamation divided 
the territory into districts having defined boundaries, and 
specified how many delegates each district should be entitled 
to. Supernumeraries were also provided for, to be admitted 
or not at the pleasure of the body after organization. The 
District of Los Angeles was allowed four delegates, and its 
boundaries were defined as follows: — 

The District of Los Angeles is bounded on the south by the District 
of San Diego, on the west by the Bea, on the north by Santa Clara 

river, and a parallel of latitude running from the head water- of that 
river to the Colorado. 

The four delegates elected from Los Angeles District, were 

Stephen C. Foster, J. A. Carrillo, M. D inguez, and A 

Stearns; Supernumeraries Hugo Reid, Luis Rubideaux, and 
.Manuel Requerra. The two latter did nut attend. There 
were seventy-three delegates in all elected, bul only forty-) iffhi 
tok their seats in convention. Mr. Foster has published a 
very amusing sketch of the trip he and his associates made from 
Los Angeles to Monterey, on this occasion. Hugo Reid was 

Residence or H.T.HAZARD, 123Spring ST 


ttti rit - ■ ? •ICMf^Qtv 1 r*£ST. 



already in Mont rey, and the remaining four traveled on horse- 
back. On the way Dominguez and Carrillo quarreled over 
the qaestion ' whethei the world was round or flat," and it 
was with some difficulty they w* n eonciled 

The He ion la ted from Beptembi r let to < 'ctober 13th inclu- 
sive, and "ii fche la i named da} a bin di Ei aed their 
names to the first Constitution of the State of California, shot 
aftei hot from the guna of tht nei fori boomed forth 
in honor of the unioD A I hi thirty i> > t and la 
fired, the citizen* assembled around Colton Sail bui I forth in 
a prolonged cheer that i for California ! Tht Constitution 
was duly ratified by the people al a general election held 
November 13, 1849, an 1 was proclaimed by Governor Riley 
December L3fch following General Riley now ui n a l< <-'l the 
gubernatorial power to Peter M Burnett, the firsl duh elected 
State ( «"'• Brnor. II'- wa i inaugurated !><<■, 20, 1849 Om 

month later the fii I Legi lature " The Legi lal I 

sand Drinks" mot at San Jose, On September !', 1850, < Cali- 
fornia was admitted as the thirfc) firsl State, having fairly 
elbowed her way into fin- CJmon, spite of all opposition and 
daringly assorted herself a State nearlj ayear before she had 
arrived at that dignity. Truly, afoet youngster! 

We sliall at, this point <li«)ji tin- historj of the St;ii. an I 
confine ourselves henceforth fco thai of the couni \ 



(18M L880.) 

Id of I860 Repealed bj \.t ol 1651 iol ol [853 Ban Bernardino Count; 
Created A.-i ol L80G Correotod bj Vol ol is..; \,t ,.i I860— Kern 
County Creatod County Lines KnL.MlsIi.-.i p r , B en1 Bounds of Los 
Angelei Count; List of Land tJr.-niis- The Firsl Land Grants-— Divi- 
sion of Hi" County into Townships Topograph} and Physiaal Geog- 

W\ an Act ->l' tin- First Legislature, passed February Is, [850, 
entitled, "An Act sub-dividing the Stat,- into counties, and 
establishing the Beats of justice therein," it was provided: — 

s n ;: - County oi i"- ^ngelbs. Beginning on tin- coasi of 

the Pacific at the Southern boundary of the farm called Triumfo, and 
running thence along the Bummitof the ridge of hills called Banta 

Susanna to tha th-weatern boundary of the farm called San FraneiBco; 

thence .thai- the northern and north-eastern boundary of said farm of 
Ban Francisco t> theftirm called Pino; thence in a line running due 
uorth-easl to the summit of tin- Coast Range; thence along the summit 
utsaid range to the western boundary of San Diego county; thence in 
ii 1ue southerly direction along said boundan to the source of the 
" ■ <■(- Ban Mateo; thenoe d< wn said creek San Mateo to the i oast, and 
i ■ ■; i "- '-ii miles into the sea; thence in ;1 north-westerly direction 
i"> niei wild tin- coast toa point three miles from land, and opposite 
Ui QBoutheru boundary of the (arm called Triumfo; and thence to the 
Biiure at said boundary, which was the point of beginning, iiielnJuig 

the island* of Santa t'atalina ami San Clement. The se:it of justice 
ahall be Los Angi- 

Under this Ad I mty comprised the whole of 

what i- now San Bernardino county, and g it . >f 

what \> now Kern county. Tin- Art, I _ th several 

amendatory thereof, were all repealed bj an A 
the Second Legislature, passed April ^:». L851, which defined 
the boundaries of I."- Uigeli • e ity a- follows: — 

Coi m ■- oi Los \v.i i i b.— I"- - ni .-t of 

"" Pai iflc, at a point parallel with th.- northern boundar) ol the rancho 

I Malaga; tb< nee in a direction so as to include said rancho, I 
north-west corner of the rancho, known -, the 

northerly Hne of the -am.- to th.- oorl i to the sum- 

mit «n tli-- ridge of bill* calli d San - thence In a direct line 

to the Rancho of Casteyne and Lejon and along their northern line t.. 
Ui. north-eastern corners, and from thence in a northeast line t-- the 

of the State, and alon 
junctii f tin- ii-.riliern boundary ol San Diego countj with the Colo- 
rado; thence following said line to the Pacific ocean, and three miles 
therein; them n th-westerly direction parallel with the coast to 

a point three mil*'- from land, and opposite to the souther] 
of tin- rancho called Malaga, and thence east to the p] 1 nning, 

Including the islands of Santa Catalina and San Clement. Phi 
ball In- at Los &.ngeli », 

My an Act entitled An \rt f i dividing the countj of Los 
I n 1 lea and making ., m n countj therefrom to l»- called 
San Bernardino county, 'approved April 26, 1853, it wae pro 
\ ided: — 

Be< ii"-- 3. The countj ofLoe Ingelea ia herebj divided asfollows: 
Beginning at a point where a Win- south line drawn from the hlgheal 
peak of the Sierra de Santiago intersects the northern boundar] of 
San Diego county; thence running along the summit of said Sierra to 
the Santa Ann river, between the ranch of Sierra and the n 
Bernardo Sforha; thence acroet the Santa Ana river along the summit 
■ if iln.- range of hills thai lie between the Coyotes and Chino (leav- 
ing the rauchea of Ontiveras and Yliana t0 the W08t of this lino, tit 
the south-east corner of the ranch of San Jose; thence along the 
1 b tern boundaries of said ranch and oi San Antonio, and the western 
and norther boundaries of Cucaimonga ranch to the ravine of Cocat- 
monga; thence up said ravin.- t-. it- source in the Coast Range; thence 
due north to the northern boundary of Loa Ingelea county; thence 
Qorth-eael to Mo- State line; thence along tin- Mate line to the northern 
boundary line of San Diego county; thence westerly along the northern 
boundary of San I tfego to the place of beginning. 

6b< . -i. The eastern portion of Loa Angeles county, bo cut off, shall 
be called San Bernardino county* and the seat of justice thereof shall 
he at such place as the majority of voters shall determine at the first 
county election, hereinafter provided to he held in said rounty, and 

shall remain at the place so designated until changed by tin- people, SB 

provided by law. 

i'>\ .hi \r\ approved March 26, L856, amending the Act of 
April 25, L851, the boundaries of Los kugelcs county were 
prescribed as follows : — 

B» riOM 1 . * -1 \ 1 : -1 Los Angeles — Beginning on the coast of 
the Pacific at a point parallel with the northern boundary of the rancho 
called Malaga; thence in a direction an aa to include -aid ranclio to the 
Dortb-west corner of the rancho called Triumfo, running on the north- 
erly line of the same to the uorth-ea~t corner; thence to the summit of 
the ridge of hills . - 3lM Una; thence in a direct line to the 

north-weatertnost corner of the tract of land called Caatec, where it 
approaches nearer to. or touches, the tract of land called Tejon; 

th me along the limits of the rancho or tract of land called the Tejon. 
up and along its western Hue to the nurthwestern corner thereof: 

thenc* along the northern line of the said tract of land called the 
Tejon, to ii* uorth-t-a-teruu^t corner; thence in a north l MUt line tO the 

eastern boundary t <( the Mate: thence along said boundarj line to the 

junction of the northern boundary line of - count) with the 

n thence alon. th. boundary line of Saj Di< county to 

Qge, to the boundary Uneof8an Bernardino count) ; thence 

the boundary fine of said San Bernardino county to 

the boundary One of San Diego county; thence to the Padfla ocean; 

thence along the coast of -aid ocean n- the point of commencement, 

including the i-latni> Upon laid I 

Theeaeterlv portion «'f the county, aa above defined, would 
appeal to have already formed tho countj of San Bernardino, 
under the ad of April 26, 1853 Thia mistake waa correoted 
by an Act approved April 2, 1857, which defined the limits <*f 

San Bernardin mty, and dedared the \-t. of the author i 

i said county, in the meantime, to have the Bamo foroe 
and effect aa if the above amendmenl of 1 Sfifl had never been 
passed [See Hitb 11 I al Lav Set 1165.] 

B3 an s.d appi w ed Ipi tl 2, I B06, 1 ntitled ' In lot (>• 
creah thi ■ Kern to define its boundaries, and to pro 

\ ide for it- organization ." it ia pro\ ided: 

Bbctio 1 rhei e ball be formed out of portion ol rulare rad Loa 
Angeles counties a new county, to be called Korn. 
3bc. -. The boundaries of Kern count] shall be u fbllowi Com- 

■ 1 1 1 on the western 1 ndarj lino of Tulare county, two 

miles due south of the lixth standard south of the Mount Diablo base 
line; thence due east to the weatern 1 odan ol Inyo county; thence 

southerly and ea-ti-rlv following the WOatem I I:m "I In\ o COUtlty 

and northern boundarj of Loa tngi la county to the oorth-eaal corner 

of Loa Angeles county; thena ■ bhe laatorn I larj ol 

l. os insoles county to the line between township eight and nine. 
north ol the Ban Bernardino baae Una; thenca due weal to the Tulare 
count) line; thence southerly tid rulare county line to the 

lontb west corner of Tulare county ; thence oortherly, following along 

the western houndary of Tulare COUnty to the place Of bt '■'iiiniii 1 

In June, L869, the \'tu<- between Los Angelea and Kern coun- 
ties, aanov existent, wa agreed u] and run by t leorge W 

1 Mli. for Kern county, and William P. Reynolds, for L 

Angeles county The preaenl i ndariasof Lo Angelea county 

are defined by rlittell's i !ode 1876) as follt 

Bbotiob :: r, i - Beg og al the iouth*easl corner ol Banta Barbara, 

in the Pacific ocean, at a point on extension line ol the northern 
boundary ol the rancho called Malaga, western cornel , thence north- 
easterly, so as to include said rancho, to the aorth-west corner of the 
rancho called Triumfo. running on northerly line of thoaame to the 

north-ea-t corner 'hereof: thence to the summit of tin- ridge of bills 

called Banta Susanna ; thence in a direct tine north westerly to the 
soul h-wesl corner of Kern, as established in section 8941, form in/ the 
north-weal cornei I ■ [elea; thence east, on outhern line ol 
Kern to the western line of Ban Bernardino, as established In scotlon 

3943; thence .southerly, on western in"- oi Ban Bernardino to its point 

Of intersect ion with northern lim- •>! ,-;m I >\ •■■:<<, :i-. > -tahli ihe.| in -aid 

section; thence south-westerly on Ban Diego line, aa established En 

section 3944, tO north-west corner of Han DiegO, In Pacific ocean; 
thence north-we-terly, along ocean shore to place of beginning ; 

including the islands of Banta < Satalina, ^an < lement, and the islands 
off the coast included in Los Angeles county. 
County seat. Los 

Prim to the American occupation, sixty (60) grants of [and 
were made within the limite of Loa Angelea county (an h'rat 
creat ; unisli and Mexican rulers. All of these have 


I & con h i n. tb. ■ - ■""•■" t - T,1,: 

following table give* tin m f each grant; to whom con- 

i i and theacrei i »i each : — 



Ban I*i am i co 

n i i rnando 



i ujunga 
i ,;i > an ad a 
Ban Ps qua] 
Bantu Anita 


■• Duarta 
Ban Jose 

Kill*'. ,n dQ I:' ' 

Loi Nbyaloi 

Tract of da Pabls 

La Pucnte 

I [uartn de * lustl 

LI. Escoi pion — 

Ban * labi iel M I ion 

Pol roro de E allpe 

Lu y o 

Potn ro I Irande 

l„ i Morcod 

; .in Vntonio 

i ,o i i. ae ;a 

San Joea de Buenaa 

i ... Q illona 

Los Paloa Verdea 

Ban Pedro -- 

i ,:i 1 1 abra 
i ofl Coyote 
Lor Uamitos 

l.:i Lolsa < 'liira 

Loa Bolaaa 

. .i h ■- anl a Aim 

* ': i da Bantu ina 

i I i; incon 
San Joaquin 
Canada do loa Uisoa 

Mission Viejn de la Pas 

Ban Juan * iapistrano 
Santa < lertrudoa 
i rd i riebra 
i 'astac 

1 I I'rlnll 

I 'im\ idenoia 

Paso do Bariola 

Rodeo de los \> uaa 
San Franoisqulla 

1 1 1'u 


j. i • h ■ , 1 1 al, 


I. D ■ 

D. W. An 


tfanui I '■■ii Bm 
Henry Dal ton 

i i 

A. ! luarte 

II Dalton, ei ■•'■ 

<;. Ybarra 

M . de Jesus < Garcia, i ' ■>'■ 

■ i. i. lue ' Sourtenay 

Julian Workman, e( «'. 

\ [ctoi ia Reid 

Indian tjrbana, et bZ. 

I Iburch 

17.172 37 


7'i '.'■! 

121,619 24 

6,660 71 

13,693 03 


1,431 08 

6,608 63 

22,720 28 

4,452 80 

(60 7--' 

4! i 20 

48,700 88 
L28 26 

l.lio on 
l 10 

M. 4 M. V. Bonero 
,i. M . Banobe* 
F, I'. I'. Temple, et a). 
A. M. Lugo 

\ Oarifl M'ihi, . I "'._ 

B, D. Wilson, ei <>'. 
Aguatin Maohada, <t al, 
.1. L. Sepuh eda, ■ ' \l. 

w :i ouel I loi guez'i 1 1 al 

E. Ibila 

\. Pico, and others 

A. Stearns 
Joaquin Rub 
Ramon Yorba, 

B, , i orba, i ( al, 

2,042 81 

1,43] 06 

2,368 76 

20,519 36 

t.i:;<i 06 

t nl. 

J Sepulveda 

- rano 

Juan Foster 


Samuel Carpenter . ... 

Jose Mm -in Flores 

Jose Maria ' 'vaarubiaa 

Jose A-uii i»'. ei .1/ 

l». W. Alexander, si al. . 

PlO Tiro 

m aria Rita Valdez 

1 1 i'ii t \ l lalton . 

I n corded in I k of patent-; 

Los Felis Maria Ygnacia Berdugo 

M Lie ■ i 

i latahna Islands 
Clements [aland 
Los Tin..- 
El Cosiso 
De la ( lie 

I'. I . . 

James Lick 

I I nrecorded .. 
Juan Forstoi 

1.438 60 

13,010 00 

3,620 43 

43,110 L3 

8,570 27 

6,608 .'7 

86,070 72 

17,780 70 

8,107 40 

34,486 63 

62.516 87 

L3.328 53 

i.4:;i n 

48,803 L6 

L0.668 Bl 

22,184 47 

46,432 06 

41 50 

24.014 80 

48,790 59 

22,178 i'!i 

97,616 7s 

4,438 68 

7,717 40' 

4,44!> 39 

8,862 W 

(1,047 40 

48,826 4S 

522 98 

107 61 

447 26 

The above-named grants were all. at one time, included 
within the limits of Los Angeles county. Subsequent divisions 

of this, county have placed many of them within the tin* 
San Bernardino an-1 Kern conntii 3 tpm 

Accorxlingto C ilonel Warner Hist Sketch, page8 . the firs! 
four . made in Los Angeles county outsit] 

theKissions by the Spanish Government, were made to dis- 
cll . n Here. These gTants are, by him, 

classed as follows : — 


TheNietoe r/ract, embracing all the land between the Santa ins 
and Ban Gabriel rivers, and from the sea to and including Bome ol the 
D iH land on atern frontier, was granted bj Governor Pedro 

Pages to Manuel Nieto, in 1784. 

1784 1798 

The San Rafael Tract, lying on the left hank of the Los Angeles 
river and extending t.» the trroyo Seco, was granted by Governor 
Pedro FagesOctober 20, 1784, and the grant was re-affirmed by Gov- 
ernor Borica January IS, L798, to Jose Maria Verdugo. 


The Santiago de Santa Ana Tract, a large area lying along.the Santa 
Ana river, on it- easterly bide, and extending from tide water to and 
some miles within the bill lands, was granted to Antonio Yorba, in L810. 


The San Pedro Tract, lying along the ocean, and the estuary -if San 
Pedro, was granted to Juan Jose Dominguez by Pablo Vicente Sola, 
December 31st, L822. 

There would Beem, however, to be considerable room for 

doubt as to the reliability of these dates : as immediately after 
giving the above, < lolonel Warner continues : — 

The dates of these grants are taken from " Hoffman's Reports of 

Lam] Cases," but some of the dates are undoubtedly erroneous. This 

" Report of Land Cases," says the grant to Antonio Yorba was made bj 
Jose Figueroa July 1, 1810. The only Figueroa who held the office of 
Governor of California, or who in the whole history of California 
issued grants of lands, was General Jose Figueroa, who was appointed 
in April, 1832, and reached Monterey, California.— having come by 
water— in January. 1833. Consequently, he could not have made a 
grant of laud in California in 1810. There is much circumstantial 
testimony tending to show that huth the Yorba and Dominguez 
grants were made during the past century. Antonio Maria Lugo, a 
prominent citizen of Los Angeles, giving testimony in the District 
Court, at Los Angeles, in 1857, said his age was seventy-six years; 
that he remembered the Puehlo of Los Angeles as early as 1785. That 
he had known the Verdugo, or San Rafael Ranch, since 1700. That 
Verdugo had had his ranch since 1784, and that it iSan Rafael) was 
the third oldest ranch in the county — the Nietos and the Dominguez 
being the oldest. During the first quarter of the present century, 
the Santiago de Santa Ana Rauch was universally known, among the 
people inhabiting this county, as one of the oldest ranchos, and 
there are many good reasons for the belief that its founding was 
contemporary with that of San Rafael. There is no room to doubt 
the statement that a grant of the Santiago de Santa Ana Tract, to 
Jose Antonio Yorba, was made in 1810 by Jose Joaquin de Arrillaga. 
but in a partition suit in the District Court, for this county a few 
years ago, for the partition of that tract of land among the heirs 
and claimants, testimony was introduced which showed that the 
original occupant of that tract was N. Grijalva, who, as also his 
wife, died, leaving only two children, both daughters. That one of 
these daughters married Jose Antonio Yorba, and the other Juan 
Pablo Peralta, and it is far more probable that the former of these 
two latter persons obtained a new or confirmed grant from Arrillaga, 
in 1810, than that Grijalva should have established himself upon 
the tract without having obtained a grant from the Governor. As 
Governor Borica, iu 1798, issued to Jose Maria Verdugo a new or 

confirmatory grant of the Tract of San Rafael, which had been 
panted to verdugo by Governor Fages, in L784, so it is probable 
that the Bret title papers for San Pedro and Santiago de Santa Ana 
had disappeared, or were not presented bo the I oited stairs Land 
Commissions for I alifornia. In this partition suit the Courl recog- 
, lhr oiaim oi the Peraltos as descendants ol the original pro- 
prietor of the land. Don Manuel I h.mingue/, our ol the presenl 
proprietors of the San Pedro Ranch, states positively that the grant 
of thai tract was made In 17.M. 

Under date August 7, 1851, the following order appears in 
,l„. minuti of the • our! of Sessions, now on lile in the * bunty 

i 'ink's office :— 

Ordered— That the count} of Los Angeles be divided into six town- 
ships, named as follows, and" to comprehend the ranohos and plan as 

foUoWS, tO each appropriated:— 

i,i\\ % OF i OS iXtQl i ' 

The city of Los Angeles and the following ranches, t" wit: — 


Santa Monica 


San Vicente 
Buenos Ayrei 
La Bayona 

Uinrnii ik' Iim Bols 

Rodeo df los \guas 

La * lienega 
La Centinela 
Sausal Redondo 
palos verdee 

San I'edro 

Los Dominguez 
Bancho Nuevo 
Paredon Blanco 
Los Berritos 
La Yaboneria 

R,06a de i astillu 

Los < lorralitos 


( 'ahucugn 


San Fernando, 

San Francisco 



I lanada de los Alamos 
La Liebre 
El Tejon 

Verge ties 
Loa ( luervos 

San Antonio de la Mesa 
Los Alamitos 
Vincente Lugo 
Arroyo Seco 

The residence of the authorities shall he in Los Angeles < 'it y. 

The mission <if the aame name, and the raneln.s of San Pascual, 

Santa \nita. Andres Duarte, Azusa, La Pucnte. l.n, r,,yuh'.s, Nietos 

with all its lines of boundary. < imrga, Mission Vieja with all its lines 
of boundary. 

The residence of the authorities m in San Gabriel. 

town OF BAN JOSE. 

Cuca ga, San Antonio, San JOBS, El PcdregOBO, San JoS6 en 

Medio, Los Nogales, Bancho de los Ybarra. 

The residence Of Justices is in San Jose en Medio. 
town Ol san BEB2TABD1 RO. 

Bancho del Chino, Guapa, Jurupa within all its boundaries, Agua 
Mansa within all its boundaries, Ban Bernardino, Sfueaypa, San Gor- 

The residence of Justice is Jurupa. 


Los Bolsas, Loa Paredes, Banchito Bfamado de Policaipo Santiago, 

Santa Ana Abajo, Santa Ana m Medio, San Antonio de Don Bernar- 
dino Yorba, El Temescal, La Lierra el Bincon, Bancho de Juan, P. 
Ontiveras ( Aguagei. 

The residence of Justice shall be at the San Antonio de Don llernar- 
dino Yorba. 


San Mateo. Mission Vieja, Kl Trabuco, San Juan Capistrano all iU 
population, Los AUsos, !jan Joaquin. 


The Beat of Justice Lb Ban Joan < 'apiatrano. 

Any rancho not mentioned in the i [ins list shall pertain to the 

town nearest of the occupant of aid Bai i 

Ordered that the foregoing be published in thi l. tar, in 

Spanish and English. 

The number of townships ha ince been incree ed to 
teen, which will If hereafter reviewed in then reguki i 


Los Angeles county borders on the Pacific ocean, bavin 
coast line (if about one hundred and ten miles. I' hi 
good port, and several roadstead [1 chief city lie outh of 
San Francisco, four hundred and seventy-one miles by rail- 
road, and four hundred andseven mile bj steamer, via Sao 
Pedro. The county is oblong in form, but very irregular in 
outline, its greatest length (from north weal to outh-ea I 
being about one hundred and twenty miles, and its greatest 
breadth (from south-west to uorth-east) aboul seventy two 
miles; extending almost equally above and below the thirty- 
fourth parallel of latitude, 

At the north-west corner of tin- county the ''nasi Range 
sweeps suddenly inland, ami taking a south-easterly direction, 
divides the county almost equally, Leaving the Mojave Deserl 
on tlie north, ami inclosing on the soul li an immense valley 
or rather a succession of valleys nestling between the mount- 
ains ami the sea. This expanse of nearly level country bro 
ken here and there by spurs of the main range) and bj low, 
rolling foot-hills) has an area of about sixty miles in length 
from south-east to north west, by an average width of saj 
thirty miles from north-east to smith-west, and comprises what 
is known ;is the greal Los Ajageles valley. 

This valley ranges in altitude from fifty to three hundred 
feel above the level of the adjacent ocean. The mountains 
bounding it upon Hie north and easl are aa we have observed 
— a continuation of tin- Coast Rcmge, but bear, ;is t«» their 
several portions, various Local appellations, as San Fernando 
Mountains, Tujungn Mountains, San Bernardino Range, San 
Gabriel Mountains, Cucamonga Mountains, San .his,' Hills, 

Santa Ana Mountains, etc. The whole range is frequently 
referred to in books as the Sierra Nevada Range, but by the 
liest authorities this is held to be erroneous, that being a 
wholly distinct range, well defined. The highest mountains 
bounding Los Angeles valley attain an altitude of five thou- 
sand feet above ocean level. The slope of the land is from the 
mountains south- west to the ocean, with a tall of about two 
hundred feet. 

The whole county contains in round figures — about three 
million acres of Land. Of this nmounl about two mil- 
lion acres i- deserl and mountainous. < M the remaining 
million acres, half is suitable for grazing purposes; the other 
halt' five hundred thousand acres is tillable land, varying from 

the highest to the one hundred and thirty 

thousand acre, ha- yet been brought under cultivation 

Tie- 1 main- three principal streams ..[" 

j water —Santa Ana San Gabriel and I. The 

Santa < 'lara river rises in the northern portion of the 
out into Vi.-ntnra county without entering 
the valley Some of the mountain ranges have considerable 
timber; oak. redwood, pine and spruce being the principal 
varieties, in the valley- hut few trees exist yet at a few 

poinl may be found oak, sycamore, willow and cottonw I 

growing wild; while the eucalyptu oi Australian 
is cultivated quite extensively. 


■ i 350 -isso, 

Mexican Elections The Aynntamiento Powers el the Several Officers — 
Minutes <>i the Ayuntamionto -Policj ol the \sa rican Government 

In t I ma "i Civil Officers 1 ndei bnerioao Etali Pirsl I 
i.i \s Mia.iirin.utiF Kn-t Count] Election- Civil Affair* Admin 
)iy tlie Court of Sessions I b it Board ol Supervisors fudgec >>! th< 
Plains— Their Powers Definsd— Appointments— lists of Count] Officer! 

TJndeh Mexican rule, the people voted for Commissarios, 
who constituted a Bort of Electoral College, and mel annually 
to elect the dyuntamiento, which consisted of the following 
officers: — 

Two Alcaldes, who acted as judges of first instance, having 
unlimited civil and criminal jurisdiction — even to life and 
death, extending over a district of country including the w I 
present county of Los Angeles. The two tribunals of appeal 
provided for by Mexican law, were never established in Cali- 
fornia, and all appeals from decisions of Alcaldes, lay to the 

FotTR R.EGD0OUES, whose duties corresponded to those of 
members of the present ' Common Council of Los Angeles City, 
and having about the same range of power-. 

One Syndic, whose duties were those of tlie present City 
Attorney, License Collector, and Treasurer— all in one. 

From 1839 to 1846, inclusive, there was also a Prefect, 
whose jurisdiction extended over the whole of southern Cali- 
fornia. He was appointed by the Governor, with the approba- 
tion of the Departmental Assembly. All petitions for land 
and all appeals from the decisions of Alcaldes passed through 
his hand--, on their way to tlie Governor. He had no power 
of determining appeals hat his duty was to examine each case 
and report it to the Governor for determination, with his own I 
opinion thereon; this of course, having considerable weight 

with Ids superior. He was in effect, and might be called a 
subordinate, or District I 

ommence with 
1831, and extend uninterruptedly down to L839, when thi 
a lapse of four years Thet begin again in 1844^ and con 
tinue with- 'in break until I the American oceupal 

1 I entrj under Mexican rule was made in Jun< 1846 

It was the p iHcj of the American Government, after obtain 
ing posa ssion ol California to make jus! (bv changes as 
ilc in the methods bj which the people had been ruled, 
and to which the) had for generations been accustomi d 
Thus, long of peace had become operative, the 

laws of \i , i n f u |i f tlll .,. . m ,| U nder these 

civil officers wi i functions 

and the Bame titl i (brmcrh 

In Decern b< i . IstT. the peopli of I. i] o m n 

Aywttiami nt to tak< iffi ■ Januai Isl follow Ing Mm [\ 

-• ish of < '"I ! I; B M Ik □ mllitai \ Go> 

of ( California, that ci> il oftii the Tei ritoi \ should' 

hi uceforth !>.■ filled at lea I pai I ) bj \i can \\ ith I In i 

» lew hi app 'mi. J \lt St ph n< Fostei inti i pi. i. i tot !ol I 

■' I 1 s " '"ii n Firsl , Ucalde, and Joa \ ic ■ < luei rem 

Second Alcalde, ol I.- Lngele These appointmenl being 
made known t.» the two gentlem a i I to I thej 

ive w;i\ . but i' w .i- )■ i i i that the Regido 

re-, and Syndic elected bj the ) pie thould qualify and lervo 

The sequel is be relal I in Mr. Fo i own word we quote 
from one of hi la i to the Express); — 

i Eolonel Stevenson was determined to have oui Inauguration doni Id 
So, on the day appointed, li", together with mysell and col- 
league, escorted bv s guard ol ildiei . i leaded from the Colonel's 

quarters (which was the hou i now occupi I ass >- li bi Pi rguaoo 
.\ Row] to the Alcaide's office, which was when the Citj ol Paris itore 

dow stands, on Slain street. There wefoui 1] tnta nto 

and tlie new one awaiting our arrivs i oath ol office was to be 
administered by tin- retiring First Alcaldi . hike 
the oath, when we found the} had changed thru minds, and thi 
Alcalde. told us that if two <<i tbeh aumbei wen to be kicked oat, 
they would all go. Bo they all marched oul and left us in possession, 
I I.i.' was a dilemma ; but Lei bd on n a i (jus I to ' he orai i 
r, and aaid be could give ua a iwear as well as the Alcalde, rlo 
ood up and he adminisfc ret! ipport the Consti- 
tution of the United States, and adi iatei justice in accordance with 

Mexican law. I - ;i- much about Mexican law as i did 

about Chinese, and my colleague kn< i< h s I did. Guerrero 

gathered up the books that pertained to Jo offii •■ and took then, to his 

and i ' ool I be srehj - and 
records across the street to a house I had r< ■ i ■ i i . 

building now stands, and there 1 was duly installed for the next seven- 
teen months, tlit first American Alcalde and carpet-bagger in Lm 
Angel ee. 

rhe Lin . afterward appointed Byndie. We had 

instructions from Governor Mason to make no grant.-* of land, but 

to attend only to Criminal and civil business, and the current munic- 
ipal affairs. Criminal offenders had her,, formerly punished by being 

confined in irons in the Calaboose, which then BtOod on the north (tide 

of the plaza, but I induced the Cobmel to loan me balls and chains 
and I had a chain-gaug organized fur labor on the public works, 
under the charge of a gigantic old Mexican soldier, armed with car- 



bine and i Dl oon lj;td big gang under good discipline, and wh«» 

boaated thai Em could get twice ;i- much work oat <>f hi* men a« could 
in- got out "i the wldfen In the chain-gang of the garrieon. 

In December, 1848, after p ■ P*c tei by 

order of Qovernoi i m ed ti tion under Mexican 

law, for an Aywnta/miento to take the place of that then in 
office. No attention being paid to thi notio the officers were 
in i in i i I. 1 1, Qovei nor, »-- hold over until such time ae the 
people should be willing to hold an • lection. In May, 1849, a 
second attempi proved more ac© ful Jos del C. Lugo and 

J Bepulveda being elected Fii t and Second Alcaldes, 

re pectively. These gentlemen 1" Id office until January, L850, 
when they were ucceeded b) Abel Stearns and Ygnacio del 
Vallo, who helc\ office until the citj and count} governments 
were organized under the State law. 

The Oral countj election was held on A j nil 1, 1850. Three 
hundred and Beventy seven votes were cast in the county, and 
i in follow in 1 - officer i were elected: — 

County Judge agnatic < Hvera 

Attorney Benjamin I lays 

Clark ..Benjamin Davis Wilson 

Sharif] < leorge T. BurrJll 

Treasurer. ... .... Mi il Garfiaa 

n Assessor Antonio F. Coronal 

•• Recorder [gnaclo del Valla 

Surveyor J. Et. I tonway 

Coroner Charles B. Co lien, 

Who railing to qualify, Alpheua P. Bodges was appointed. 

From the organization of the county in ls.">o, to tin- creation 
of the Board of Supervisors in 1852, the Court of Sessions 
(consisting of the Countj Judge and two associate justices), 
administered the ch il affairs of the counl j 

The in..' election for Supen isors of the county was held June 
14, 1852, and the Following persona were duly elected; Jeffer- 
son Hunt, Julian Charvis, Francisco P. Temple, Manuel 
Requena and Samuel Ajbuckle. The election returns were 
canvassed and the resull certified July 5, L852, by Agustin 
Olvora, County Judge, Wilson W.Jones, County (.'lurk, and 

James U. Barton, Sheriff The Board held their tirst i -t in^ 

on the first Monday of July, 1852; present, rlequena, Charvis 

and brbuckle, who ] eeded to organize by electing the last 

named gentleman ohairman. The< 'ounty Clerk acted eahojffu to 
as « !lerk of the Board, 


The officeof Jueces del Campos, or "Judges of the Plains" 
is :i purely Mexican institution, bui was in force for several 
v .-in after the conquest of California and, in fact, until the 
office died B natural death, from lack of material whereon to 
. the official functions. Their duties were to hold 
trie gatherings and Recojedas (horse gather- 
in--, throughout the county, to settle all disputes and see that 
justice was done between owners of stock. Under date August 

22, 1850, we find the following order entered on the minutes of 
the « '<-uii of Sessions: — 

" ' Ordered, that in addition to the existing regulations, whether pot 
itive ><t customary for the government of the Judges ol the Plains, 

the following rules nhall he observed: 

■ -ill" Judges of the l'laiDs shall hold their office for the term 
of one year, commencing on the lii>t «lav of January of each year. In 
racascy from any cause, the name shall be filled by this 
« "nrt at its next regular term, or by the < ounty Judge. 

[•—For the residue of the i-rt-.-ut year the .ludi^- mo\ in oilier 
shall continue to liohi tin- .same, heiug paid each for his services at ! he 
rate of one hundred dollars per annum, payable out of the County 
1 reasury. 

Third -For neglect or refusal byany such Judge to perform any duty 
under the laws and regulations pertaining to his office, and satisfactory 
prool thereof being made to the Court of Sessions, he may besu-p. uded 
from office, or such sum may be deducted from his compensation, as the 
1 ourt iruiy judge proper. 

Fourth When anj part of the plains shall be discovered to be on 
lire by any such Judge, or notice thereof shall be given him by any 
person, it shall be his duty in any town where such fire may be, to 
repair to the spot where the fire is, and summon immediately a suffi- 
■'"■"t number of the population of such town to aid him" in the 
extinguishment of the lire. 

Kith— -Every person win. pun-bases cattle for the purpose of being 
butchered within the limits of this county, shall either have a certifi- 
cate ot sale from the owner thereof, or procure the legal vento to he put 
upon sin h cattle by the owner thereof. 

8ixth— Every person, before butchering cattle within the limits of 
tne courtly for the purpose of selling again, shall give notice of his 
Intention to do su to the nearest Judge of the 1'lains, whoshall examine 
the brand or iron of the same, and if the same shall he found not to he 
vented, or no certificate of sale be produced to such Judge, such 
Judge shall give immediate information thereof to the person whose 
iron such cattle bears. 

Seventh—All horses, mares and mules, when sold, must, by law. be 
vented by the raiser thereof, or a certificate of sale accompany such 

PlSff ftTrtS 6 fuI ! owi "S Persona are the recognized Judges of the 
I lams, for the residue of the present year, to-wit-— 

For Los Angeles Town-Pedro Lopez. Maledonia Aguilar. J uan 
Maria < Me vera, Juan Ramirez, Felipe Lu.'o 

Baker SanGabrid Town - VinceDte Lu f^ Ysidro Alvarado, Kicardo 

For San Bernardino Town— Jose Maria Lugo 

For San Juan Capiatrano Town— Juan Avila 

Ninth—Every person who violates Article Fifth, shall pay into the 
County Treasury the sun. of ten dollars for each offense, toVe recovered 
before any Justice of the Peace of the proper town recovered 

n * ^ Every P e ^ un who violates Article Sixth shall pav into the 
County treasury the sum of twenty dollars for each offense to be 
recovered before any Justice of the Peace of the proper town 

Under date June 21, 1856, we find the following in the Los 
Angeles Star: — 


Abel Stearns, for county at large 
Felipe Lugo, for the Rancho of the Mesa. 
Iranciacn Rodriguez, Rancho of the Alamitaa 
Juan Maria Sepulveda, Rancho of Ciene-a 
Julian Charvis, Pueblo of Los Angeles 
Iguacio Pulomares, Rancho of San Jose. 
Kanion Ibarra, Rancho of Puente 

tranT ***** "* Juan AWk - ^ the »— «P * San Juan Capis- 
Pedro Lopez, Precinct of San Fernando. 

Cyrus Lyon, Rancho Cahuenga. 
Manuel l'elj/. Township of Santa Ana. 
Ysidro Alvarado, Rancho Los Coyotes. 
Edwardo Polloreno, Rancho Ban Gertrudes. 
Macedonia Aguilar, Rancho of the Ballona. 
Jose Rici, Rancho of i lerritos, 
Igustin Dfachado, Pueblo of Loa Angeles. 
Alexander Qody, Fort Tejoo and the Sebastian Reservation 
James Reid, the Ranches of Lake Elizabeth. 
William fif. Stockton, the Mission of San Gabriel Townshln 
M. Whistler, the Monte. " 

Henry Daltoo, the Rancho Aausa. 
Vicente de la Osa, Rancho of Encino. 

The tirst really complete record of Jeleetion in Los Angeles 
county, imw in existence, is of September 5, 1855, Prior 
to that time, and at intervals since, the records are so vo?\ 
incomplete that it 1ms been with great difficulty and at an 
outlay of much time and labor, we have succeeded in making 
the annexed lists of the several officers who have filled the 
various elective offices of the .•ounty, from the organization 
thereof, down to the present time. We^have, however, the 
satisfaction of believing that said lists are absolutely correct 

which we count a sufficient reward for the toil expended in 

them : — 


L850-52. 0. S. Wetberby * 1868 71. Murray Morrison.f 
18o3 63. Benj Hays. L872 73. R. M Widnej 

1864-68. Pablo de laGuerra. 1874-79. V. Sepulveda.^ 
♦Appointed by a joint vote of the Legislature, at its first session in 

135 . ourt opened June.,, L850 tDiedWmber 18, 1871. Uanua v 

'?,! I " Ur VFWP* hy the Su P eri '" ' '"'"' t - V. Sepulveda 
and V. E. Howard elected Judges, ^ VCUB 


L850 53. Agustin Olvera. 1870-73. \. Sepulveda. 

1854, .Myron Norton. l874r-77. II K S.O'Melvenj 

L855. K. E. Dimmick. 1878 79. A. M. Stephen 
1856-69. Win. Q Dryden* 

Ijln^arvWfln^M^ 'T' A " J " ^ W***& *> ™ vacancy. 
January 1. L880, this ourt was succeeded hy the Superior Court, Y. 
Sepulveda and V. E. Howard elected Judges. 


1850-51. Wm. C. Fen-ell. 1864-67. Volney E. Howard. 

1852. Isaac S. K Ogier. 1868 69. A. Ji. Chapman. 

1853. K. H. Dimmick. 1870-73. O. E. Thorn. 

1854. Benj. S. Eaton. 1874 75. Volney E. Howard. 
L855 57. C. E. Thorn. 1876 77. Rodney Hudson 
1858 59. Ezra Drown. 1878 7!'. C. E. Thorn. 
1860-G1. E.J. C. Kewen. 1880. Thos. B. Brown 
1862-63. Ezra Drown. 


1850. Geo. T. Burrill. 1857. Jaa K. Barton.f 

1851-55. James R. Barton. 1858. Wm. C. Qetraan ' 
1856. D. W. Alexander.* 1859. Jaa Thompson. 

Residence of A.W. POTTS, Cor.Hill and Court Sfs,Los Angeles, Cal. 

> g_ " '"" -; 

ftlO ar rt/QA4rso„ « iv«jT 

C t 3M/TH * f.» II m flA/UAND CAL 


L870 77. \>. W. Alexander 
1878 79. EC. M Mitchell 
1880. W B Rowland. 

iHf;o (17. Tbos. A Sanchez 
L868 71. Jas F. Bums. 
IH7^ 75. W. B. Rowland 

i . | Qed.C.E.Haleappdntedtoflll vacancy, Augart, 1866. JMur- 
dered January 23, 1867, E BettU appointed to fill racaney. jmut- 
dered Jannary 7. 1868, James 'I hompaon appointed to fill vacancy. 

■ ■ LERK. 

i860 51 B D Wilson. 

L852 58 Wilson W Joni , 

is;, |. 67. John W Shore 

1858 50 * Ihfl I:. Johni 

[800 63 John VV Shore. 

1804 71 'I'll" D. Motl 

L872 80. A. W. I' 

1880, A W. Poti 

■ 1 1 1 1 ■ 1 1 ■ 



J., Jr. 



T K Rowan 



F. P. F Tempi 



E Mi wilt 


Milfoil LimU'-v. 

coi m 

1860 51. Manuel I lai fia 

1852 58. Franci ■ M( Uu 

L854 55. Timothy Fo fcei 

1866 50. II N Alexander, 

I860 65 M. Kromi i 


I860 51. [gnacio del V^alle. L874 75, J. W. Gillitt. 
1852 73 County Clerls (at 1876 7!'. Chas K. Miles. 
officio), l* s <>- C. C. Lamb. 

rni'VI V \i DITOR, 

1850 7."'. County Clerk (ecc L876 7'.'. A. E. Sepulveda. 

offioio). 1880. B \ 5 orba. 

1870. 0. W.Gould* 
*Dled in June, L870, A. E. Bepulveda appointed to lill vacancy. 

L850 50 A F, Coronol. 
1857 58. Juan Sepulveda, 
1859 61. W \\\ Max} ' 
1862, .' MoManua 
1863 05. G, L Mix, 

I860 07 J. Q. A Stanley. 

L808 09, M. F. Coronel 

1870 7:. D Botiller 

L870 7!' A W Ryan 

1880. .1 W. Venable. 

^Resigned Maroli 2, L881, Geo. \V. Gift appointed to till vacancy. 

I860 75. Sheriff < w 1880. 

ls7ii 7'.'. M. kivmcr. 


L850 51. Benj, Hays. 1854 80 
ls.'i'J 53. Lewis Granger, 



B i 'Ml 

Hist Attorney (t\r- 


1850 51. J. R. Conway. 
L852 57. ll. Hancock. 
1858 59. Wm Moore, 
L860 61. K. Hadley. 
L862 Wm. Moore.* 
L863 W. M. Lighten. 

L864 69. Geo. Sanson. 
L870 7:i. F, Leconvreur. 
187 t- 75 L. Seebold. 
1876 77 T J, Ellis, 
1878 7". John K. Jackson. 
1880. E, T. Wright 


1850 51. AlpbeusP II ' > Griffin 

is.-.i' Raiai I I Uiirado. 

1853. J. s Mallard. 

1854 55 T M:' 

1856. Q A. Snead. 

IN.-.7. J. B. Winston + 

1858 \ Co 

1859. Henry K. Miles. 

7 .1 I. Smith. 

ls«;s 69 V.Qt Icich. 

1870 7:i •' Kurtz. 

Is74- 7.', N P Ri< i: 

L876 77 -I Kurtz 

ls;s 7:p J Hannon 

lssit |[ Nadeau. 

i i II P Swain. 

*,\t tli. Bn coui held April 1, i860, Charlea B. Cullen 

■ ■ B . ■. , ted; but fail! ify, Alpheu* I'. i' ippointed 

by the Court of Sessions to fill thi vacancy. A qneation arising as to 
the legality of said appointment, the Legislature was petitioned i j 
L861) to pass a Ian legalizing the same, and all acts 
pi r i..i med thereunder, which was 

ceeded by A.. Cook, February 1 1, 1 


1854 :.7 M Keller. 1^7 ^ 75. II M. Mib 

1868 65. Geo Carson. 1876 77 J E Griffin. 

I860 67 W. Wolfskill. 1878 79 C. C Lamb 

1808 69. John Zeyn L880 J W. Potts. 

is7*i 73. I ; *" I 'arson. 

•Resigned. J, <;. McDonald appointed t.> til! vacancy 

1850 55. 
1857 63. 
1864 65 
I860 67. 
L868 09. 

1850 51. 

1852 58. 

L854 55 

1856 57. 

1868 59 

I860 61 

1862 63 






I 83 5 






t: II. Peck. 
T. A Saxon. 
W. P, McDonald 
.1. W. Hinton 


\ |-' i ■,,,,,, 1870 7:;. Wm M McFadden 

.1. F. Burns l>>74 75 

Co Clerk (< c qffi w 1870 77 

A. B Chapman. l^7s 79 

E. Birdsell. 1880 
II !> Barrows. 


A. \V. Hope 1864 65 II. Hamilton. 
Stephen C. Foster. 1866 69. P Banning. 
Jas. P. McFarland. 1870 73 B D W ilson 

B. D. Wilson. l^7t 77 C W Bu b 

C. E. Thom. 1878 79 Geo H Smith. 
Andres Pico. 1880, J. P. West 
J. R. Vineyard. 


A. P. Crittenden, M. Martin. 
Ab 1 Stearns, Andres Pico. 

I. del Vail.-, Andres Pico 

James P. McFarland, Jefferson Hunt. 

t 'has. E < !arr, 
Francis Melius, 
John G. Downey 
J. L. Brent, 
Andres Pico, 
J. J. Warner, 
Abel Stearns, 

Edward Hunter. 
Wilson W. Jones. 
J. I, Brent. 
Edward Hunter. 

Henry Hancock. 
A. J. King, 

Murray .Morrison. 

.i \ Watson, 

Murray Morrison 

.1 \ \\ ;il 

K J, C Rowan 

Ygnacio Sepulveda, 

E i ( ' Kewen 

\\ 11 Peterson, 

II r Parish 

\ Ellis, 

,i \ \\ ■ i 

W0 71 

\l F < oronel, 

i: « Fryer 

L872 7:; 

C D Motl 

\ Bllis. 

1^71 7-. 

.1 \V. \ enable, 

\ Higbey 

1876 77 

J R M 

r I . imbourne 

L878 79 

\ Ellis, 

.1 B Hallowaj 


p M Qi 

i; F del \ nil.-. 

CODNT1 BUPI tt\ IS" 1 

From 1850 to 1852 the county aftaira wero administered by 

the « Jouri o! Sessiona c posed of tho Countj fadgi and two 

■ ■ 
[852. Jefferson Hunt, Julian Charvi F P Temple, M, 
i;. quena, S \.i buckle 
H w \: an lei I. I tol i G \ Sturgi . I> M 
Thoma B D Wil on J S Waite S C Fost. i 
[85* D. W llexandi i S. C Fosti r, .1 Sepulveda, C 
\ uitar, S S Tl pson A Stearns, F, Lugo 

1855. -I <: Downey, l>. W. Alexander, V Olvera, C. 

Vguilai D !■■ ■ 

1856. T Burdick, .1 Fo tex A I Hvera, * ' Iguilar l» 

l,.w i 
1857 .! B. Scott, \\ M Stockton, i: C Fryer, T \ 

Sanchez, S ' ' Fo iti i 
L858 <•- C Alexander, R Emerson, T \ Sanchez B 

( luirado, S ' ! Fo tei 

1859, G. C Ali R Emerson, T. A, Sanchez, B, 

Guirado, Ha) w I. 

1860. IE B Moore, A. F Coronel, C Aguilar, <J Allen, A. 

I m,i i;. i) \\ ii on M l< Goodman, J. L Moi ris, J 

Charvis, F W, Gibson (T G Bark i 
|s;ii^ <;:{. B. I» Wilson C. Aguilar, •' L Morris, Vincente 

Lugo, F. W. ' libson, 
1864 65. B D v7il on, C. Aguilar, J. L. Morris, A. Ellis, P. 

Sichel M. Kellei I. 
1866 67 -I G Downey, M. Keller, E, H. Boyd, F. Sij 

E, Polloreno 
1868 69. -I B. Winston, W. Woodworth, R. H. Mayes, H. 

Alula, A. Langenberger (H, Forsman). 
1870 71 J. B. Winston, W. Woodworth B. H Mayt B 

Alula, H. Forsman. 
Is7^ 73. H. Forsman, A. L. Bush, K. Machado, S. B. Cas- 
well, F. Polomerez. 
1874-75. G. Hind^, F. Machado, E. Evey, F. Polomerez, J. 

M. Griffith (G. Allen). 




L876 77 Q ll-i E Evey &*" J D 

y 0U ng .1 J Morton W II Spurgeon 
, H - S ,i C Hannon, J D SToung ■' J Morton J l» Ott, 

l879< .1 C Hannon, J D ' Pragei J J Morton \ 

imi ,i .' Hannon, C Prager, R Eagan, W I ' 
A II Rogei 
^Thenamei Inclowd thus I | are of Buperviso* not « ; 

«n.r"l " Ih .-led , but wl >rved ftt some time during the yeai 

i,. ?ppoii.tmenttoMI raci y, or otherwise. 



(1771— 1B80.) 

Pride ot Olimai M Perfect, M Bierilaal 1 Ch*,pt«r of 1 -, 

1827-8.1 '-■ l8M*8-0 Earthqoaki e 1865 Barthquakeoi 1857 

n ol 1668 Eutkqiud - 1878 Patti mi -...' Rainfall 

NaturalSt >■ ± California " Rivei D, I Lo * River- 
Ban Gabrfgl Rivei 3antn Ina Rivai *rt« Lea Well 

Thbrb i s one Bubjecl upon which your true Californian 
,„„,,. wearies of dilating: " the climate of his country Be 
a nl bho ice-bound regions of the Sierras at mid-wintei be it 
• the might) Mojave desert at raid-summer; be it, amid the 
pum bling earthquakes of foe south, or the fogs and sand 
storms of foe north, your informant, after mentioning all other 
advantages of foie favored land will gravely finish the cata- 
!„,,,,!. reminding you. -And, it lithe meat glariom cl tie 

in lh<- world!" 

,;. M . i„. ,, from this writer to disparage a climate which has 

won foe admiration of all travelers. Such were indeed a 
,-,sL from which foeboldesl iconoclast might well shrink; yet 
is he forced to maintain foat perfection, rarely -if ever, exists 
upon this fail earth of s ; foal the most Lovely peach har- 
bors foe gnawing worm; foal upon food It of beauty are 

,,,-,,„ found unsightly moles; foat even Eden itself wasnot 
f iee from foe loathsome trail of theserpent. 

[f then Borne cherished theory of foe kind readershall be 
rudeh shaken in these pages, let not the historian he blamed, 
since he is but foe mouth piece of the past, and relates whm 
/,,,//, i>,, n . Suffice it, foai while he denies the existence of per- 
fections a world of imperfectaon.yetin all his many wanderings. 
either over this continent orin foreign lands; whether on the 
banks of the Rhine, foe borders of Lake Com.., or the si 
of Mediterranean, he knows no land more favored in this 
,, . ,,,i than the lovelj vallej of "Tk Angds." 

i,, i, then be borne carefully in mind foat this is a chapter 

„1 that while I ptions -pr. 

nanyeenseconstituteit. Becausefoi 
Bnds here recorded, earthquakes and conaequenl lossol life, he 
musti ff foi8everquaking,orthatwallsare 

toW | burning suns and 

by which the labor of the husbandman * 
turned to naught, and cattle areslainby thousands, he must 
no , imapne thai such scourges are of constant recur* 

Fl Is which overwhelm, and lightnings which strike, must all 

be recorded yet are theae but the ripples upon a glass) sea, 
which speedily resumes it- wonted calm. 

Being nearly five hundred miles nearer to the tropics 
S;in Francisco, the sun Bhines here with an increa ed P 

the cold fogs of foa re northern latitude are much less 

frequent In an —ay published by the State Medical Society of 
1871-3 . Dr. Widnej remarks: - 

July August and September are the months oi greatest heat, but 

the daily ee! breeze ancf frequent night fog i rtantly •y»J» ,n ( 5 

the temperature. The daih average at Wilmington, the Bea-port of 
the county, ia aa shown by the records at Drum Barracka. 

January. _ . . . . ■'■' 

February — -g J 

March ■- J* % 

April --- - -- ...,., R . 

May - -::., s 

June %% 

August ••' - 

September J.J 

October ■■ -- — Sf.2i 

November - _" ' 

December... -"; ; 

Daily average for the year 

A peculiarity of this valley climate is, that the nights are 
always cool, a woolen blanket for covering, never coming amiss. 
This results from the ocean breeze, which is said to blow 
inland fully three hundred -lays in every year, giving all 
trees, of whatever variety, a very decided pitch toward the 

Prior to the advent of newspapers, we have little means of 
tracing the incidents of climatic change; and in fact, serious 
convulsions of Nature, involving loss of life, would find in all 
probability, but an indefinite record among the traditionsof the 
Aborigines, who would surely accredit such to the agency of 
malignant spirits, or of witchcraft. We know that the present 
San Gabriel river was at first named " Rio d* los Teniblovi 
by foe Spaniards, on account of the man) i arfoquake3 preva- 
lent in it- neighborhood, and that the first mission was removed 
to it- present sit..- on this account, but even the exact year of 
such removal is a matter of doubt, nor do we know just when 
the Hist mission was destroyed The first earthquake happen- 
ing in the county, of which any reliable record remains, was 
that of 

December. 8, 1812. Not only was this the first earthquake 

led, but it was also the most destructive (so fai at Least as 

, ;in n is concerned foat has ever occurred in 

southern California tt happened unfortunately, while the 

church of San Juan Capistrano was crowded with worshipers, 

i, beingfoe feast of La Purisslma "The immaculate con- 

in0 f th. mothei of God!" The shock came during early 

tboul ei dock in the moming. and foe massive roof, 

:i „ ith earthen tiles, fell upon the multitude, killing 
thirty b persons outright, and wounding several others. In 
th, search foi the bodies next -lay, a woman and child were 
found buried b neaththe ruins alive and uninjurod, Of course 
this was regarded as a miracle; and Nueotra Smora received 
, redit for her kindly interposition in fooir behalf. By this 
3ame shock the tower of foe church at San Buenventura was 
tin-own out of foe perpendicular, and h id to b i removed. 

Decembeb 21st of the 8ame year, came another severe shock 
which destroyed foe church of La Purissima in Santa Barbara 
e0 unt} and occasioned the removal of the mission to its 
present site. The church of San Luis Obispo was also badly 
damaged at this time, but not destroyed. A small stream of 
water on the Rancho Las Posas was much enlarged in volume, 
;ni ,l go remains to this day. It is also related that an Ameri- 
can smuggler, lying ott' the shore near Santa Barbara, slipped 

her cable and was carried b) a tidal wave Ear up en ordinarily 
dry canon, the receding water bringing her back again to hei 
own proper element, without damage to either vessel or crew. 
This was a season of earthquakes, and it was e timated that 
not less than three hundred well-defined shocks wereexpe- 
rienced throughout southern < tolifornia, from December to 
March, inclusive. 

The season, of 1827-8-0, also L844-5-6, are said to have- been 
marked by terrible droughts. In L847, there were abundant 
rains. A severe shock of earthquake was experienced in the 
Lai ter year, but no damage resulted. 

Jul? n. L855, at 8:15 p.m., was felt the most violent 
shock of earthquake since L812. Nearly every house in Los 
Angeles was more or less injured, and the frightened inhabi- 
tants thronged the streets in their night-clothes. Pendulum 
docks were stopped, walls were riven from top to bottom— in 

some cases the opening being a foot wide. Goods were cast 
down from the .da-he. uf -tore,, and hadly damaged The 
water in the city zanjas slopped over the hanks, ami the ground 
was seen to rise and fall in waves. At San Gabriel Mission, 
the church bells were thrown down, and the ground cracked 

The fall of that year, was a time of great drought, ami 
many cattle died in consequence. In December, ice formed 
half an inch in thickness, and many orange trees perished. 

( )o April 14 and May 2, 1856, distinct shocks of earth- 
quake were experienced. The latter was the most severe 




Los Angeles, Cal. Owned by the Lds Angeles Cemetery Association. 



(lasting about two econd and occasioned considerable alarm. 
An explosion resembling the blasting of rocks, preceded the 

shock, the motion of which wasfi tto north-west, causing 

the walls of dwellings to tremble quite perceptibly. 

The f'n ,t rain oi thi es on 1856 7 we had on \L j 
an «l the suffering among cattle, prioi 
Thiswas considered thi drye I and mo I nnhealthful ies on thi 
country bad known for twentj eai Cough ■"" l cold were 
V0V y prevalent Foi bhi Hi I bimi . b record of the rain fall 
was this year kept by Dr Win ton with the following 
result : — 

November ° ;, ° 7 " ; 

December °- 696 

i 945 " 

January ' r 

February 0.310 

March ° 77 ° 

April _^ " 

Total for season 5-867 

The summer of L866 was marked bj intense heat On 

August 6th (the hottest daj . al d i, the thermometer regis 

bored LO0° in bbe shade. Altogether, this season waasome- 
thingof an anomaly, Under datoof August Oth.wereadin 
tho 8t(tTi 

On Sunday evening, August 3d, we were visited by a thunder 

B t rm, accompanied by rivia* flashes of light * Heat Lightning is 

oommon enough, bul the broad ■hi-et «f Ham.-. I.^ihil- iiptlij.-lun.l- 
Bouno, luob si experienced that right, "" anpracedmatejd, ChnulN 

wunovaz bs - beard bers bo sayi "the oldest Inhabitant. It ha 

two years since rain fell in August. 

And again November 22d: — 

On Wednesday, November LOth, tbia locality waa visited h a severe 
tempeat The dual and sand were lifted from the earth, and earned 
al()ll , in u continued cloud, obscuring everything (rom sight. Allout- 
door business, and all travel on Die roads was suspended. Bothies: was 

the cloud oi sand, that from the sun bees bsoured. ream- 

Bters could not keep the road, all eflforts to guide their animals being 
fruitless. Many of them could not And out even by groping on the 
Kromnl wiictlu-r tlu-v wi-reon tin- mad «»r "ii tiit- open plain. frama 
along the road came in contact, the drivers neither being able to we 
or hear the approach of each other. In many cases the mules were 
uv.-itlin.wii I* v the vlolenoe of the wind. Light wagons were tossed 
aside like corks. HouseBwere unroofed; sheds, stalls and stablea were 
ruthlessly knocked about The Band was deposited several feet de< p 
on the pasture lands, thus inflicting the severest calamity on the stock 

\i about half past eight o'clock, on the morning of January 
9, 1857, occurred one of the most memorable earthquakes ever 
experienced in the southern country. At Los Angeles the 
vibration lasted about two minutes, the motion being Crom 
north to Bouth. Several houses were hadW cracked, and an 
old man. at thai ruomeni in the act of crossing the plaza, was 
thrown down, and bo severely injured that he died shortly 

The morning is represented to have been calm, clear and 

cool, the sun shining brightly At first the motion was very 
gentle, but gradually menaced in violence, until the ho 

k from side to Bide a^ though al»out to topple 
over Then the fearful cry of ''earthquake*' was raised, and 
the people, rushing into the streets, became at on< ■ demoralised 
with terroi Women and children shrieked, and strong men, 
falling upon then kna • ejaculated hastily-framed prayei 

moel ludici n Horses, mules and cattle fled wildly 

., bi the plains, oi fell motionleesin terror. Domestic fowls 
and birds flew wildlj aboutj filling tho air with their frightened 
Th, Loa Angeles rivet leaped from it- bed, and washed 
,,.., the adjacent land. A new bed was opened to the San 
Gabriel river, which divided its waters, making twostreams of 
what was before but one. Several minor shocks sneco 
this principal one. 

At San Fernando two buildings were thrown down, and not 
far away a large Btream flowed out from a mountain where 
hitherto no water had been, and a similar phenomenon waa 
observed at Paredes, thirty-five miles south-east of Los Ange- 
les, In the vicinity of San Fernando a large fissure opened in 
the Bide of a high mountain, from which hot gas rushed forth, 
heating the neighboring rocks to such a degree that the hand 
could scarcely touch them. But it was in the vicinity of Fori 
Tejon thai the full force of the shock exhausted itself Here 
the ground opened for a distance of from thirty to forty miles, 
a chasm ten to twenty feet wide, extending from north-weai to 
south-east, in an almost straight line; then closed again, leav- 
ing b ridge of pulverized earth several feet high, and in many 
places quite impassable. Large trees were broken off like pipe- 
stems, and cattle, grazing upon the hill-sides, rolled down the 
declivity in helpless fright. Here the buildings were all 
injured to such an extent that officers and soldiers were obliged 
to live in tents. At Reed's Ranch, not far away, a woman was 
killed by the fall of her house. There were no other casualties 
reported. Several minor shocks were felt during the spring 
months, but these occasioned no damage. 

During this spring there was considerable rain, and the 
mountains were completely covered with snow to within a few 
hundred feet of the valley On the night of April 22d, 
there was vivid lightning— a rather rare occurrence in Loa 
Angeles valley. On December 26th a thunder-storm accom- 
panied by hail, swept over the city, and a few days later came 
a violent' rain-storm, more water falling, in shout thirty-six 
hours, than in the three years preceding. This was followed 
by bright sunshine, and the result waa a fine crop of grass. 

" The winter of 1857-8 was throughout extremely mild, with 
much rain. On June 7. 1858, a smart rain was experienced, 
being noted as a rather uncommon occurrence at that season. 
In September and October there were several violent rain- 
storms, and much corn was blown down and ruined. In Decem- 

ber rain came just in time bo save the grass, and there waa 
great rejoicing in consequence 

From this OUt there was bul little rain. an. 1 tear- of a total 

failure of crops were entertained until about February 1, 1859, 

when die heavens opened, and a generous fall of aboul three 

and one-half inch.- occuired. There were severe frusta in 

April, destroying man] tender plants, and some quite heavj 

ram- in that and the following month On Ua) 4th. thunder 

waa heard. September and Octobet wen both marked U 

In the formt i month the thermometer on one 

petered 104° in the Bhade; and in the latter, 

, it ten ilaya, the maximui i i d 110 i 

and on one occasion showed 80' at sunrise. 

Kails in December, an extra neavj fall ol rain occurred, 
estimated al tmefooi of water within twentj tour how - Hie 
ground was wetter throughout the county than before in five 
oraa rears Thi Lo v.. alee and Ban Gabriel rivers wereso 

i bs to be impa table The f « itream overflowed d 

teal of land aboul town, carrying off fences, in some 

,,, . . tearing up hedges bj the roots, coverino, i tracts 

o| bottom land with sand and Loam Bodimenl in h plsai a 

fool deep . and in one in tance carrying off part of a vim vard, 

m bing the vines cleat oul of the g nd. A portion ol the 

dam works, where thewatei was taken i atol thi rivei fci lup 
ma in .,„,., oi the city, wa carried ofl bj tho Pre hoi 
For some days after the water subsided, tho river wa i difficult 
of approach, owing to the mud deposit u] the exljoining 


L aPge numbers of sheep died during the storm One man, 

oui of a flockof font th nd I aid to bavi losl over one 

thousand Other partia lo I each fro] hundred to eight 

hundred head. Both cattle and sheep w o i "jw th « 

rain continued so long thai they became chilled through, and, 
; L s a consequence manj died 

L 860 Januarj 27th, two considerable Bhocks ol earth 
quake were experienced Eiainfellthi prings foUov, Jan 
* 6th and 23d; February I Ml, loth, 16th. 18th and 10th ; 
March Hfa 28th and 20th; April 2d This closed the rainy 
easoo May was very cold, and frost killed the potato topain 
many places June (in the earlj portion) "now resembted 
December," with cold, wet weathe. The hay crop was slightly 

damaged. July wa Id and disagreeable," with frequent 

showers coming al the i I inopportun, I i ' raken all 

in all, this was the queen - ea pcrienced by the 

most ancient resident." The early pari of August was marked 
by extreme heat, the thermometer ranging from 97° Bhadi to 
105' in the sunshine. This was attributed to the Ares raging 
in the surrounding mountains. The latter part was extremely 
cold with one severe shower of rain, accompanied by heavy 
thunder, with vivid flashes of lightning. November was cold, 



with severe frost* foi everal morning! On December 10th 

came :i heavy rain, much needed 

1801. Thi ■ opened with heavy rains, which 

all 'li-' rivi i to overflow I id occasioned consider- 

able damage Bythemiddli ofJanuar th< ea th m ocom- 
pl< '■ 1 1 '" i[ ■ d thai fai mi i fi 11 quite independent of the 
weathci There wa thi eaftei do very heavy fall until the 
lata i pari of March, when abundant rain wt n again had hi 

July mountaij id <l. a ■ cloud ol moke i I 

air to 'til, ovei thi valley The therm iter ranged fni ■ 

from 80° to 100° in thi hadi and on the 24th r rded I I ! 

i" the i hade. Stock uttered much and everal work animals 
died in barne a, September was also very warm In I »ctobi i 
ll "' weather was damp and warnij while Novembei brought 
fine rains and hoai frost to the valley, with an abundano ol 
now "ii i lie mountain 

1862. M.-i\ 27th ;i Blighi shock of earthquake was expe- 
rienced, the oscillation being fr south bo q >rth 

Juno 7, at about 1 1 p, h b evi n bock wa ■ Pelt in all 
parts of the city accompanied bj anexploi ive »und,the vibra 

Ifl ting aboul a mi e and a quarter The movement 

wa from the outh i a I 

The year opened up with two weoka continuous rain, which 
waB succeeded by vary great heat during the summer. This 
" :| the e lencement of a three years' drought 

L80S. 1" January the wan! of rain began to bo severely 

felt, and th ghoul the yeai the cattle, tike shadows, stalked 

tho plains, picking a scant} au benanoe and barely supporting 
life. On November 2 1st and 23d heavy frosts occurred; there 
wa one ihowei of rain in this month 

1804 tn his correspondence to tho San Francisco Bulletin, 
Feb] n;m r, 1864, II l>. Barrows says:— 

i wept one rain, about the middle of last November, wa have had 
no rain ol consequence for nearly n year, nor enough to make a (rood 

cropol grass for nearlj twoyeaw fhe bills area at ae dry a! in 

'j»d lunimer. thousands and thousands of cattle have died, and are 
jij "' ""i those thai are left.wcepl En favored localities, stalk ab< 
»« spectre , Hie heavens are as brass; the clouds all blow awav ■ 
bi iu ■ no rain. 



0n February nth the long looked for showers came, and 
each ,!l "l' seemed to the weary inhabitants, and the thirst} 
earth < lik '' a precious pearl This was succeeded by sand- 
storms, short in duration, but extremerj disagreeable. May 
opened with exceedingly warm weather, the thermometer- rane- 
ingirom92< to 95 s in the shade. Later on in the month the 
■ IM - 1 w«nit3 were visited by several heavy rain-storms, but 
these did uol extend over the whole county: grass was, how- 
"" ' "i ■■■■ ■> in fair condition. June was marked by several 
severesnov storms at Tehachape, and August in Los Angeles 
w^ ver) warm. During the first week 98* at sunset was not 

uncommon. The latter part of November was marked by 
beavj rains, causing mach rejoicing. 

Under date February 7th, we read in thi V< 

On Friday evening. February 3d, a severe wind-storm swept over 
this valley. The damage done by the hurricane in this vicinity has 
been considerable. Many hooaes were unroofed, and awnings 
etc., blown down. Mm "h damage has been caused to the orange 
orchard* and vicinity. The trees were loaded with 
fruit at tlir time, which was blown off and injured beyond wale; the 
■ much damaged, and in manj case* entirely ruined. 
The large barn of Banning -v Co., Bitualed on Fort itreet was blown 
i stick standing. Man*, were compelled to lash 
down the rooft of their bouses to keep the place. 

However, the inhabit confii U looked Forward to a 

and Mi. Barrows writes March 24th Wt. i several 

and disaster, we look forward with hope 

I liat thi ei ining ea on n ill be one of b tunty and plenty." 

August 29th the weather was recorded as very hot," mer- 

ing 92 s and 93° in the shade 

Decembei wasextremelj cold On the evening of the 4th 

ice formed upon open vessels On the morning of the 18th 

now fell in such quantities that it could be gathered up with 

the hand in many parts of the city Flakes fell throughout 

the day, and all the inhabitants indulged in the novel paati 

of snow-balling The year closed with abundant rains. 

1866. June 3rd a slight shock of earthquake was felt. 

October was marked by very warm weather for the time of 

1807. U\ January there was heavy rain. In February ice 
formed about the city upon one or two occasions, and the 
weather was decidedly winterish. In March the rains were w 
heavy that the in-coming mails were delayed for ovei two 
weeks,and severe floods resulted. A slight shuck of earth- 
quake was felt on Sunday, November 17th the oscillation being 
from Bouth to north. December 9th a heavy rain-storm, 
accompanied by thunder and lightning, occurred, and later in 
the month very heavy rains, and considerable flood. At the 
half-way house, on the road to San Pedro, four horses were 
struck by lightning and instantly killed. 

1868, We clip the following account ofasevere flood fron 
the Los Angeles News of January 3, 18G8:— 

It i.s almost impossible to give full returns of the disasters in this 
county occasioned by the late rains, hut the following we believe to be 
substantially correct, us far as beard from: 

Los Angeles River.— The river commenced risingon Friday 
(December 20th) and gradually increased, until on Tuesday it v 
ite maximum. It changed its course, overflowing its hank." above the 
vim yard of Louis Willbardt. destroying several acres of choice i 
thence striking a point at the junction of the lands ol Vincent Hoover 
and Mrs. White, it received the waters of the various sloughs, Arroyo 
beco and others, whose united force swept along the entire front of Mrs. 
w bite s vineyard. The banks were about ten feet high, but the water 
would undermine it, and whole sections would fall, carrying away rinea 
Ol twenty years' growth, and the most valuable trees, the earth" caved 
and washed within a few feet of the beautiful brick residence of that 
may. fortunately the river fell, and bv cutting down the trees near 
at hand, consisting of orange, lemon, walnut, etc., and throwing them 

into the rivei al a particular point, thus forming a breastwork the 
hi use was saved, but the vineyard Is losl forever. Below the vineyard 
of Messrs Sanaevaine and Wolfskill, whose loss is trifling, it washed 
away about six ,, r seven acres of the vineyard of Mr. Messer . , . i 
inflicted some considerable damage to the vineyard of Mr. J, Hoover ' l'i, 
to the time of going to press, we have no) neard of any damages"* 

tamed below that point. I be damage to the adobe houses in the ni v 

ha- been serious, tin sau Pedro street, three adobe houses fell- the 
families barelj removed in time. Many ol the cellars we ro flooded 
and all the roads leading Into thecitj were rendered fora time imposs' 
able, thu- i from the outer world. 

Loss op Cm Dam, This dam, which famished the city with 

water, and was repaired at the expense of some three M iand dollars 

■ utirel} swept away, and until it is repaired, will necessitate the 
revival of the water-cart system, which, a few year* mru, wan „„u 

source nt supply, J 

11111 Mj HON.— At this point six houses were washed away The 
owners are constructing temporary huts to live in from branches ol 
trees and the debris that have floated down the river, Here were loal 
fine fruit trees, vines, etc., and as the owners were Califnrnians, ii m 
almost their sole dependence. The aoil is entirely washed away, 

Los Nietos. At tins settlement the losses were severe, V[j i n 
Boyd lost one hundred acres; Mr. Parsons fifty acres; Gov. Downey 

:i1, two hundred acres; Mr, Murphy, out of i hundred and fifty 

acres, lost one hundred acres; Hon Pin Pico lost about two hundred 
acres, the river forming a new channel al that place; someCaliforniana 
lost about one hundred acres. On Monday evening, when tho river 
commenced rising, Mr. Murphy and family, finding the watei ri ins to 
tho floor, undertook to wade to high land. M»\ Murpbj and throe 
children got to the [.lace of safety, but Mrs. Murphy and daughter and 
Mrs.Casserly were caught, bul succeeded in reaching adrift, where 
they remained from four o'clock in the afternoon I ill midnight, when 

the) were relieved bj a boat built for the exigency, Next i nlng 

Messrs. Sharp and Baker undertook tocrosa the river in the boat, but 
were swamped, but they succeeded In reaching a sycamore tree, where 

they remained until a new boat was built ome eight 1 I. Several 

limiM- wen- washed away, among them that of Mr. Murphy, with all 
its contents, 

A frenchman from Anaheim, attempting to cross the river at that 
place, came to grief. Finding his mules hUiv to drown, ho i ul them 
1 — i 'hen thej -wan, a bore. The wagon drifted a few miles down 
the river, and was afterwards dug out, but the harness and contents of 
the wagon were lost. 

Sam Fjuncisco Canyon.— On Friday last the Clear Creek stage 

undertook to resume its regular trips, but. was compelled to ret , ana 

m- it impossible to pass through the San Francisco Canyon, the wash 
bavin : rendered it impassable, The damage has been i n ro. tf< i . 
Bearles & Yates had theii atore, dwelling, Btables, corral, hay, etc., 
bed away, with a loss of about two thousand dollars. Dona Kevins' 
ranch i- washed away; and the ranch at the mouth oi the canyon nearly 
destroyed. At the bead of the canyon, a portion of the dwi II i , 
■ ith shop of Major Gordon was destroyed. Out Board of 
.should see that the road be repaired tin i 
■ ■ ith, as a large amount of trade from thin citi to I 'Ieai I ■ 
Kelso valley, Owens rivei Tehachape valley, For! I'ejon, eti 

through that canyon. 

El Monte. -The Ban Gabriel, or a portion ol it, ran throu 
Monte, and besides washing away many fur,,, and covering o 
farms with -and and gravel, we learn he a o tdi rable 

portion of arable land in thai i d 

.May 4th ( a severe Bnow-storm v\ tied Tehachape valley. 
August 2d, at 9 \. u, Los Angeles experi i ■ trfchquake 

shock, lasting aboul two econd t] illation beingeasfcand 

west. We find the following in the A r < ws : — 

On Friday night, August 14th, the tide commenced rising at its 
usual time, until jt was six feet above the U ual water mark-. It 
receded within fifteen minute-, as -udd.-nk as it rose, and it con- 
tinued until next day— every fifteen minutes rising and falling live 
or =i.\ feet, apparently in groat tidal waves that covered the entire 
beach at San Pedro. 


i ' r -r t - ' 


'. ■L . ' ; ■ , , ' . ri i J' .. L . ■ .,, ... .. . . . i ■ i i , i ■ '' K ^t 

/'y .' ': , ', , ' , ' y' , .''. ' '',' ; i i ', ,| > rX r t T 

View of 

Main ST Fronting Arcade:. G.R.BUTLER. SupT, Los Angeles,Cal 


'Sit a ir T*CM»fO« 



is*;!) The year opened with very cool weather, ice forming 
a quarter "f an inch thick; then ndanoe 

of rain. En -July the mercury reached 05 iri the shade, (''it 
September 27th was the hottest day of the leaeon thus far, the 
record being, bade LOO , sun !'»(• Octobei 3d brought the 
mercury to the grand height of 107 in the bade. Dp tottoe 
end of December but little rain had fallen. 

1870. January was .still dry, and the want, of rain began to 
be seriously felt. Herders were discu ing the advisability ol 
removing cattle and sheep to the mountains, when the rain 
of April obviated the necessity of bo doing, There was tome 
frost in November at Kl Mont . and throughout that fall rain 
was again badly needed all over the county. 

1871. OH ( l"' night of January LSfcfa Ice formed in Los 

Angeles a quarter "fan inch thick, There was some rain 
(much needed) in May; ami a tlii.'iiJ. -iinl drought was averted 
by a copious rain-fall toward the end of December. 

1872. On the morning of March 26th, at al t twenty 

minutes past three o'clock, the mosl severe shock of earth- 
quake since L867, was felt in Los Ajigelea The vibration 
had an apparent course of duo north ami smith, and lasted 
about twenty seconds, Several clocks were stopped, lait no 
damage done. The atmosphere at the time is described bo 

have had a most, peculiar ha/.y appearance. It was afterwards 

learned that the full force of this shock was expended in the 
Owens river country, where the towns of Independence, Lone 

Pine, ami Swancea were almost entirely destroyed by it In 

Los Angeles the motion was described as a "a swell." A 
Blight shock was also felt on the morning of April I lth. 

April 2d was marked by a fearful sand storm, which raged 

with uncontrolled fury throughout the entire day ; the atmos- 
phere being BO impregnated with the Hying sand as almost to 
obscure the sun's light. Considerable rain foil during the 

lN"!i. There was but little rain throughout tile early part 

of the year; the total amount for the season 187*2 tt reaching 
only twelve and a half inches. The fall rains began on 
November 18th and were quite. abundant. 

1S7+ The total rain-fall of 1878-4 was nearly twenty-four 


1875. A sharp earthquake shock was felt on the afternoon 
of November 15th, causing some timorous persons to fly their 
houses It was described as "(a sharp, vertical shock, with a 
movement from north to south." 

The following record is clipped from the Herald pamphlet 
of 1 87G :— 


February. . 






August. ... 
Beptember. . 

■ r 
Nnv.-mber. . 
I»eceniber. . 



















1876. Early in nfayoccurred a * trerestormjastingforty-eight 
hours and doing much damage to the railroad. There were 
shocks of earthquake felt at various point* in the county 
throughout the year, The mosl notable were those of Feb 
ruary 20th, March 8th, duly 12th, and July 26th. All were 
Blight and no damage was dona 

1877. Slight shocks of earthquake were reported duly Huh, 
September 19th, and November llth November and Decern 
her brought heavy rains. 

I.S7* The ni^lit of June 11th wa* favored by a temblor, 
which startled the ^ood peopl,- of Los Angeles not a little 

Aliollt II O'clock P. M. When all holiest people \\e|en-Ieep, one 

of the mighty giants— who, according to Indian legends, 
uphold the earth — must have sought a fresh grip upon hi* 
burden, for then and there occurred a rumbling and upheaval, 
which caused the whole population to rush Bcreaming into the 
street, Bans everything hut Bcanty night gear. For a time the 
"Angel City" looked as though it had been invaded by Tarn 
O'Shanter's witches, or that Ascension day had come, and the 
people had all turned Millerites. As all were barefooted, the 

supposition is that they were Beared out of then' I ts, and 

what with the babel of cries, prayers, and lamentations con- 
stantly ascending in every conceivable key. a hundred camp- 
meetings could scarcely have been heard, and the World's ju- 
bilee would have been nowhere. There were three sue© eding 
shocks, but these were of less violence. Finally the trembling 
inhabitants returned to their house* to investigate damages. 
These footed up as follows : one vase broken by falling from 
the mantel-piece; one nose incommoded by "a smell of sulphur 
in the air;" 15,000 people badly scared; no other casualties 

July 17th two slight shocks were reported at Santa Monica, 
aud on the 25th a tremble was felt at Los Angeles, San Ber- 
nardino, and Riverside. 

January of this year was remarkable for almost unprece- 
dented cold. We read of ice in water buckets one Inch and 
five-eighths in thickness, and all the ponds and small lakes 
were covered with a thick coating of ice. There was plenty 
of rain also toward tho end of the month. September 13th 

the mercury reached I03 c in the -hade, while In December the 
weather wa* 'colder than in thirty I re;" but « 

than all. there had fallen but <■><■ shower up to December 21st 

The Signal Service reported for the year ending October 
81, 1878, amount of rain fall 20.54 inches 

1879 During the afternoon of August 10th a slight shock 

arthquake was felt at and Santa Monica. 

There was but little rain duringthiu year. Tin rvioe 

reporting only 12*14 inches for the twelve months ending 

■ i 31st 

[880 This yeai opened up with considerable mow on the 
mountain-, and an abundanc* rain in the valloy Shower 
following shower at short intervals throughout the ipi 
BpeedUj insured not only a good ci »p ot p i but ilso a 
cereal yield of unprecedented pit m\ i hi cold weathi i ol the 
eaih Bpring was unpropitious for southorn fruit bul on the 
whole there was little t" complain of. Sot wind-- occurred 
just before harvest, blighting a portion of the crop while in 

the milk. 

Upon Sunday morning, March 26th, at 6:20 o'clock b ilight 
shock of earthqual ccurred, but occasioned no damagi 

u \ i i.i; \\n IRRIGATION, 

In all tropical and semi-tropical climates the question of 
water supply is one of paramount importance: for unless this 

be adequate and con I ant I hi a 'i" 1 ry must ■ oon hen 

barren; alike void of verdure and hi ; alike deserted by 

man and beast The primary * 'cosof water supply are the 

game in all portions of the world, and are three in number, viz j 

Let : Bloisture from the ail 

2d Natural spring . and the treams Sowing therefrom. 

3d Artificial wells. 

It \l\ I'AI.I, 

The ra'm-fall in bos Angeles COUntj has until within the 
past few pears been but seldom recorded, and nevei e b 
unofficially, and, in all probability inaecnrately. The follov 
ing tabL gives such date on the abjecte we have been able 
to glean from all sources of information ; and while this 
table i* ii'it, perhaps, a ■ ■ ct, it rs at les I s n lis bli 

as any that can be pre] I from i listing record 

ANM A I. i:.WN-i,W.J. l.v LO B i BTTT. 

Taken at Anaheim, I860 1861. . 7 Inches. 

L861 LB62 .18 

1802—1863 4 

1863—1864 -1 

U364—18H6 10 

1866—1806.. 15 

1866—1667 17 

1867 l- 1 - ...11 

1868—1869... 10 

1869—1870 4 

1870—1871 7 

1871—1872 13 



Huy mi average fall of ten incbe-i annually, during twelve y**re 
(fractions not counted). 

Taken ;tt Lot Angeles, L872 LS78 1-' inched. 

ix;:; \B?4 23 

i-7i LS7B 21 

1878 -'i 

L876— 1877 11 

|m77 — 1K7m . 21 

lMrK_|H7'.l II 

|H7ii -1880 -':{ 

Say an average fall oi eighteen laohee annually, during eight vean 
(fraction! not counted i. 

In hi- report for 1880, the State Engineer gives 1 1 * * - av< rage 
yearly rain-fall of the county as follows: 

Spring 2.6 inches. 

Bummei 0.0 

Autumn 2.0 

Winter LO i 

Total average for the year i ■">.!» Inches. 

s m I ifAl, BTBEAMH 

There are three principal rivers rising in the great mountain 
ranges east of Lob Angeles county, and traversing the Los 
Angeles valley on their way to the Pacific ocean. These are— 
The Los Angeles river, the Sun Gabriel river, and the Santa 
Ann liver A fourth the Santa Clara river, rises in the 
northern portion of the county, but immediately passing there- 
out, need not be considered hero, 

A "River" in the Calif ornian sense means something very 
different to what that term implies in the Eastern States, 
where water is more abundant, and therefore less valuable. 
To the Eastern man the term recalls to mind the Mississippi, 
the Missouri, the Hudson, the Ohio, and a score of other streams 
of great volume. Bui to the Califomian such mighty streams 
as are unknown, and the value of the commodity being 
governed b} its scarcity, creeks rank here as rivers, and brook- 
Lets are dignified as creeks. Even worse than this —a shadow, 
a memory, are at times compelled to "1" duty for the reality, 
and the thirsty traveler, crossing a dry bed of bleaching sand 

guileless of even the suspicion of moisture, is gravely informed 
by the native that " this ia << river." At some time within 
the scope of far-reaching tradition, this sand has been moistened 
by a tins si ream That is enough, the memory of those Messed 
drops defies the centuries, and, like Tantalus, the wayfarer may 
perish of thirst, lying prone in tbe main bed of - a river." 

l ns Wiiki.ks RIVER. 

The "Los Angeles" was formerly known as the "Porci- 

uneula" river -an Indian name Prior to the establishment 
of Los Angeles Uity, it ran easterly of its present course, and 
followed the foot of the table-land whereon is now situated 
East Los Angeles. It afterward changed its bed, and ran 
where Alameda street now is. Still later — about 1825 it 

changed t" it- present general course, which it has ever since 
retained, though working gradually westward 

In l*L'."<. the rivers of this count; were n swollen that their bode, 
their bank*, and the adjoining lands irere greatly changed. At the 
date ->r ttie settlement of Los Angola * ity, a targe portion of the 
country, from the central part of the city t<. the tide-water ol tie sea, 
through and over which the I river now finds it- way to the 

ocean, was largely covered with ■» rarest, interspeieed with tracts of 
marsh. From that time until 1825, it was seldom, it' in any year, that 
the river dl ren during the rainy season, its waters into the 

n a. Instead of having a river- way to the sea, the waters spread over 
the country, tilling; the depressions in the surface, and forming lake-, 
ponds, end marshes. The river water. If any, that reached the ocean, 
drained oil from the land in so man) places, and in such small volumes, 
that no channel existed until the flood of L825, which, by cutting a 
river-way to tide-water, drained the marsh land and caused the fo 
to disappear. — I Historical Sketch oi Los Angeles < 'mint \ . i 

Not many years have elapsed since the water of this stream 
was considered scarcely adequate to supply a few scattered 

gardens ami vineyards throughout the Mexican pueblo. Now, 
owing to a more careful system, there is enough and to spare 
for all the manifold uses of a great city, including the 

irrigation of several thousand acres of orchard, vineyard, and 
grain land. Only in very wei seasons does the water travel 
far below the city limits, which are, however, quite 
extensive. The bed of this river joins that of San Gabriel 
river some seven miles from the ocean, but rarely, if ever, do 
its waters reach the junction. According to the State Engi- 
neer, this river drains three hundred and twenty square miles 
of country. 


The San Gabriel river (known to the early fathers as " El Rio 
'/' los Temblores" on account of the many earthquakes prevail nt 
thereabout), upon emerging from the mountain ranges, and 
before reaching Kl Monte, sinks into its sandy bed, and travel- 
ing underground a distance of some three miles, emerges with 
an apparently but slightly impaired volume. The intervening 
space is moist, loose land, being thoroughly soaked by the 
underground waters. This is one of the great corn raising 
sections of the county. 

Upon reaching the Rancho Paso de Bartolo, the Btream 
divides, and passes onward toward the ocean in two distinct beds, 
varying in distance apart from two to six miles. These two 
streams are thenceforth known respectively as " The Old San 
Gabriel river" and "The New San Gabriel river," the former 
occupying the ancient bed, while that of the latter dates only 
from the Hood of 1807. The San Gabriel river, as a whole. 
drains an area of country equal to three hundred and fifty- 
six square miles. 


The Santa Ana river is the most important stream of 
the three, but taking its rise outside the county lines much of 
its water is distributed before reaching the Los Angeles valley. 

What remains is made bo do good service, however, being 
carried in ditches From the i Soast Range, and distributed where 
it will do the mosl good Thus the natural bed of the stream 

is left constantly dry This river drains our tl sand two 

hundred and eighty-seven square miles of country ami is 
ueorrj one hundred miles in length, 

\i;i i SI w w I'.u.s 

Sq early as L855 efforts were made toward obtaining artesian 
watei in Lo Vngeli county. In thai yeai b well was bored 
mar the fool of Fori Hill, Los Angeles City, but no permanent 

BUpply resulting at a. depth of eight hundred feet, it. was 


From this time on experiments were frequently made, and at 
lost e seven inch Mowing well was struck by Mesirs. Downey, 

ila\ward and Leaudry. near where the town of Compton 
now stands. Since then sum- hundreds of Mowing ami non- 
Mowing wells have been struck in widely distant localities, 
proving beyond a doubt, that, the artesia.u belt underlies a 
large port ion of the COuni J 

In 1876, the State Legislature passed an Aei providing that 
all flowing wells shall be capped, thereby preventing we be, 
and guarding against a possible exhaustion of the aoura of 


The irrigable lands of Los Angeles and San Bernardino 
counties, are classed together by the State Engineer under two 

givat valleys: — 

First The valley of San Fernando, ami its extension into 
San Bernardino county ; length ninety miles ; total area about 
nine hundred and seventy square miles. 

Second -The Los Angeles valley, extending from Santfl 
Monica and Los Angeles on the north to Newport and Tustin 
on the south ; length forty miles ; total area about eight hun- 
dred square miles. 

He classes the irrigating ditches of the two counties tog bhi i 
as follows: — * 

Los ANGELES River. — Seven ditches, irrigating sight thousand acres 
m and around tfu ■ ity oj Los Angt U r. 

Bah Oabbibl RrVBB. — Thret ditches, irrigating thret thousand "ine 
hundred and Jive wri-.-i m the ••>!•■,-, <,, valley between tht Coast Rangi and 
the Sierra Madre; and twenty-three ditches, irrigating nineteen thousand 
thret hundred and three acres cm tlu lower portion oj its worse through 

til. I \:l.,t III//, I/. 

The Sahta Ana Riveb, — Eighteen or twenty ditches, irrigating 
eight thousand nine hundred and thirty-five acres of the Interior val- 
ley, above the Coast Range, in San Fernardino county; and four ditches, 
ii'f'igatiti'j niiu tfammwl rwn hundred and fifty acres of the Coast valley 
below the Cuad Range, in Los Angeles county. 

Small Streams.— From the Sierra Madre and San Bernaidino 
mountains — thirty-live independent works oi' more or less import- 

* Those of his remarks applicable to Los Angeles county only, we have 
italicized —Ed. 

deming , palmer & co. 

Manufacturers of Flour, Meal and Feed. Dealers in Grain of all kinds. Near 
junction of Main and Alameda ST, s Los Angeles,Cal. 


ance, Irrl Lboiuind few hundred tod ninety-fivi 

plateau and valley land adjaa counties). 

There is little doubl thai the watci pouring annually into 

I,,, Air- li ' alii J from all OUD 

it properly utilized to render I fertile 

But to do this, none I bi allowed to run to ws te. The 

flow of the rivei ' bi bi by di ep pil 

in" al the poinl of ■■• no I the foot-1 I m thence 

i1 bi di tributcd in do ed ditchi to prevenl 

[ M th< "ii" i canon abo i I bi dam 

bructod capable of ( tai • tin ovei | ■■•■ henever any 

hall occur. Tin R an ] wo thou and 

similar work in ttalj h I Itl thi ftalj of li 

bo-da lirinl Fi ova uch fl tan! ! 



i 1771 1880.) 

Ohormi iii ,i Pn itni .J I .id- < li i- i I ilifornid Livi Itool Ho I 

Hi ■ n >n 11,111 ii i } radon] I >• ol i il" UAttl< I I H i Slu sp 

i Iraduul I hoi on a ol tin Shot p Interesl < r Do n 

SwillC Iii ' 'i : ill. H "I in 

A iwsTouAi, life is thai which over finds greatesl favor, and 

ii m:. i followers, in all southern c trio al Icasl anion 

persona "to the manner born." M suite the drow y, dreamy 
indolonce, and natural aversion to anything like work, which is 
ii marked characters I ic of overj nation beloved of 
Tho ti'uo " Galifornian fovor " is no! the " auri ■■■■ ■ 
but simple, pure and unadulterated l*i \m 8#! 

The Indian regards labor :i* tho white man folly, and 
baking hia bow and arrows wanders through the leafy 
Hero ho slays a leer kin.lh reared for him \-\ mother Nature 
and this being carried, and dressed and cooked bj i i 

(aquav ), he feasts himself to repleti n and knov The 

Mexican, one degree higher in the Bcale of civilisation, trusts 
not bo finding the foresl deer when ho shall need it, bu 
loose some hundreds of cattle upon the plains. Here the} eat 
the portion by Nature sent, grow Fal and multiply L 
Indian he slays as he has need and his mode of life differs 
from that of the Indian, onbj in hi ■ cercisi of forethou 

tin ■ the land, and his claim of property in bh * offspring 
of certain animals. 

Wo have \- ced that the Franciscan missionaries on 

their first expedition into Upper t California 176*9 ; 
them horses, mules, and itock their proposed missions. 

These wore duly apportioned to the various establishments, 
and favored by a genial climate and abundant pasturage, 
multiplied prodigiously. The Spanish system 

such multiplication to the utmost, (<n female an not 

allow ther worked or killed, and the males were never 

intil reqnii ice 

HORNED ' \I t! 

1 1 . i. were two hundred head of hon in the drove 

brought by the Franciscans, and of these San Gabriel sCssion 

being the fourth establishment, probably rooen fifty. 

The 1827-8 and 1828-9 were marked by such • ■-. 

sive drought thai cattle died upon the plains bj tl Bands, 

and hi] their hides wen al -. a\ from San Pedro, 

fel in 1831, Mr. Alexandi r Fi btle of the 

threi ■ and town now comprised in Los \ unty, 

eventy-six thousand and twenty-four; and in a for p 

chapter we have shown thai this estimati lj far too 

low. Wequotefrom Mr Forbes' I k the following amusing 

account of 


i in i ii- i nse number of domeatie animals, little advanl 

i- obtained beyond the value of the bides and fat. The management 
ni the dairy is totath unknown. There is hardly any iQcb thing In 
i butter am! iii- i--i-. mid what little is made i" of the very ironl 
rfptlou. lb will no doubt appear strange when l evert, that the 
..ii ol making buttei and cheese is unknown io all the Americas inhab- 
ited I iy the Spaniards and their descendants; vel as far at my own expe- 
- well as my Information, this is in reality tbe ca 

although something under tbe m ■ ol butter mid cheese i- c;cner.-dly 

ind, yet they are made in a way entirely different from that 

tn i d m the north of Europe, and certainly have but little resem- 
ill i" ilinsr -ii in m i Ik esteemed aliniruts— as there prepared. Both 

the butter and • heese, particularly the former, are execrable compounds 
ulated milk and its cream mixed together; the butter 
being made of the cream or top of the milk, mixed with a large pro- 
portion of i be - ime coagulated part, and beat up together by tbe hand, 
without a churn, till something of the consistency of butter is pro- 
duced. This i- of a dirty grey color, and of a verj disagreeable flavor, 
which in a short time is rendered still worse by it- tendency to become 
rani id, In which state it is almost always Found before it arrives at tbe 
pi tee "i tli . and is of course intolerable to palates used to that of a 
better sort. The cheese is made of tbe remainder of tbe same milk, 
imee of the whole milk and cream; in either case it is made up 
in small moulds containing about half a pound, and undergoes 00 

pressure except by the hand; it is always mixed with a large propor- 
tion ol salt, and i- of h Boft, crumbling consistency. 

is another -<>n of cheese, or something resembling it, made of 

agulated with rennet It is made in thin eak-s which 
they form by pressing the curds between tbe bands till they are freed 
of the whey; these arc then left to dry. Thisiscalled "pane/a" and is 

: ban the sour composition. It is used as a luxury, and is 

sent abi i sents. 

* * * *■ * * * * 

I have before said that little milk is used by the Spanish race in 

i. and when they do use it. they have a wry awkward way of 

taking it from the cow. They think it is absolutely necessary t<> use the 
call to induce the cow to give ber milk-, and for this reason, they first 
let the calf suck some time alone: then lay hold of one of her teat- 
while the calf is -till sucking the others, and so by a kind of stealth 
procure a portion only of the milk. They have no idea that a cow 
would give milk at all if the calf was altogether taken away from htr; 

bo that, when cows are kept for their milk, the calves must be kept 

along with them, and as thi •/ get the beat share, a great number of cows 
and calves must be kept to produce a small quantity of milk. 

The first American settlers drifted naturally into Mexican 

habits: ..f fife, married into native families, and started cattle 

Thus though the missionaries at their de] ew hundreds 

..f thousanda of cattle, as we have chapter X), yet vasl 

lords were left in the country In 1851, fifteen thousand head 
were shipped rrom Los an wtj and d 

dollars each. En 1855, the average price appears t<> havi 

about the same, and sales of a i ten 


During the sui 1 ol L850 and throuj hout tho ensuing wintei 

the loss of cat! le in the county bj starvation was ustin 
one hundred thousand head ; yet in an editoria Ipril 20, 

1 356, the s " computed th al Hve hundred 

thousand dollars I insand hea m their way 

north at one timi \r this time prioi - were quotod aa Follows 

fifteen dollai [n March, 1857, twenty dolls id was 

askc.l mi tin- ground foi cattle 'too poor to drive." [n the fall 
nt' 1859, the cattle were o pool that when the hoavy rain 
came many " chilled to death." 

Yet despite all this, manj remained, foi Benjamin Kays 

w lit-' Hi !■ i teal Sketch of Lo Ing li I ' ■ 

in i860, then- were 1 1 ii avonty-oight tl and head of cattle, 

three-fifths ol which belonged te oatli I 
distributed aa follows: — 

Abel Btearns, twelve tbouinnd; Juan ablla, levon thousand two 
hundred ; John Roland* five thousand ; WJHIam Workman, fl 
sand j William's estate. Ave thousand; John Tom] 
Kicardo Vejar, three thousand five hundred ; Bernardo Yorbu, threi 
thousand Bve hundred; Fgnacio del Vallc, three thou 

dred ; Teodosia Sforba, threi 'I and five hundrod ; Leonardo I ol t, 

two thousand Bve hundred ; Vicente Lugo, two thi u and Bve I Iredj 

I'io and Andrea Pico, two thousand; Agustiu Mach do, I no tb nd 

Nasarlo D inguez'i estate, I wo thon and I ■ ■ one thou and 

fbmily, one thousand ; Enrique A.blla, one thousand ; Pi 
da, one thousand. 

i l' just allowance for defectl - I WSS 

: lerably— one-third bi 

In the spring of L802, gra od an I Fu 

cattle were soiling at from eighl I i tweh p i head 

But the terrific droughl of tl I M tii !;■ i" 11 an 

end to cattle ranching in soul icrn < ■ nis ' 'attic died bj 
thousands, and tie- plains ■ n with theii carca i 

< lenerally the hides s ■ "pod from them, I ;i omi 

I is Baid thai even the hid ■■ ■ i de I hrough 

extreme starvation. In April 1864, fifty thousand hi 
cattle were auctioned in Santa Barbara at ' ; > and a 

half cents each. In view of this / em 

like mockery t-i read one year later of gra 
throughoul the •■ 
i of starvation 

In 1865, the cattle of the county wi n i 
thousand four hundred and fifty head. In 1869 
carried off a go<x\ many, an<l in 1 H7'i : only thiii 



head were reported '11, a . 01 repo I I 

fourteen U and head of all kinds of hoi I cattle in tiie 



The native hoi ea of I fppei ' WBforaia all spring from a like 

.. to Hi;il nf ,,„ cattle, vi/. tho« brought by the fii I 

m i ionarie Liki th. cattl. tbej wer- all I to run wild 

n the plains, and bo numerous did thej I n tl 

times the rnar< wer. red in thouaanda to relicv. 

, ttry of an overplue of stock not only worth! b< 

l|(1 i needed for a e, bul really detrimental. Thus Hon. J. J. 
Warner writea (Hist Sketch, pag< nin< 

Ah earlyas L825, (he number of neal cattle and boiw kind hod 

t B enawdiomuoh,tbattiiap< ageoi tb. .ryembrawd 

t v won insufficient foi Id lupport, and that of the wild hone . oi 

'. >,,,..„. WOTC tenl OfthOU.nnds whlclihad „., .claimant, and win- 1, 

Kail bandi. each undei ita male leader, mi dovei their respective 

m consuming the herbage, and enticing into then bandi the 
" and brood mares of the itock-breeders. To relieve themselves 

flSmthS Lee, the rancheroa constructed large pe J«rals1.wth 

outTpreadIngwln»of fcml fr the d< ay, into whfch the 

wild 4 horaea were Sriven In large numbers and "laughtered. u ■ '■ t( 
neriod and when the numbei of oeai cattle had been eomewhal 
foVsened the wild horses were driven Into such pena and reduced to 
il eatioatlon. 

\V,. havesome indication of this condition of affairs in the 

paat a. stated in the ords of the United States Exploring 

expedition), thai in 1841, brood mares were valued at only one 
dollar eacli ti thesaleof Sheriff Barton's effects in 1857, we 
find young mares ranging from eighl to twenty dollars; while 
young horse* are quoted from twenty to fifty dollars, an 

increase in values due to the diminution of Btookon tl ue 

hand, and an increased population on the other. 

. .'|'i„. voai L865 began with fifteen thousand five hun- 
,l m l ;ll1 ,i twenty-nine horses/' says Hon. Benjamin Hayes 
(Mist. Bketch, page 60); yel the County Assessor's report nf 
1876 shows only ten thousand. The returns©! L880, place the 
number of all kin-Is about the same. 

Bffl i P 

In Chapter IX of this work, we have presented some of the 
estimates made by tm\ slers aa to the numbers of mission live- 
stock in earl} times. In 1829 (to Walter Calton placed the 
uumber of sheep owned by San Qabriel Mis-inn alone at fifty- 
four thousand. Two years later Alexander Forbes estimated 
those of the whole comity at only twenty-one thousand, three 
hundred and fifty-four. What we havesaid in regard to the 
false returns made by the friars of their cattle and horses 
applies with equal force to their sheep; so that the probabili- 
tiesare thai both these gentlemen were far below the mark, 
and that in those years the sheep of the county must be counted 
— perhaps by hundreds oi thousands. 

At the only sheep in Upper California v 
inferior breeds, their wool being of such coarse quality as 
to be wholly unfit for exportation As the ram- were not 

castrate, th".- condition of their mutton naj be imagined; and 
I it. was but verj rarely eaten 
With the decline of the missions, sheep interests appear to 
have entirely di i in 1854 the SouMsm Califomian 

"">■ "id '"-'- tno 

. a of a Um for bre. ling purposes Ranchers must 
„ h Only have acted on this bint, foi in L856 we res I that 
ling in Los Angeles at from two dollars and 
a balf to three dollars per 1 

The yeai L859 seems to have been tl.. first year in which 
■ B gen. ral stocking up" with sheep took place. In the spring 
immense bands arrived from Nem Mexico, and were old at 
four dollai a head to the early fall Mr. Jacob Metzkar 
returned from Monterej county, bringing with him lifts eighl 

fine wool rams, which were distributed ai ig the bands of the 

county, with a view to their improvement in breed. En Decern 

bei of that yeai then Is proved destructive to a great number, 

,band of four thousand losing one thousand head, This 

heavj loss was not alone by drowning, but owing to their 
extreme poverty of flesh, they had not vitality to stand the 
rain, and fairly chilled to death. 

The following year witnessed a grand importation into the 
county of fine-wooled Bheep from all parts of the world; the 
total importation probably not falling far short of onehundred 
thousand. A. W. Peters drove one band of four thousand from 
ohm, bring one and a half years on the road. Corbitt and 
Dibble of Santa Anita brought a large number of finely-bred 
sheep direct from Scotland, accompanied by two Scotch shep- 
herds with trained Scotch shepherd 'logs. Others followed 
their example. Sbeep were brought from Canada, from Aus- 
tralia, from all parts of the globe famed for Bheep, and these 
slowly and ateadily drove the cattle interest out of the county. 
In (Mil Messrs. Corbitt and Dibble made a fresh importation 
from Vermont, of one hundred and twenty-five fine wool 

For the years 1862-3, the wool clip of Los Angeles county 
was estimated at fully one million pounds each year, with a 
vast improvement in quality. The drought of 1864 was 
Dearly as destructive to them as to cattle, yet many contrived 
toexist on "g "/■ ta" a weed which ordinarily they refuse, and can 
only be driven to eat through extreme hunger. This fact then, 
accounts for the great number of sheep two hundred and eighty- 
two thousand that lived through that fearful experience, in 
comparison to the handful of cattle that survived. Three years 
lat.i* the number had decreased nearly one-half. 

In 1870 the wool clip of the county was estimated at one 
and a quarter million pounds, but this amount was somewhat 

decre] . lowing season, the summer months being very 

dry, and the flocks in consequence being early removed to the 
mountains Of twenty thousand head pastured on Catalina 
i onlj four thousand survived till \*7± This season was 
fair, but the next surpassed it with an estimated yield of ono 
million, eight hundred thousand pounds of wool 

In L874the Assessor's report showed nearly half a million of 

nu and the dip was estimated by tl"- Star at 

foui million pounds. The following yeai ihowed a slight 
increase in stock, the number Btanding five hundred and eight 
thousand even hundred and fifty-seven head, but the woo! 
dip had decreased to two million, thirty four thousand, eight 
hundred and tw oty i ight pounds for the year In 1878 it 
was estimated at three million pounds. The returns for 1880 
the whole number of Bheep in the county at four hundred 
and two thousand, four hundred and nineteen, of which oighl 
hundred and forty-one are imported, and the remainder 

The following valuable letter on this subject, from Ex-Goa 
ernor John G. Downey, of Los Angeles City, .we copy in full 
f rom the S&mi-Tropie California of February, 1880: 


I propose to aay a few words I ■ people about sheen husbandry, 

illustrating its increase and profits, and the hap] w attending id 

pursuit in this 8tate, and particularly in southern California. For many 
veara in California the popular branch of stock-raising was horn oi 
black cattle. It has conceded, 1 might Bay, special privileges, and 
,„ C ial legislation was invoked for its protection. And many oi these 
laws are still on our statute books, but now of little use. Tin agricuj 
torist had no protection against those roaming herds oi long-honed, 
long-legged, and ill- shaped bovines, bui in a legal fence, and when 

Ker-pressed, it was hard to And a fence that would l them. 

Kp-men were in bad favor, and the lord* of the rode • all forota, 

"snow in Texas, controlled legislation. Cattle might roam al jjrill ove 
adjoining ranchos, but the momenl a she,,, passed the boundary dm n 
wassubjlct to seizure. Many efforts were mad,, i.-.,,,....,- o tin 
curb the extraordinary demands of cattle men. bui wlthoui avail, until 
1861. The write,- nf tin. article for the first time broughi the mattei 
before the Legislature of this Btate at its I birteenth session » he ft- 

lowingterms: (See 8enate J nal, thirteenth session, U3»2,pag. UM. 

■ ■[ he agricultural interest is second to no other in the State in mpoj. 

fcance, both a. a means of wealth, industry, and g I order u sacM* 

Already the export, of our cereals, aftei supplying oui domes) ic wants 

California wealth. This like all other branches of indui try. - ' 
wholesome legislation, adspted to ite es toins ore i< 

encouragement and growth. The homer n. California labois BBOW 
oSfg/eat difficulty, that is. in the procuring of prope. and cheap matfr 

rial fencing hft I In manyWies of the State *M~m 

an expense tSree-foId more to fence land and pro ec crops ig 
trespass of livestock than the land and en,,, w.ll Bell for. '',,,_ 
are prevented from enltii i J"d fmito from thiBCau 

I caS discover no hardship in compelling thestoc ntni to ■ - 
stock and prevent their trespass greater tEan that requ ring ; ir " e , 
to inclose his field to secure the profit of bis capital and abor. w 

„mprUbe farmer to maintain a legal, fence as. WU^yj 

vent his cultivating his uw, land or enjoying the use oi bis io«M P«g 
erty.' * * * This recommendation was fiercel) bsmi»«i 

huiiiiiitiiint|ii|i!it|i!i'i"iiin {inimTiiiimi'ti 

* ■» ■> «4r 

~' .«t( ft' ji « 

Residence £?PartialView of Orange Grove S3 vineyard of J.G.M? DONALD, Alameda:*; Washington 


ngeles, Los Angeles C., 


itiBiiSNfb kr VhMtS&tv x t>77T 


but a special bill incorporating th - paw<<;'J f^r Yolo; it worked 

l<, -a chftriD, ; i r j • I thl foi ' I'ill- of 

lai Import for nearly all tfai 

From tin-, date agriculture sod ibeep fanning commenced to assume 

;,| |,;i I r. j l| .1 1 I Q1 [ ,1,1 I .1 D | 16 V, 1 1 Ii tl,:i' ',t tfaC £1*81 CSttlC I D< ( ' 

;i ii..i 1 in jri &l drou [hi ol I 89 and 186 1, tb< 
borned animal* began to disappear from our valleys, l be 
orchard) rim pard and Bne Merino flocks took tbelr place; gave employ- 
ment to our laboreri, our sailors am ly to toe 
resources aod wealth ol the State. 

In L802 I received b letter from Mr Kennedy, the luperiotendent 
of the Federal census, asking foi in fori tourn 

on the wool que I Ion ' but that 

we wore nol credited with ■ ire than three million poundi of 

wool* and that of Inferioi Quality; but 1 vt ured him thai at toe end d! 
!_[,,. next docade we would show thirty I million | ■ ■ slifornia 

W;|J| peculiarly adapted to bei p i il In •. and thai oui peopli 
rapidly Impro ■ th< breed. 

ii, thoughl i ■■■..I i ii.i agent, i"' 1 the facte and figure* show I 

was right in my anticipation*, tfol onlj have thi < toer of pounds 

i i i lM . Inoren ■■ d, but I hi qua III lie progri ed in fsvon : ' ■ 

VV iti, 1 1,. weight, a an Indu try II ha paid, and alwayi will, with 
i | |r , .,. jyiio 1 1 J e It atrlcl atti ation . and o ■ i i 
I,,,., fbllo wi 'I ii ere ill comfortable and happy. 

Ii || like compound Interest; [| progri e night and day; aod in 
qui Imppj cllm&to onlj calling for small exertion from the bu band- 

mini, while these conditions exist, wi il Id nol forget the 

mu r ill ;it sheep interesl liai claimed and received the care of that 

jilgli toned q sadness bestowed upon it En Bpain, Saxony, Bogland, and 
in our own [Saute i n and W< >ti i a Stal i 

\\ ■- ihould i"' prosecuted bj the! nne ocietlee eatablisbed for 

i be protection of domestic mi mum Is. We ilmplv proi Ide for their com- 
iii,, in!,, * 1 1 i in' o , 1 1 the yeai ii pood, all right; 11 not, we In them 
starve or perish Id tho storms. A irood and humane l. ihuature should 

provide that w ly should have the abor wo aro able to find and 

inciter, it would bo better In the end, ai we would demand and 
receive n bettei price in the market, and only raise mob as were 
prolll iblo. 

It [b mi easy uiattor to make shedding, to provide a little hay; two 

or throo pounds of hay will keep a sheep in £ I condition for twenty- 

four hours during E storms when they are dry and olean. 

There Is o satl [action In this beyond the humanity Involved, and an 
oc j boj l conception. 

Thoro is another eoouomy thai mighl be practiced) and thai lb, the 

I oaty in putting up our wool for markot. 1 have always kept tags, 

i,i,l . and fleeces epnrate and apart) nod If hurried I bo marked it, 

The result baa bpon i five cenia a pound difference; and tins in 

i be Ito ffroighl alone I i onaiderable. 

l would kg further If I could, and have all our sheep-men wash 
their sheep before shearing, have theii cloon boirded fl ion, and brush 
out the box after tying every (leeoe. if tin- i lurse were persistently 
followed, we would gel up our standard of wool and have the confidence 
of the Eastern manufacturer. 

I contend thai sheep will pay under all circumstauces, and will 
discount cattle or any other stock, provided you have the proper range. 
This U in\ exporienoo. I have followed it persistently, and i can rec- 
ommend ii "ii -i small or In ■■' scale. It can be profitably pursued by 
the small or large proprietor, rhe precious litth animnls provide yon 
with every thine raiment, food, and man are for your orchard, vineyard 
in potato ground. apart firom the present boom in wool, 1 recommend 
sheep to those who wish to thrive; but at the same time 1 recommend 
oare, economy and humanity; aud tl" 1 enactment aud enforcement of 
laws oompelliug men (<■ provide feed and shelter for any and all slock 
that they claim ownership of, and particularly that innocent, docile 
and useful little animal, the sheep, that princes have been proud to 
own, aud kingdoms gracious i nough to proteel by salutary laws, 

J, Q. D. 


Pork was constantly on the table at the early missions, 
bui was used verj sparingly as an article of diet The Indians 
refused it utterly, maintaining according to Hugo Redd thai 

county at 

swine were transformed Spaniards The duel use ol this ani- 
mal then wai uuitities wen made 
'"" / " ' I " 1 Warner mi in 1881, San 
Gabriel Mission had nol less than on. thousand h i I 
The returns for 1880 give the number now in the 
eighteen thousand, nine hundred and ninety 

Ii would seem tint 1. ,, were wholly unknown in California 
until 1853, when a M. Shelton imported two hives by waj of 

the Isthmus, these being th ly living survivors of a large 

numberwith whichhelefl theEasI If. settled in Santa Clara 
county, and from theee two colonies, all the bees now in Cali. 

■ ; pposed to have sprung According to John T 

1 '"" Ha* l<-\ Pamphli I pagi 101 

1 I 4. the firal hiveofl s was introduced Into Los Lngeles 

rhe party importing the same paid om hundred and fifty dollni 
1,111 - nl ancisco. on the wharf, when it was landed with t number 
ol hives shipped from New Vork, via the Isthmus. In iprll, L86G this 
hivecasl out twoswarms, whi< h were sold foronehun . . each 

as tbei wen clu ti >■ l on the bush, without hiving. The horn i 
from this earlj source of supply commanded om dollai and s ball Dcr 
pound ' 

It. the" Historical Sketch' page tl . thin first inti 
1 ""' i'lt- (I.- county, is placed bj Hon Benjamin Hays to the 
credil of 0. W Childs, Esq , it. 1856 Under date ol March 
30 1872 the Express notices the introduction of the first 

Italian queen into the i nty b} Mr Childs, at an outIay"o£ 

sixty-five dollars, which certainly seems like an extra 
'''- : "' , price for so small a "fowl." However there may 
'"■ ;| mistake plena for Mr Gordon \ in the pamphlel b fore 
quoted | continues: — 

In January, 1865, I introduced fifteen hives of Italian bees into this 
county, and their marked superiority over the black or German bee 
i- ii trading deserved attention. From this Btock, the Italian colonies 
in tin- county have increased to five hundred Btands. 

Id 1860 we find that one party in the counfcy^has twenty- 
five colonies, and Beveral others are in the same buaim 
doing well. In 1868 wild honey was gathered inconsiderable 
quantities throughout the foot-hills, and shipped to San Fran- 
risco The following account of a famous deposit of wild 
honey is extracted from W McPherson's pamphlet, "Homes 
in Los Angeles I Sounty": — 

In Los Ingetes county, on the eastern slope "t" the San Fernaodo 
range ol mountains, and in the immediate vicinity of the I 
! um Company's oil region, there i^ the most wonderful collection 

of wild houej in existence. Thi hive is located in a riit. which pene^ 
tr;,te> the rock t<> the tlepth uf pi hundred and sixty feet. 

1 ' See is thirty feet long and seventeen feet wide; with fonr pas 
sages, rhis rift was discovered to be the abiding place of a swarm of 
bees, that is seen to come out in a nearly solid column, one foot in 
diameter, Certain "parties have endeavored to descend to the immense 
honey collected by the bees, hut were invariably driven back, 
and oue man lost his life in the etlurt. tubers, at "th.- expense of 
much labor and money, built a scaffold one hundred and twenty-five 

ES ' . - v Boutleman by the name or B 

Ma not fa. from the* spot, and obuined SSm the 

l^Hul. fTuJli" M0Om " n ■»*"?•"') ..increedwhao 

he atleielluw, are n,t .,-,,, uhr.,ad „, VM | number*. . 
in their inelliMuuii* work. 

The bees have four natural enemies which wi may quote in 
>ths, lisards, bee birds, and bi u 1 1„ 
Brsl enters the hive u ,,,,,,. , ; 

aecond and third pounce upon the bee outeide whonovoi the) 
have the oh ■ lfl him with 

1 urth do * "■•* wanl thi though hi i i 

todevour them when laden wil ney , bul In covel theii 

stock with an in i tiat . I Nol even th. , 

will deter him when he discovei o bee ranch Sv 

down from hiejnountain fa tm at night, ho ovi rl i„ 

and fairly wallows in , u ,,.,, tllll 

or ki,l, " ! l > fcne infuriated bee men, who, however, nol unfn 

, i ,,, ' ,l,l > come off econd b. bin tl ncounb i foi bi ,, 

S ' n^bter, and when he i aftoi honej go< in to win 

Formerly the I ly was strained bj - p i m. to thi un, 

1 " : "' ■ tract. 1 T lu ,, r . 

'"'"'' 0I extracting is very int. resting to i vice Long 

knivea, crooked al thi handle, an I 1 1 ., heated in 

boiling water. With the e the c b, which i mad in I 

is uncapped on each side The frames are n ■ . | i in thi 

circular extractor, whii hi . | , orank 

when tin- centrifugal force thus obtain. I i pi I, the hom and 

leaves the empt} combing I Bhape to be refilled bj thi bei 

when placed bach in the hive By thi mean theii tinn and 

labor are saved, as theycan much i peedily repaii anj 

little damage this comb I. a, sustained, in thi i tracting pro 

cess, than they can form a new one With thi i . i< .-. 

many bee-men now furnish theii hive with artificial comb ol 
bees-wax, partially formed Thi i thi bee goto worl nd 
complete, and all time thu a ■ I i ,„ ,,r m ..,ii,. , ,, . 
IiutIittl.-lion.-vi-. now shipped from Los Angeles county incomb 
as bee-keepers think the timeoi thi ii bi I ■■■ q ... , , honey 
to keep them making wa 1 1 

honey is usually shipped in tins, and in all thi b tapii I 

is handled with remarkable care and cleanlin 

It is claimed that in a g .■, i ■. ■„, eacn swarm will pr. 
three hundred and fifty pounds of honey, double thi numbci 
of workers, and provide feed for all in addition The Italian 




queena, in this climate, are said t/> average 

p, | ,| ; , v The feed ii principa 

the white sage, which grow in groat abui ,,M,t - 

hUIa; but Ming to procure thai fcbi inaecbi willfeed upon 

;il( ,i | tract honey from anj and all plants and flowers they 

ma y be able to And. FruH men maintain thai they qj 

i,,,.., quantitieeof fruit yearly and demand protection from 

I ,,■ ;,., 'i bi b - 1 i denied by "1" bee keeper* 

B ,,,„,!.. coot, .1 of doubtful issue ii the resull Probably 
,„,„ ,i, ',,,!,,« ted avan will *>me of these days, decidi the 
the matter finally, and save farther effusion ol ink- aim 
careful inquiry the writer is of the opinion thai there are rally 

on, hundred thousand colonies in Los An ■ I ini I 

and this notwithstanding the heavj l I afew yeai 

wl,,.,, bees starved to death by millions. The Bee-keepers 
Association of Los Angeles County, was organized Augusl L6 
L878, with nine members: John T. Gordon, W T Martin, 
ll ( . IIIN Beclcley, I. M Rasmussen, Win. M Rasmussen, Levi 
Richardson, MCrs. B, Richardson, A .1 Davidson, and John W. 

Wilson. The object " To [ lote the interest of bee culture 

in this county." The first meeting was held a1 El Monte, on 
Saturday, August L8, L878, when a Constitution and By-laws 
woreadopted, and the following officers elected; President, 
John T. Gordon; Vice presidents, Thomas A, Garey and W 
T, Martin ; Secretary, Win. M. Rasmussen ; Tressurer, ■' C. 
Barnes. The highest recorded membership is fifty-six. 


A perfocl furor Eor the growing of mulberry trees, nd the 
raising of silk-worms, seems to have awepl over Los Angeles 
county in 1869. The silk-worm fever was epidemic, and Bpread 
to all corners of the county. Everybody talked "Bilk," and 
every iassue of every uewspaper wrote "silk." So great was 
thedemandfor mulberry cuttings, that dealers Bold them a 
mar ahead. Over two hundred acres were planted with 
some two million cuttings, and then the fever subsided; and 
to-day many a comparatively old resident does not know that 
silk was over grown in the county ; and this writer's assertion 
of the fact has been denied by Leading citizens of from four to 
eigW years' residence. Probably the offered "State bounty" 
had something to do with the excitement. 



UwAn^a^a an Agricultural r..unt> \ .ncllim—M-l- - v " 

\\ u . • I'- HMtoiy- «Ue«a Whcat-A OaliformMi Hirvrt 
I OT _0»to-Bye-BBckwh«t P B a I 

lU U— Potatoes— Sweet Potatoes— Onions— Kl U B 
Bogu Bteto-J ; ' ' ' ' ' "" '" 8ngwC«i« - 

Iture— KuL-aly|ittw. 

\> rug years roll by, it becomes more and more evident t<- 
all, thai Los Angeles is pre-eminently an agricultural county 
Hereare half a million of acres upon which may be grown 
almost every variety of crop known to the farmer, and while 
in dry years the labor of the husbandman too often proves 
vain, in wet seasons, or on irrigable lands, he is always sure of 
bountiful returns. 

Year by year tin- Assessor's report shows a marked increase 
in the acreage cultivated; and a corresponding increase in the 
quantity and vain.- of exports, is year by year perceivable. 
Nor is tliis to be wondered at, when we mark the strides made 
by mechanical invention in perfecting the tools with which the 
farmer works. Hut thirty years have elapsed since the Mexi- 
can fastened the crooked branch of a tree to the horns of bis 
ox (by thongs and therewith lightly scratched the bosom of 
Mother Earth; then laboriously dropped the seed, one by one, 
in the tiny furrows he had made. Now behold mighty gang- 
plows, yoked to a score of snorting steeds, cutting a broad 
swath of brown mold across the green prairie, from horizon to 
horizon. Next the automatic seeder scatters the germs by 
millions; and where once was seen but the Mexican's tiny acre 
of scanty stalks, now waves a billowy ocean of yellow grain, 
far as the eye can reach. Not the slow sickle, or puny scythe 
must reap this harvest. The swift headers come, with waving 
wings and rattling blades, rejecting the treasured straw of the 
Eastern farmer, and daintily choosing only the golden heads. 
And last — no wooden Hail with feeble beat, nor old-time fan- 
ning-mill, but the mighty steam separator, devouring heads by 
millions, and making immediate return in hundreds of tons of 
clean, bright grain. 

In mission times, the lands being devoted to stock, but little 
grain was raised save for home consumption, though it is 
alleged that occasionally a surplus was exported. The prin- 
cipal crops were wheat, barley, corn and frixol — a small bean 
much used by the Mexicans. With the influx of American 
enterprise, a greater area of land was brought under cultiva- 
tion, and many crops — hitherto unknown — were experimented 
with, in order to test fully the capabilities of the soil and cli- 
mate. Up to the present time, almost every known variety of 
grain, fruit and vegetable have received a trial at some period, 



some part <J the county. It is our purpose here briefly tu 
i,. w these experiments, and note results 


Probably no other crop in the county has shown so marked 
an increase, and achieved so great a success where least 
expected as has wheat. The missions always raised sin,,,., 
an d Father Sanchez— during bis pastorate is said to have 
loaded three Russian ship- yearly with the surplus. 

still b<>s Angeles wasnever ragardeoYaa a wheat-growing 
country, and a series of dry years following closely upon the 
American occupation, caused-a pretty general belief that this 
grain could not be here raised to advantage. Even in wetsea- 
sonsrustand mildew destroyed the crop, and wheat-jjrowere 
despaired of ever achieving success. From 1855 to 1859 this 
crop proved one prolonged failure, scarcely enough being saved 
from year to year for seed. Still some few persovered, and in 
I860 came a change— that year they had an excellent crop; 
and the following season brought one equally good. 

But Dame Nature now forgot her compliant, d, and 

resumed her habitual coyness. From this out, until L865 the 
crop was generally cut green for feed, to avoid total loss. In 
the last-mentioned year thirteen thousand bushels were liar- 
vested. The ensuing ten years wen- but a repetition of foJ mer 

ones— sometimes a half or a quarter crop, a times none at 

all. In 1875 the county returns showed a yield of twenty thou- 
sand bushels. In 1877-8 some ten thousand acres were planted 
and a fair yield realized. About tins time occurred a now 
departure, which promises to fairly revolutionize farming in 
the southern country, and to promote Los Aoigele possibly 
to be the banner wheat county of California Thi was 0008 
other than the introduction of anew varie I) ol heat Known 
as the "Ghirka," or "Odessa" variety, and d< cribed in the 
Pacific Rand Press, of February 28, L880, a follows:— 

The wheat is small, round, and although not absolutely what millers 
call "hard wheat," it is of hard, dark grain, and contains much mow 
strength and gluten than the tender "Yellow Polish" and *™ 
"Sandomirca," which are also grown in southern Russia. I he"GnirM 
contains more gluten than even the American " Red Winter, and In 
the Trieste and Hungarian Mills it is found more suitable to the mode 
of milling there in use than almost any other description ol win at. 

The Ghirka district extends principally eastward from Odessa, in 
the direction of Nicolociff, Kharkou", and the Dniepi >. and also as tut 
as the AzotF, where the Taganrog wheats are also dark and Strong. 
The "Ghirkas" are sown in spring, and after sufficient ram up to ftUy, 
do not require more moisture. 

The chief advantages expected by growers from this wheat 

are, first, an ability to thrive with less moisture than is ni o 
sary for other varieties; second, that in wet seasons it will not 
rust. So far these anticipations seein to have been full} 
ized. In 1879, thirty-one thousand 0ve hundred acres 
planted, largely in the "Odessa" variety, and a net yield of 
three hundred and seventy-eight thousand bushels a\ ' tT 

Residence of l.R.DUNKELBERGER.Los Angeles 


Jj&ii4«fO m, thq^WST, 

*t £ vrs&T. 



twelve bushels to the acre) ws \ Assessor's 

report. This year (1880] it has been i timated bj com] 
authority that not, l< than one hundred thousand 
are under wheat in this county, and the yield, jui 
from present appearances, will certainly Bhow a much higher 
average. '" the low-land and southern porl crop 

is almost entirely "Ode sa" wheat, while man} of the old 
varieties have boon retained on the higher and more north 
orly lands. It has been tin custom hitherto to commence 
sowing with forty pounds of wed to the lually 

increasing the allowance, as the season advanced, to 
pounds, which was the maximum. The belief is, bow 
rapidly gaining ground among the Lo A ngeli h rm< i 
that this is too large an amount of Beed, and that thirtj 
three or thirty-five pounds, increa ed gradually to fortj five 

pounds, and no 1 '©, will give battel n ult As mamy as 

seventy-five statics ka/ue been found tpringing from a wnglc, at least, ho we are informed >>\ n who profess to 

have counted them. 

A i 'ill ii'u i iiliiii harvest field is a scene of rs re activity, and 
cannot lir bettor described than a* seen by this writer in July, 
L 880, on a trip to the magnificent wheal fields of K, M. New- 
hall, Ksi| , at the (own of Nrwhall, in the northern pari <■) Los 
AngeleB county. 

A spare has been cleared by the headers, in the center of a 
mighty Bold of yellow, waving grain , a field so vast that its 
area may be more readily computed in square miles than 
si | M arc acres, To this spot was drawn yesterday whal appears 
at first sight to be an old fashioned Locomotive, bul which is, 
in reality, a steam boiler upon wheels, In front of this Btands 
the engineer with a fork, stuffing waste strav the only fuel 
used) into the voracious fire box, under which a tank of water 
catches the sparks, and Berves as a guard against fire, A 
bighl box water wagon supplies water from a distant spring, 
and this, being speedily transformed to Bteam, causes a Large 
driving wheel to revolve rapidly. 

Tlu "Separator" (Eastern ''Threshing Machine"' Btands 
some thirty feet away, connected witli the revolving wheel of 
the engine by a long belt. 

Far awa) near the hill-side stands the white camp of the 
harvesters, where at early 'lawn they breakfasted. No eight- 
hour system has yet abbreviated the day, nor prolonged the 
night amid these mountain solitudes. "Sun to sun" is the 
golden rule, and as the Lurid orb peeps o'er the eastern hills, 
the reapers are pushed, each b\ four horse- harnessed behind. 
and each accompanied by its consort wagon, upon the quiver- 
ing mas- of bearded grain. These reapers are a practical illus- 
tration of 'the cart before the horse," the machine going first 
and the team following, pushing instead of pulling. 1-ast »t' 
all, the driver rides up,.n the tongue, behind hi- hm-" lu- 

hand Dpon a lever, and hi.- eye Upon the _'rain, that he may 
raise or lower the scythe, according to its height, and thus 
secure all the beads T 

■ ■. and aU . shuffles the scythe whi 
belt carries the severed heads each with it- nx or twelve 
inch.- ->f straw attach) 1 Dp n slanting gangway, and int-> the 
attendant wagon. 

This wagon, having a i«»x very high on one side, and very 
Low on the other looks as though the builder had started out 
reel a mammoth packing case on wheels, bul had run out 
of mate) ial afl r finishing the bottom, both ends, and one side 
Each wagon is manned by two persons, one i" drive being 
mi\ careful to keep close alongside the reaper, the other, 
armed with a Cork, to pack the heads away, as they fly into 
the v i i the low side <jf the box from the gangway of 

the reaper. A very few minutes serves to fill the wagon when 
lb reaper is stopped, the full wagon drives away to the Bi 
rator, and an empty one tak< it place, to be filled as was the 
I 'tin, i 

At the Separator there ai illy two wagons being 

unloaded at the Bame time, one on each side. Two men, with 
forks, pitch the wheal upon a platform, some six oi eight feet 
high, while four others, from the platform, feed it to the 8 
rator. If regularly fed, a steady, satisfied nimbi* attests the 
Pact, bul the quick ear of the manager detects on the in 
;in\ complaint from his mechanical pet, and he chides bis men 

At the far end of the machine, s cloud of threshed traw 
and chair, settling upon the ground, is dragged away by a 
team of horses wearing canvas b Is to protect their eyes 

attached to a twelve-foot wooden shovel. 

At the Bide, protected from the dust and chaff by a canvas 
awning, a steady Btream of clean, ripe grain is received into 
new sacks by one man, while another deftly stitches up the 
mouth of each, as filled, and with man rity carrie it 

out and deposits it upon a East increasing pile. Anon, these 
are loaded upon immense double wagons [carrying nine tons to 
the trip . and are hauled by teams of Bixteen horses all guided 
li) a single line to the great warehouses of the proprietor, 
there to be Stored till shipment. 

Vet even in this apparently simple matter of storage, system 
must be followed, and every sack must be laid so as to break 
joints with its fellows, or a leak in some of the tower tiers may 
cans,' the pile to totter and fall, wrecking not only the ware- 
house, but also a goodly slice from the ample fortune of their 
enterprising owner. 


While the raising of wheat in Los Angeles has always been 
looked Upon, at least until quite recently, as a moot question, 
there has been no such problem to solve regarding barley. 

DD the earliest times this has been one of the chief agricul- 
tural products of the county, and formed a staple article oi' 
diet, for both man and beast, at the missi. 

Naturally. American immigrants ohoSS this crop in prefer 
t" those of leas established reliability, and we find one 
hundred and fifty thousand bushels reported in I860 Ten 
years later four hundred and fifteen thousand nine hundred 
and fifty bushels were reported and the returns fbi I s , I 

nine thousand ii\- hu under this crop with 

a yield of five hundred and ninetj thousand bushols, oi an 

\ twent) bushels t.- the acre, It is estimated 

thai tin- year 1880 at least ninety thousan 

sown, and there is everj promise "f at I. hundanl 

There is one peculiai ity in < i w Inch 

al one atti icts the attention and excil mi nl ol 

\ i/ . the grow ili of volu nteei crop • ■■ i 
tainlj rli.— e.m. I. and probablv the third yeai aftei owing 
[\ [,, almost incredible, while viewing a field of rank, rich 
grain, to be told that this has come up "on \U own ho 

\\ itliuiii t*>U hi part of the I n a r! if fn 

will offering as it were from Mane' Nature 

i o\ v\ CORN 

Los Angeles lias over claimed Indian c o bi hoi crown 

ing agricultural glorj [\ been rai l hen fi i * 

"whereof I hi oi | ol m in i unm th nol to the conl rai y . ' and 

when everything else failed corn became the taffof lifofor man 
and beast In the bol rivet in • i ory por 

i .. in of I 1" count j ^ bi re thi land Jii lo n an I wet too cold 

iut hern fruit I lamp E u m i I ji ain ' here corn fioui 

ishes. To publish a tithe of th told bj corn fro ■• bi ol 

the marvelou productiveni of their favorite crop, would 
cause all lovei of truth to tear thi page out ami burn il To 

avoid such dire fate, this writer refrain and ntions onlj 

that the crop has been uniform it th returns 

for 1875 were six hundred and thirty nine thou and bu b< 
for Is"!*, twenty thousand acre and eight hundred thou land 
bushels Fortj bushel to thi acri and thi j eai 1880] the 
land under corn is estimated at sixty thousand acn One 
ill one] to wind up with: ft is asserted that corn has 
been grown on the Los lo ri talks of which 

measured seuent* even >>•■!■•■ vn >•> 

. wmfi ■■ 

o ■ 

When Americans first visited this county, the foot-hills are 
said to have been completely covered with wild oats, equal in 
every respect to the cultivated varietii i i ' that the grain 
was much lighter. The inHux of sheep the wild 

crop, and but little has been raised by the farmers, barley pay- 



ing much bettor Like barley, a volunteei crop follows in 
the econd, and frequently the third year. The I 
report fo] L879 bo oiu b indredand fifty acres only under < 
yielding three thousand! bushel twenl bu ■ ! I 
Tin year (1880) there have probably been from five hundred 
to one thou iand acrt planted 


Rye ha been bul little grown, though almost every year a 

mall acreage has been plante I therewith, 'I for 

1875 give eleven thousand even hundred and sixty bushels, 

while those of I S7'» give only two hundred and twentj 

... i folding three thousand seven hundred and fifty bushels 

thirty bushels to tin acre 

BUCKWH1 ' i 

I lurk wheat hai been thoroughly tried in Loi Lngele county 
and has done welL In 1875 one thousand three hundred and 

lil'iy bushels were grown. In 1879 seventy ftvi acres s i'-!>l**d 
uin' thousand "in- hundred and twenty-five bushels fifteen 
bushels to the acre. 

IT. \s. 

Peas are but very little grown. In 187° one hundred and 
twenty acres yielded three thousand bushels -twenty five 
bushels to the acre. 


Beans have always been b staple emp in tin- county, and do 
well, In 1868 the crop was five thousand bushels; in lsy:, 
twenty four thousand four hundred bushels; in L879, one thou- 
sand two hundred and fifty acres yielded twenty-five thousand 
bushels twenty bushels to the acre. It is claimed that this 
can be raised advantageously as a second crop. 


During the pas! ten years, castor beans have l n consider- 
ably grown. They pay well as s crop, but are Baid to ruin 
the land, and Eor thisreasoo many farmers will not grow them. 
In In7" three hundred and fifty acres yielded five hundred and 
t wenty li\ e thousand pounds — om- thousand five hundred 
pounds to the acre. 

p] lntjts 

A small erop of peanuts is grown each year In 1879 sev- 
enty -live acres yielded seventy-fi^ e thousand pounds — one thou- 
sand pounds to the acre. 


When first raised in the county. Irish potatoes proved quite 
unsalable, owing to their poor quality. Better seed, and a 
more careful selection of soil, have had the natural result; and 
a- good potatoes are grown here now OS in other part- of the 

p of 1866 wax twenty-live thousand bus! 
In \s7'i two thousand acres yielded six thousand rrms - v 


s\\ V U I'-'l \l"l s. 

Sweet potatoes have been quite extensivelj grown for some 
and frequently reach an extraordinary siie. In 1856 
we find on- reported weighing twenty-one and one half pounds 
In 1 ^7'' two hundred and seventy -five acres \ ielded on.- thou 
sand six hundred and fifty tona so tons to the acre 


In 1875 the return- showed twenty-eight thousand three 
hundred and fifty bushels In 1879, one hundred and fifty- 
cres produced thirty-one thousand bushels 

KI.AX . 

The growing "f flax i- now an Important industry in Los 
Angeles county, and everj year becoming more so In 1879, 
four hundred acres were planted. It is estimated that one 
thousand live hundred acres are under Has this year 1880 , 
The straw is worth ten dollars per ton. and runs about a ton to 
iii.' acre. Could this he manufactured into grain sacks on the 
ground, it is estimated that three hundred thousand dollars per 
annum outlay might he saved to the county. 

AImhii the year L860, and for several years thereafter, hops 
were a staple crop in the county. In 1867, one grower Mi 
David Lewis, of El Mont.' harvested thirteen thousand pounds' 
from five acres. In 1873 the same grower had increased his 
yard to twelve acres, and during the ten years then past had 
realized from seven to seventy cents p t .-r pmind; such is the 
extraordinary fluctuation. The returns of 1879 show seventy- 
five acres under hops, yielding one hundred and twenty thou- 
sand pounds -one thousand six hundred pounds to the acre. 

This is, in many respects, the most remarkable vegetable 
product of California, We <juote the following description 

from the Herald pamphlet of 1870: — 

It is a rich grass, grown from the seed, and of marvelously rapid 
growth. In summer it lengthens an inch a day, and in winter hall 
that, equal to twenty-rive feet in a year. It progresses winter aud 
summer, and does not require replanting for years. Cutting is done 
monthly ur quarterly, each acre yielding twelve to eighteen ton- of 
rich hay per annum. In its green state it is a most nutritive diet for 
all kinds of stock, keeping them in good condition without anv other 
tood. As an aid in hog-raising there is nothing equal to it. Fifteen 
hogs will keep in prime condition upon each acre, and need but little 
corn to fatten them for market. It is unsurpassed for dairy purposes, 
and well adapted for sheep and poultry. Its culture is being extended 
rapidly as its many uses become known. It is a succulent plant, and 
requires an abundance of water. 

The California Cuttlirist of November, 1S58, claims that the 
roots of this plant penetrate the soil to a depth of twenty feet; 

and a prominent resident of the countx assured the writer that 
- himself seen them fifteen feet in length, Mniost even 
farmer grows mon or less of this gross, arid it is tV.l t.. almost 
, \. r\ description of stock. 

m Q \u BEETS. 

rie: growth of this vegetable is comparatively a new enloi 

prist-, hut important results are 500U expected therefrom In 
1879, one hundred and iift\ acres yielded three thousand tons 

tw.-nty tons to the acre This year 1880) about one thou- 
and acres in all have been planted; seven hundred acre 
being put in by \li R Nadeau, who, in company with a Mr, 
( humeri is erecting a BUgar mill near Florence, and they intend 
testing this industry thoroughly. 

Some very Liberal Btories are (old respecting the size attained 

l.\ heel- III LOS Atl^elrs eoUllty; Olie will SUffiCO. Mr. I 1 T. 

Hazard, a leading lawyer of Los Angeles, informs the writer 
thai ■'!' an agricultural fair held in that city a few years ago, 
a sugar bee! was exhibited of quite as targe dimensions as the 
body of his horse, an animal weighing about on.- thousand Pour 
hundred pounds. 


As early as I Soil, \\<- find tobacco promising In become a 

staple production of the county, and from thai ti in the 

presenl a certain amount has been raised annually. In 1879, 
one hundred and twenty-live acres produced one hundred ami 
twenty-five thousand pounds one thousand pounds to the acre, 


Tin- first mention we find of cotton grown in the county, i* 

in the report of the committee on native cotton, to the State 

Agricultural Society, 1858: — 

I'.ut we have to refer to another sample, grown in Los Angslu 
county, euual, if not Buperior, to the hest Mississippi or Louisiana 
cotton, and of course superior to all others, and of hut cum- grade below 
Sea [aland cotton. This sample is not of the Sea [stand seed, but tlie 
gray Petty Gulf kind, proving conclusively the perfect adaptation of 
our climate and soil for the production of the very finest staple cotton 
yet found anywhere of its kind. 

During the ten years ensuing, cotton was planted quite 
extensively throughout the county, and though reports from 
time to time were very favorable, it did not pay, and gradually 
died out. 


Snirar-cane was raised in Los Angeles county as early as 
1854, and from that time down with considerable success. 

The Minnesota Amber Sorghum cane is being quite e ten 
sively grown in different portions of the County. It is used 
principally as feed for cattle and hogs, but also yields a very 
fair quality of molasses. 


I 'onsiderable broom-corn is cultivated, and two broom 


U<r ST. 3 r, 

fua^Hnio yr r»OMrjQM a ¥¥£$ T 


factorii are kepi running in Lo Angeles, both of which pro- 
cure thi ii upplt in | h ■ 

Thi " ari do my othei nail crop i Pep- 

per, Canary Seed etc etc Rice he bed, but without 

financial rei uli 


Prom a lecture delivered before the California Academy of 

Science, in the autumn of 1872, by Robert E Esq 

we glean the following foci concerning this now well-known 
tree: — 

Oftfao Eucalypti, U, globulv i ron common Id California, 11 
very easily oultlvatod; it ts the Blue Gum of Victoria and Tan 
m of extremely rapid growth, and attaints hel htol Foui hundred 
furnishing » Eirst'Clasi irood. Bhfp-buildei gel keen t thii timber 
one hundred and twenty feel long, al a use ll extensively in plenl 
ami in othei perl ol the ship, and conildei El ■ ai i ior to 

American Rooli Elm, \ teitol trength has been modi between BIui 
Gum, English Oak. and Indian Teak, with the following result: The 

Blue Gum carried fourteen pound ra welghl than the oak, and 

lovontoerj pounds and foui ouneei more than Teak, upon the qusn 


[ti rapldltj of growth Is n lorful, \ ipeeimen rii and one-half 

feel liign al planting gained nearly nine foot In eleven months, in 

Spain it It called il Fovei tree, from ita officacj in Intermittenl 

rovers. In Germany forty-three patients out of fifty were cured b) a 
tincture of the leaves. Eleven or these bad prevfou i> been treated 
with quinine without effect, Nine out of the eleven were cured bj 
tin* tfnoture of Eucalyptus, ii Is also used extensively In case ol 
chronic oatarrh and dyspepsia; is en excellent antl eptic application 
for wounds, and tans the skins oi dead animals, giving the Fragranci ol 
Russian Leather. The tree growl best In mai bj localities, whfefa it 
speedily dries, extending Its rool lo averj direction, sometimes toe 
distance of thirty and forty Eeel (V be trunk, 

l'|i to 1878 this tree had been grown in Los Angeles county 

only for ornament. A I i, thia time several prominent gentle 

men of Los Angeles conceived the idea of growing the tree on 
ii Large scale. The result was the incorporation of the " Bores! 
Grove association" in November, 1874. They purchased a 
tract <.l' land near Florence, and in 1876 set out one hundred 
thousand young trees, So great lias been the success of this 
enterprise that stock in the company Bella at nearly fifty per 
(■nil, above par, and other parties profiting b) the example, 
Beveral more groves have been planted oul 



(1771- L880.) 

■ I'tuii » . >iu,i \ Outturns] Fruit Harvest — Orange* — Lemons 
Limes Olives Walnuts Applea Betakes Pears almonds — Other 
Fruits Qrapos and Wines General History Thereof. 

Sum 1 1> Pomona and Bacchus ever see tit to forget old loves, 
and form e matrimonial alliance, then start West to settle down 
and gnra up with the country, they would in all probability 

decide valley a* the place of their futui 

dence Here tl ne might regale herself on almost 

kind of frail n while I would find a vari- 

ety of vintage unsurpe 

hi "in Mi || 1 1 i . ; Fna 

Julj Jl 1857, 
illustrative of the almost continual frait harvest in this valley: 

The various time- - .f tin- year that out <!■ ! 
rip'- are as follows: The main orange crop i- i pe from Janoary to May, 
although the trees bave s Few eatable oranges on them the j ear round, 
rfae orange tree is perpi so. Lemon -*.u r and iweel . lime 

and citron ■ ■ En the timi 

ner of yielding their fruit rhe citron (or citron lemon] lit- both 
frait and blossoms the year round, apricots, early pes icova, 

111 1 Isu Ini . id the tir*t ,■ ■ . ripen 

In June and last about a month. real maoj varieties ol 

nding the prickly peai oi " tuna," and early mitii 
ripen En Juij and Augu i specially in the latter month, the) 

appearin abundance. Late in July, the neat fruit ofoaraoutl 

itry, the grape, begins t<> turn purple, i> which time ll i* 

abundant till the end of the year, and Dot war ■ 11 into Jan* 

N.irv. end when <lriei|. till grapes come round again. In thi month of 
Beptember, which is the mosl favorable time in the yi ar for visitors to 
iiii'1 abundance of fruil in ii- beal condition, we have of grapes and 

peaches n I. the second and principal crop of Qga, ESnglisb walnuts, 

pomegranates, almonds, I ither with lati I the various fruits 

alreaup named, Beptember is the great fruil month here, for thi ■ 

■ '" theii i io, Hg and grapi -. universally a< knowledged t<> be 

our best fruits, rhe " \ inta snd 

continues tilH hrlstmas. 


These "Golden apples of the rleeperide an grown in many 

parts «if i 'alifufiiia. mi a small scale, bul in Loe \uj- I ulv 

only an- they produced in sufficient o ber to bo of c ter- 

cial importance. 

The tree is an evergreen, having long, dark green leaves, 
When full-grown, ii -tan J- twenty or twenty -five feel in height, 
and being very bushy, will shade a circuiat apace on the ground, 
of from fifteen to twenty feet in diameter. In general outline 
ii i- a model of symmetry, and when covered with white blos- 
soms or yellow fruit, or ; unfrequently the case 
with both at once, it is perhaps, the most beautiful of fruit 
trees, It begins bearing, usually, about the eighth yea 
the seed, and, to ensure success, ret|uiivs warm, loose soil, an 
abundance of water, and unremitting attention Thus, it will 
readily be seen, that .-v.-n in favored Los Angeles, the orange 
belt is restricted by natural causes to a comparatively limited 

The first oranges grown in this county, were planted by the 
Franciscan Fathers at San Gabriel Hission^probably about 
the year 1820 or 1825. In 1n.">4. when Don Luis Vigni 
fished the pioneer orange orchard in Los Angeles ' Sty, brinoinf 
his young trees from San Gabriel, the orchard at the latter place 
was only just in bearing. In 1841, William WotfskUl planted 
: 9Bi r range orchard in Los Angeles, and, according to 
Benjamin Hay- Historical Sketch of Los Angeles County), 

irehardfl in the county up to 

-it -mall in 1856, the 

number of i - in the county was but little over one 

hundred and wej ,;|, to prevent the 

ii "f the ubiquitous ban ng cattle Thus 

early the orange m \ house use only, and i 

rhe next orchard of importance in the order of time i 
thai planted by the I it ll n Benjamin D W 

Gabriel about 1852 This had for rU been i pari of the 

» m> ral fruitful trees vet n roamed on the 

place- Th ud to be -till in w- us health t> 

their burden of half a century with all t 1 i nd beaut,) 

nth, linked to the dignity ami ti iritj 

The total yield of the count) foi 1856, wa 
hundred thousand oi I William Wolfskill had for so> 

otb»1 years avers i aeon mi hundred doll hi pet 

annum from each of his tn Bul in 1857 s ca the i J 

' injuring I md di troj it p in vain -li'l 

. pomologistsoonsult local scientists andevenlaj the 

matter before til I . „/ 

run de Franc*" the tin) insect defied them all, and <"n!i i 

■" almo I tol il fai I oi i 

when a fait yield was realised 

I" that year, 1 1 it Ml ft - tee of ' laliforni ■ timated the 

total nuinbet of oran I rei plant* d oul in the 8tate at 

two thou and five hundred, " d third b< inn in 

th 'chardof William Wolfakill al Lo Vngole " Heels ■ I 

them a i i i ■■ f ■ hundn d tro h I n bo fifl j years olrij 

the remainder from six to eighl 

In Im;7 the numb r of bearing tree in L i Ingoli couhl . 
alom Gv fl e igb1 thousand (even hundred and ninet) nine, and 
the yield w lb bin Vev al I wo thou and oranges 

per tree on the ■■ if • vt nteen million ii , e 

hundred and oinety-eij isan tluodati hi 1 1 cenl I 

rto five hundi ad and i enl boo and nine 

hundred and forty dollai Thi wa probably an overe timal 
In 1870 tn" numbet of bearing trex in thi count) was 
reported al tbirty-four thousand. In 1872 then we anabun 
dan! ■ carrying t wo fchou an I oran ■■ but the 

average in the b ng eight hundred to the tre< 

In 1875 the first shipment of Lo Ui -■ Ii oran ;es to London, 
nd, was made b) -l !>■ Bath Shorb Esq., of San Gabriel, 

I hi perfect safety, not on 
being decayed in transit. This gentleman, two later, 

cleared over seven thousand dollar-* from a orchard: 

but this was an an l cannot, be thinks 

be repeated. He believes, however, that two hundred and fifty 
to five hundred dollars per acre, yearly, may be attained by 
careful culture. In 187'J the Salt Lake trade was opened up 



by bis enterprise. Fifteen car-loads were there disposed of at 
remunerative prices and this promises in the future I 
excellent markel 

The aumbei of bearing orange present 1880 in 

the county i reported by the a i 01 at one bnndredand 
ninety two thou and. 


in omi n i" cl the lemon tree n a bul is 

less beautiful, The tree i mailer its bran regular the 

foliage of b lighter green, and li u urianl n 1 iwth, It is 

I i'i s hool ikei undei ' he ame condil ■■ ■ 

orange, and begins bearing at from ten to twelve years I 

Sicily lemon is the vari* t} 1 grown in J-"- Angeles county, 

and is said to be even more profitable than the orange From 
sixty to eighty trees are planted to the acre The a 1 01 
report for 1880 how thirty thousand Lwo hundred and fifty 
bearing troi b in the county, 


The lime, a near relation bo the lei is from one-fourth tu 

■ third the size of the former, lias a thinner rind ami more 

juice, ill is being mhih'u li;ii ■ 1 1. M 1 -h 1 in . j 1 1 . 1 1 ] 1 \ Tli.' bushe are 
four to ten feel high, ami begin bearing at ten or twelve years 
From one hundred u> two hundred bushes ore grow □ bo the acre, 
There are two crops, tin' firsl ripening in January, and the 
second in .111)1.'. Immense quantities of this frail are allowed 
to rot on the ground annually for want of a market; and 
bhough mi hia l tie for the manufacture of citric acid, white 
brandy, and s Nasi variety of othei merchantable commodities, 
no one yet lias the enterprise to endeavor to utilize this waste. 


The olive was introduced by theearly Franciscans. It is not 
strictly a serai-tropical fruit, yet thrives best in a dry climate 
M constitutes the ehiof dependence of the poorerclasses in parts 
of ItaU and Spain, and is used in s variety of ways, forming 
an ingredient in almost every dish. By the nativesof Califor- 
nia it is uBed extensively in cookery, but by Americans onh as 
a pickle, or for oil. 

As grown here it is a pretty evergreen, having small, bluish- 
green leaves, and somewhat resembles the willow in general 
appearance It ranges in height from fifteen to forty feet, 
with an average of perhaps twenty feet. It is grown from 
Cuttings or shunts. begins hearing at ten years, ami is supposed 

bo live for man) centuries, 

There are three olive orchards in Los Angeles county, which 
were planted by the missionaries, These ore situated respo t- 
ively at the three missions of San I tabriel, San Fernando and 
San Juan Capistrano. The tires vary from Beventy to one 
hundred years of age, and are still bearing well. The Asses- 

report f"i 1880 shows three thousand bearing trees in the 


WA1 M 

There ore two varieties of walnuts grown in Los Angeles 
county \i/., the English and native walnut Prior to 1847 
were but three bearing trees in the county, bul in that 
yearsome two hundred were planted out, principally <<f the 
English variety. In 1856 the number of trees in the county 
had increased to -i\ hundred and forty-eight; in 1876 there 
were six thousand trees; and the number at this time 1880 
will probably not Fall fai short of ten thousand trees, 

I In- walnut tree is grown from the seed, and commence* 
bearing at eight years It attains a large size, and in general 
shape somewhat resembles an apple-tree, having, however, a 

ch bd ther bark, and more trim appearance. The average 

yield, in a g I season, is said to be one hundred pounds to the 

trei ilit- quantity gradually increasing with the age of the 


While the enthusiastic asseverations of orchardists — that they 

can grow as good apples in Los Angeles nit \ as either Maine 

or Michigan can produce— had bettei I-' taken cum gramo 
8aUs; yet without anj doubt on the low moist lands of Gospel 
Swamp, and kindred localities, a very excellent apple can be, 
and is, raised by the farmers. The returns for L880 Bhow 
twenty thousand five hundred hearing apple trees in the 


Fine peaches are now grown in many parts of the county, 

the Assessor's report for L880 showing twenty-four thousand 

four hundred and seventy-five bearing trees. The- fruit is of 

excellent quality, and frequently reaches an extraordinary size. 


Pears were grown in the early mission orchards, and have 

always done well. The fruit attains a very large size, fre- 
quently weighing three pounds. The Assessor's report for 1880 
shows thirteen thousand three hundred ami forty-five hearing 
1 rees now in the county, 


Almonds were first planted by William Wolfskill in 1855, 
the seeds being brought from the Mediterranean. In 1870 the 
county had one thousand one hundred frees, and the number 
has probably not increased. The tree, which is very handsome-. 
tl rives and flowers as well as could he wished, but as a 
financial investment may be classed as an utter failure. Of 
the many orchards inspected by this writer in all portions of 
the county, not one has paid, or done much more than supply 
a small quantity of fruit for home use. Many growers have 

decided to cut the trees down for fire-wood, while a few still 

ding to the hope that a riper age will bring more fruit. This 
expectation would appear to be but poorly founded, however 
as several orchards are from eight to twelve years of age 


hi addition to the foregoing, almost every variety of semi- 
tropical and northern fruits are grown, to a greater or less 

extent, within the county, Among these may be ationed 

pomegranates, tigs, apricots, persimmons, quince, citron, cof- 
fee, bananas, strawberries, entrants, raspberries, cherries, etc 
Some of these are so far but experiments, while others hays 
become staple products. 


"Come, come; good wine is a good familiar creature— if it lie Wv \\ 

Thus said [ago to Casaio, and thus doubtless thought the 

Spanish Friars, as t.h.-y planted out their first vineyard, " Vina 

Madre/'at San < fabriel. According to lingo Roid, this " Mother 
Vineyard" contained three thousand vines, the slips for which 
came from Lower California. Mr. II. I), Barrows, of bus 
Angeles, who has given much attention to the subject, believes 
that what is known as the "Mission Vine" is identical with 

the "Alicante" vine of Spain, and-must originally have ( iq 

from that country. Alexander Forbes sa\ s Forbes' < alifornia, 
pages 172, 17:*; : — 

An indigenous variety of vine wan found by the early settlers 'the 
missionaries), yielding grapes of a considerable size, but not ripening 
in sweetness. The Fathers introduced the true wine-grape (vitisvine- 
fera), which had long nourished in the Old California, Indeed, in 
many parts of < 'a I i forma, the native vine L9 so plentiful, and its producfi 
so abundant, that brandy is now (1835) made from them in considera- 
ble quantity. 

In 1831. when Colonel J. J. Warner, the venerable repre- 
sentative of early days in Los Angeles, arrived here, San 
Gabriel Mission had about fifty thousand vines. There was also 
an old vineyard on the Los Nietos tract, a little south of the 
dividing line of Santa Gertrudes and Paso de Bartolo, and near 
to the San Gabriel river. Within the limits of the present 
city of Los Angeles, the following vineyards existed: 

North-west of AlUo Street: Tihureio Oarillo, -I acres; Ybarra, 

5 acres; Tapia, 2 acres; Louis Bouchette, 4 acres; Henri. |ue/. 

Sepulveda, 4 acre*; Yanuario Ahila, acres; Apablaca, 2 acres; 

Juan Ramirez, 6 acres. 

East Side of Alameda Street: Iiallesteros, 4 acres; Luis Vi 

5 acres; Maximo Alanis, 5 acres. 

East Side of San Pedro Street: N. M. Pryor, 2 acres; Antonio Maria 

Lugo, 8 acres; Cota, 4 acres; Bice and Temple, 4 acres; Vicente 

Sanchez, 8 acres; Benedicto Palomares, 4 acres; Antonio Banchez,3 
acres; Jose Maria Abila, 8 acres; M. Requena, 2 acres. 

ll'e*t <•/ Sau Pedri. >>»■! South ,./ M„;„ st »■>■* t : — Romero, 5 acree; 

Vejar, 2 acres; Moreno, H acres; Valdez, 4 acres; 

Urquivez, ,j acres; Alvarado, 2 acres. 

One hundred and twelve acres in all, or sav one hundred thousand 
vines, making a grand total of not to exceed two hundred thousand 
bearing vines then in the county. 

The Finest teams and Single Turnouts in the City. 
horses boarded by the day, week or month. 


it br rttoMPsan s wfjr 



At, thi i timi thi principal drinli of the common people vu 
1 aguardiente, pan grop brandy, and while there was much 

intoxication, yet mamarOrpot'u was wholly unknown v.t 

until the advent of American doable distilled " Benzine and 

8tryc hnfne," did thi convivial ' blifornian 

snakes gamboling In his boots and friend!) bad toying with 

liis hair. A barrel of aguardiente held about nineteen gallons, 

and ii ually old for thirty live dollan but in ; 

the price frequentlv rose '" n liars and 


Wine wai drank by the mi rionarii and old Don I 

made a veai \ im b . I ap ■ .-.■ <»f 

syrup, then adding ii bo unfennonted juice, thereby retarding 

Ii. will In- remembered that when the mi ionarii of San 
Gabriel ordered their Indians to destroy the vineyard thi b 
refused compliance, having probably acquired too much love 
and veneration Poi aguardiente, and fearing to offend this thi 
only "apwit " they could und< rstand in the whole calendar -if 
Spanish saints, fa 1841, when Mr Benjamin l> Wilson ctfme 
to the county, those \ inoyarde wore -lill in a flourishing condi 
fcion, and so remained until the vandal Mexicans thereabout 
gradually dug tliora up and burned them foi fire wood. In 

that mli in- year (1841), wo find the following □ pecting 

the wine product of California, in the records of the United 
States exploring expedition, heretofore referred to: — 

The eountrj appears to bo wall adapted foi grapes Those thai 
havo boen tried at the mlsatoua yield mosl abundantly, and shout two 
hundred casks, oaeh of eighteen gallons (three thousand nx hundred 
null. ins) hi brandy, and the same quantity of wine, are nude, The 

oulUvatl if the grape Increases yearly, bul Is qo! sufficient foi the 

supply of Hi" oountry, ni large quantities ol foreign wines and liquai 

are imported, whleh pay an enormous duty; aud although Calil 

may nol booal of iti dense population, everj Intelligenl person 1 met 
with d [reed thai ll consumed more spirits in proportion than any other 
part or (in- world. Brandy sells for sixty to seventy dollan the cask, 
or four dollars n gallon, while the prlee ofwlna Ei onlj eighteen do) 
I are rii" win" of Hi" oountry which I tasted i* miserable stuff, and 
would scarcely be taken for i be juioe of the grape, 

According to Benjamin Bays Centennial History of Los 
Angeles County, page 29 there were one hundred and three 
vineyards and gardens in Los Angeles < it \ at the time of the 

\ rican oooupation. This being the case with what baa 

already been said, Los Angeles countj must at this ti have 

grown all, or nearly all, the grapes raised in the territory ; foi 
Hittell places the whole number of bearing vines in < California, 
in the year L848, at two hundred thousand. In 1849 we find 
Los Angeles grapes Belling for twelve and one half cents per 
pound, kii th. vines, and thousands of boxes were shipped t«> 
San Francisco market, via San Pedro 

Hitherto the vinous product had been whollj consumed at 
home, but in L849, the manufacture of wines and brandies for 
export first began to attract attention. The pioneer in this 

enterprise would appear to have been William WolfskiU 
■to'PI I S [849 }[., 

tion principally to the mar 
brandy, and was followed closely, in both departtn< nts bj Joan 
Louis Wiihart and I. 

There was bul little wine or brandy sent out of the 
however, until 1854, in which year two German gentlemen, 
to i Kehler ft Frobling established a vineyard al I. ■ 
Angi !■ - and comraeno I the manufactare of wine on i 

where the} establish 
icy The following year the Sainsevaine brothers pur- 
chased the vineyard <if Luis Vignes, and also entered txten- into the manufacture, making the first shipment of Los 
Angeles wine to \. u rork This firm also made th 
atb n , ifacture of champagne 1857 evei ma ■ 

thecounty. The official returns ol 1855 showed one million, 
i ing \ ines in * California, 

In 1856 ili" three largest vineyards in Los Angeles countj 

contained " pectii i\ eighteen t] sand twenty thousand and 

twenty leventhou and vines. One tl sand tons of grapes, one 

hnndred and fiity thousand gallons of wine, and ti\< thousan I 

rnsof brand} were shipped. The price of grapes w 
low in San Francisco, that shippers scarcely paid expenses 

Early in September, 1857, Sir II D Barrows ot Los Ing 
.■Irs, sailed for New Fork, upon the steamship Califom 
bearing with him a handsome present of various Lo Ln 
productions to President Buchanan The donors were Wm 
WolfskUl Esq., and Don Manuel Rcquena, th. • a il were 
representing the nativ* Caiifornian and artiest Amex 
orchardists and win growers of this county. The pn 
included :i barrel of tine old California port, made bj Mr 
WolfskiU from Ins own vineyard in Los Angeles, then said to 
bi probably th largest in California; two cases of white and 
red wines; brandy from the pure juice ot thi grape \n_ 
wine, and balf a dozen other brands, all grown and rnadi I 
Don M Requena, who at thai time bore the reputation of b 
perhaps the most successful producer of « in - upon the Pa 
coast There were also presented to the Pn sident at this tirai 
* lalifornia -.ran-.'-, sweet te as, citrons almonds, English wal- 
nut- and grapes, all said hy Eastern connoisseurs to have 
bet u equal to the best Itah could possibly produce. The vari- 
ous express companies and common carriers along the route 
all refused compensation for the carriage i E these articles. The 
shipment of wine for 1857 was two hundred and fifty thousand 

In 1858 there were about a million of bearing \ ines in Los 
Angeles county, and as many more were planted out during 
that war, tin- prunings, which had hitherto been burned, b 
saved for this purpose. The principal manufacturers of that 
year were Frobling, Kohler & Co, the Sainsevaine Bros., and 

M Keller The latter shipped to San Francisco about one 
hundred thousand pounds .. tl t'i\ five 

>ne of his vineyards, containing 
I thousand vines, produced one hundred and ninet en thou 
nine pounds of grapes, an avoi 
1 pounds • vine During the fall 

months ■ of the larger manufacture! I from Ave 

thousand to ten thousand gallons daily The quoted prii 
■ : - in I. a \-. ,,■ vras one thou 

dollars pei acre, but th< from this out produoud in 

such abundance, ami through carelesaness in ma 

l ". quality, that within four veai thi 
vineyards had fallen tift\ pei cent Prohlin Kohl r & Co 
manufactured one hundred thousand gallon 

1858 Sain- \ hundred and flfl I, ,, i 


The crop of 185U thirds 
that of 1858 yet the grapes onlj ranged in prii ami 

one half cents per | nd on the vine, to two and th i in 

added this year in the manufacture of rai ins; 8 ■ i 

"'''" i thi out 

worm, while s portion of tl v .,..., ,i, troyod bj mtldt n 

Thi total pro luction of wine in i | 

three hundred tl sand gallons fa it ten 

gallons "l' brand) were madi ind i hundn d 

thousand \ n i of grap pp dj the total val \ thi 

crop i ■ hundn ■! thousand dollan 

I" I st ' 11 ■" Id ■■■ "i i ■'■ Lo \i> 

tiiM a n\- a gallon, and hard bo Thesea a being 

unfavorable, hai oro] iri ted 

In 1861 ' 'alifornia mat I one million m ofw inc. 

We clip the following h from the Sao Prancii Ohronicl* of 

D •■ 10 1870: 

In L861, L. J. Bote, B. D. I ...... ,,. . .i 

regular and ■ and brandy to Nan Yorl and Bos 

too. At the same time the Lnabetni n i f .' n to manufai 

•■vine in moderate ?h sersst Anahi ■ Lao 

jranberger, B. Dreyfus, 1 Kroeger, H. ] rheodon 

Reiser, I. Bartuug, W. Koenig, H. Wi rder, Johi Flscl LP 1 
H. Bammel, I , P. Bcull, Mr. Kucbel, B. Lftka and Dumeroo othei 
irhoaimultaneously coma wine from tbefi 

vin.var'l-, then but tfara i ■ d The growth ofthi rin< srds ol 
Lnaheim and the srioe and brandy shipped from thh time forward 
\ rapidly ln< i mtity. 

I" 1862, act i Hitt'll, California had ten thou and 

five hundn a ler grapes, or about nine and a half mil- 

lion vines, more than one third of which were in Los Angi 
county. L</> Angeles City had one million, nine hundred 
thousand vines, and Anaheim four hundred 'thousand. Be 
mentions the Mowing as among the Largest vineyards in the 
3t :— , 




B D WiNon UXMXW l 

William Wolfakill 85/KW 

M. Keller (il l,0 ° 

T.J. White 5»),<ioo " 

.1 B. Scott «M»0 " 

The crop of grapi 

The i b on of 1863 wjlh remarkably favorable for the growth 

of grapee, and the crop we n ■ \ lingiylwge. The prices 

realized were eery low, ten dollai pei I aing th« ruling 

rate at the vineyard 

l„ L864the crop whs called a "two-third* crop,' yel from 
seven hundred and fifty thousand to one million gallona of wine 
were made In Lob Angelee c maty A present of wine sent to 
New York parties bj M Keller, wae seized by the Custom 
authorities as foreign importation, and Kohler & Frohling 
having forwarded some to the German Princee, received an 
order bo replenish the Royal cellars of German} 

The vintage of L865 woe estimated at one million gallons of 
wine, and Beventj five thousand gallons <>i' grape brandy. 'I he 

Goven mi tax on tbejlattei (fifty centea gallon) amounted 

to thirty seven thousand, five hundred dollars. The Eollowing 
premiums were awarded ai the State Fair: — 

Beitstill white wine, i years old, and over, 1st prem.,B.D. Wilson &Bon. 

:i' *• " ' 

■« " red " -i " " and over, " " " 

ft :i '• " 

" grape brandy 8 " " and over, " *' " 

Hest. purl, madeira, sherry, claret, best exhibit of 

wines from native grapes, " " 

Best white still wine, one year old, second premlun, M. Keller. 

" angelica " 

Grapes Bold at from one ami one-fourth to one ami one-half 
rents nt ilir \ ineyarde 

In L866 over mm.- million gallons of wine were made in tin.' 
oounty, of which Anaheim made about four hundred thousand 
gallona In October the wine-growers of the county formed 
themselves into an association to be known as the " Los Angeles 
i |i;t r - ...rowers" ami Wine-makers' Society." The following 

officers were elected: — 

Hon, B. D. Wilson President. 

Wathew Keller Vice-President. 

H. Kohler Treasurer. 

H. 1). Harrows Recording Secretary. 

J. J. Warner Corresponding Secretary. 

In 1867 there were thirty-six distilleries in the county, of 
which Los Angeles had fifteen, Anaheim fifteen, and six at 
other points. Most of these were engaged in the manufacture 
of brandy, that paying better than wine. The crop this year 

was large, and the amount of liquor produo nl - 

in^'U . . ., 

In Mv, L868,the 1- Log « ' - : wera ^eo cifttlon 
i with a capital of fifty thousand dollars, in 
five hundred shares of one hundred dollars each. 

H J. Yarrow President 

P Beandry Treasurer. 

Trustees B J. Yarrow, K <> F. Temple, P. Beaudry, 
Manuel Coronel, C V.Howard.H.D Barrows, E Vache. 

The capital was invested in property purchased from Messrs. 

i: ijoinin the Wolfekill property, comprising 

naive appliances for the manufacl ureof wines and brandies, 

.. insiderabk manufactured stock. Mi Bmile Vache acted 

as superintendent, 

During 1869 there was considerable difficulty between wine- 
growers and the Revenue authorities, and Hon. B. D. Wilson 
was Bent to Washington as a commissioner to represent the 
wine interest- of Los Angeles al the capital. 

In ls7<> there was a marked falling off in the quantity of 
brand} manufactured, owing to the arbitrary rulings of the Rev- 
enue Departmenton the question of taxation. En 1871 tin -re was 
an excellent crop, ami the wine yield is said to have been 
twenty-five per cent larger than that of any previous year. 

The BUCC ling low years were marked by a falling ofl'in crops, 

owing to the low price of grapes, which, in I s7>, sold for forty 
rents per one hundred pounds The establishment ofabonded 
warehouse in Los Angeles has had an excellent effect, however, 
and while the smaller vintners have, as a rule, retired from the 
business of manufacturing, and left this in the hands of a few, 
the grape interest of Los Angeles county is to-day in a healthier 
condition than ever before. 

The Assessor's report for 1879 shows thirty distilleries at 
present in the county. The wine yield for that year is put at 
two million gallons, and brandy eighty-five thousand gallon-.. 
A Btill larger yield is anticipated for 1SS0. The following esti- 
mate ef vines in the county is from correspondence of the San 
Francisco Chronicle, December 19, 1S79: — 


The following is a careful estimate of the number of vines in the county, 
and the localities in which they are planted: Anaheim, nine hundred and 
fourteen thousand; Azusa, forty-five thousand: Cienega, sixty-rive thou- 
sand; La Ballona. thirty-five thousand; Pasadena, ninety-four thousand; 
La Puenta. oue hundred and five thousand; Los Nietos, ninety-five thou- 
sand; Los Angeles City, one million, three hundred and seventy-five 
thousand; Yorhu, fifty thousand; Tustin City, thirty thousand; Orange, 
I one hundred and sixty-four thousand; Santa Ana, forty thousand; San 
! Jose valley, forty thousand; San Juan Capistrano, thirty-five thousand; 
San Fernando, fifteen thousand; Verduga, fifteen thousand; Westmin- 
ster, seventy-five thousand; Vernon, two hundred and twenty thousand; 
Santa Anita, E. J. Baldwin, one hundred and sixty thousand; Sunny 
Slope, L. J. Rose, five hundred and ten thousand: Lake Vineyard, 
Shorb & Wilson, three hundred thousand; Los Robles. General Stone- 
man, two hundred thousand; Fair Oaks, J. F. Crank, one hundred 

aQ d Bixty thousand; A. Bngden, sixty thousand; William Allen,8ixtj 
thousvnd; Sierra Madre Villa, forty thousand; Marengo K,„,h 
Bac^&Co. thirty thousand; Dew-drop Ranch. 1 II, HtuB. fcS 
thonaand; San Gabriel Mission, one hundred thousand; «;,,.(,, 
Grove and Centralia, fifty thousand; miscellaneous, fifty thousand, 
matins a "rand total of live million, one hundred and seventy-two 
thousand vines in the county, of which aboui four hundred thousand 
are n young as nol to be in good bearing order yet, but they may W 
included in the bearing vines of L880. During the preseut wtntot 
abou1 one m iHion, two hundred thousand vines will be planted, 
j ^hioh four hundred thousand will be planted in the vicinity 
_« \niiieini; "I Log Angeles about three hundred thousand; In 
the San Gabriel valley two hundred thousand; in Santa Ann val- 
lei one hundred thousand; and in La Ballonn two hundred thousand. 
No allowance has been made iii this statement for the small domestic 
' tneyards that are attached to numerous ranches for family conaumn. 





I 1771-1 HMO. i 

Los ingelee as a Mineral County— Gold— The First Discovory in CaH(oruii— 

Subsequent Diacoveriea in the County Silver Early Dii verioa s,|. 

veraldo, and the Sauta Rosa Wining Diatricl History of the Discovory, 
and Present Condition— Copper— Coal— The Black Star Coal Mine Santa 
Clara Coal Mini — Salt— Bitumen— Petroleum. 

In a country devoted par excellence to AaiucULTURBj we 
should scarcely expect to find much mineral wealth; but to 
this rule -if it be oni — Los Angeles county must be counted an 
exception. Within its ample boundaries repose deposits of 
gold, silver ami copper, besides many of the baser metals. Here 
also are found coal, salt, bitumen, petroleum, marble, soap-stone 
and peat, all waiting for the awakening touch "1" capital. 

In this chapter wo propose to touch briefly upon the history 
oi each of these products in the order indicated, 


In March, 1842, the first gold ever known to be found in 
California, was discovered accidentally in the San FraneWquifco 
Canon, thirty-five miles north-west from Los Angeles, by A 
native named Francisco Lopez. The news of this discovery 
caused considerable excitement, and for several years these 
mines were worked regularly — principally by Mexicans— but the 
deposits were not very rich, while water was scarce, and after 
a time the mines were abandoned, 

In 1853-4 gold was discovered in the foot-hills on Santa 
Anita Ranch. The usual rush of miners followed, and a town 
site was laid off. The gold here provedsmall and scarce, water 
was difficult to procure, ami gradually the mines were deserted 
Om company is said to have sunk forty-five thousand dollars 
at this point. 

In 1854 gold was found on the San Gabriel river and m 
the neighboring; canons. These mines were worked for many 

■*T^r • ' '^'fiSi 


Residence of JOSEPH MULLALLY, Cor Beuna Vista & 
College S t ? Los Angeles. Cal. 

J ^£tJS#iff9i^woMtea^^^*r$T 



years, and al tira paid fa is7l hydraulic works were 

I ft- I and i ton i e ditches were built They are now 


In 1863 gold mines were op w 
During the ( fivil wai the* there 

stationed (when off duty) bu with much reeull 1 

are still occa tonally worked. 

In \hc,h quartz mines having 

I ' ", the Br I quartz mill in the county we thei 

For a time thi i mini paid but are now idt P a this 

neighborhood an bill worked by Chinamen and natives, but 
onlj during the winti ■ monl h 

Without doubt, much gold ha been ':>! i n oul of thi c by, 

Binco the first discovery. According '•< Uajoi B C Truman 

(Soini Tropical California, 1874, page 98): 

During tlir past dgbteen yean, Hi < - Duet nun snd Jones, mei 

i bund or Loi \ngelon, bsvo purobfl od, ne way*aod another, over 

two rail Hod dollai i 1 worth of gold dust taken from the placer i 
the San Qabrlol rlvi r, while >i i< fall to presume il»:ii. ai 
inorohanta, and t<< parties In8an Francisco, hai been distributed al 

a llko amount. The statfstioa of the Ban Franolsoo i 

in ona year nearly forty i homand dollars' worth of dust was tent from 
Los A lea o il j i." coining purposes. 

HIM l li 

In is.', 1 ,) ; , silver mine was discovered near Fori Tejon, 
which was owned and controlled i>\ Los Angeli capitalisl 
One ;i ;i\ was said to yield i thousand dollars to the ton 

In L808 silver was discovered al Solodad, Tejunja, and on 

Santa Oatalina tslaud; also pioces of the >; i metal were 

found in the bod "i' the San Gabriel river During the follow- 
ing yoar several ship Loads of ore wit.- shipped from the Santa 
Oatalina mines in San Francisco This was said to average 

En light} toonohundred mi. I Bftj dollai i" the ton, the 

highest assay boing iix hundred dollars \i i one hundred 

and fifty claims wero taken up on the island 

One of the principal Bilver mines in tho county was that 
known us tin- "Zapata Silver Mine," situated up the San 
Gabriel cafton This mine was owned by Dr. Winston and 
others, who apont bouiq thirty thousand dollars in tunneling; 
but the work roceived a severe check by & land-slide which 
occurred in L874, necessitating the opening of ;i new location, 

SIM 1 1; Mi>" 

The most important deposit of silver bearing ore al pn sen) 
known to exist in Los n.ngelcs county, is at Silveraldo * lamp, 
in tin- Santa Rosa Mining District, Santa Ana and San Juan 
Townships, The following account of the discover} and present 
condition of this mineral belt i* furnished to us by Mr. Henry 
s. Cnappj assayer and general manager of the New York Min- 
ing Company. 

Thafirsl di ooi arj of silver in the Santa Rosa district was 
in the fall of L877, by Mr Henry Cassidy, who located the 

ty-back" lode. This vein sabseqocmtij pro ved to be dis- 
tinct^ traceable for about three miles Fr this 

two hundred tons of ore have been shipped to San Frarn 
where il yielded a net profit gf about one hundred 

dollars |*t tOfl 

During the winter of 1^77 v the mining distrid wa 
organized, and a Record) ,..t only verj little 

I- cting was done until the following summer whi n so four 

hundred to five hundn I ] ra came U| mnd, 

and about five hundred chums were located. During 
summer Judge .1 W Clark of Anaheim purchased a trad of 
Ian. I in the Madeira < lanon and laid oul a town L post office 
Wished that fall, and in a very short tin,. 

new town of Silvi raldo I . 

icksmith shops two meat mark - 
school and all the other industries of a first-class mining camp 
Town i as high as -< irenty five dollars each, yet n< 
all the dwellings were can* onlj . and the ocenpanta of 
d upon as ' bloated arisl 

Three of the principal claims finally con 
the " Blue Light Mining Companj P ■• VY. T. Lan 

This company al one time employed from fifteen to twenty 
in. n 

Another company was incorporated under the title of the 
"Florentine Mining Company." The} employed eight oi ten 
ml shipped some ore 

A question of adverse claim arising between tin-.- two com 
paiuas was carried into the courts, and ha- given rise to rach 

embarrassing complications thai both c panics have been 

severely crippled. 

In June, 1879, the Santa Ross Mining an. I Milling < 'ompany 
oi New Fork was incorporated and purchased claims upon 
the"Gra3 back 1 and other Lodea They are now in active 
operation Huntingdon A Company and the Santiago Mm 
ing Company/' are also operating in the district, and have 
discovered ore yielding rich assays 

rhe Burface ores found in this distrid resemb 
the lead carbonates of LeadvilJe Colorado; but below the 
surface the lead disappears and the ore takes on the form of 
sulphuret of Bilver, the silver being found commingled with 
iron, copper, and in sum,- instances with antimony and zinc. 

A semi- weekly Ma_'<- carries tin- mail to an.l from Santa 
Ana. ami while Silveraldo is n yet 

the prospects of the camp are certainly good; an.l it- j>> 
unity to the agricultural districts, an abundance of wood and 
wab Is an.l cheap supplies, make tic- lif-- of a miner 

! here much more u-recable than is generally the 

it six miles south of Silveraldo, in the main Santiago 
canon, the " Santiago Gold and Silver Mining Company," 
President, T J, F. Boege, are also conducting mining operations. 

The ledge upon which they are now working was located in 
of the present incorporators It 
i assays 
running from ninety-four dollars to two hundred an.l fiftg 

four dollars per ..... The ore is i oougto rate maaa appar- 

r,1,l . v fused of ii ■ . Mli . mIwi . aw 

hu '" 1, upon thodaim 

I Qppi b 

1,1 |s,i| ' 'i'l'" n and a rush 

to that region followed M mj i . dm a p local I md three 

hundred thousand dollars is alleged to ha> p. 

develop i; : j, , U1 1 beautiful 

mens were found, but the mines did not paj and won 

doned « bpp md in manj pan . f the c j 

i. fit il v. i in payii Liiiee 

< oai 

11 b M ,s *'■"' Ul> find parties pro foi coal 

t Lo In ■ countj h i ,ul re ul! 

until I B68 9 a In n a depoait ■•■ red on the extre 

11 »rth i i;. endol th Lorn ■ I mch Thi opi i ition 

of p> *< re, however, inl rrupt ■! bj the ownei of tho 

I and these mine yet remain undeveloped 


In 1877 c »al was /„,,,, 

Indi ■ I bj \m j i I tt itl [n December I i in 

B ■;. Star Coal Minii ( icorpoi ktod, 

and purchased hundred an.l sixtj | 

Jamee Ervine, owner of the ranch. 
This mine i terl from the 

town of Anaheim, and about the imc di tani i Santa 

\'i i Three main tunneU have been i un imi 

nine hundn . numerous side drift a then 

from The company havi rtable building foi 

superintendent's residence, also a boai foi thi n ■ 

Here also are tramwaj -, coal bunkei nei appliano 

for the proper working of the mine 

Two vein of 

thirty-two and fifty-four inc itively TJi 

hard, brittle quality, and of the bituminous variety, similar to 
that found in the Santa Clara mine The tar" mine 

I at present being worked Mr I: I Inabeim. 

i> president of tie: company. 


This mine was discovered in February, W*, by a Mexican 
named Roman Mesqneta who disclosed it r-> Henry Caaeidy, 
J. K.. Smitli, William Curry, and \V. Ghrewell. These five 



duly Located three hundred and twenty acre* of land, and 
formed a company From thai time out it has been aln 
con fcantly worked 

The mine u situated in the foot-hills of the Santa Ana 

mounl "' twenty milei from Anaheim, and ■ 

;illM ,i, tan© from Santa Ana The p are : 

H MII , Ca id) William Currj ■' K Smith, ■' 'i Kimball, 
and William V wl irk M - ' rintendent 

Two main gan ad i n ral id< di ifl have been run, 

aggregating om< ( hundred feet; and eleven mon are kepi 

, on tantly at work getl u< coal, foi v 

a l ( n i of thi bituminou varii i\ and a g I quality M 

the mine it Bell foi fchrei and a half dollars pei ton; in 
Lob Angeles for seven to even dollai and twent) liv. cente 

poi ton The roadi leading to the mine i sellent, and 

aix-horse teama commonly haul from four to five tons 
[oad The aupply ia supposed to be practical^ in< hau bible, 

The following accounl of the Lob Angeles Salt Works is 
extracted from the Stwr of September 26, L856 

Situated aboul alxteenmiloe south ffi I from the citj of Lw An- 
Kf ] 0R| [ v ., mlt hike ot pond, from whloli ia manufactured sail ol Bist- 
rati quality. The lake ia nearly two hundred yardi wide by about 
ilx hundred long, aud is aupplied by Bpringa upon it^ western bank. 
it. Ii aboul two Hundred yards distant from tho ocean, above which 
it. is elevated sla 01 ten feet. It would appeal at Aral sight, that 
it. whs aupplied from the ocean, but race is not tin- fact, aa baa 

i proved by frequent expo mta The existence of tlii* lake 

has long been known to the nativea of the country, an. I from it 
tl„.\ W ere, formerly, In the habit of drawing their supply of -alt 

b\ shoveling ll up ft the bottom. The missionaries who Bret 

settled here olso km* of its exiatence and cla id Its proprietoi 

ship, but made no attempt to Improve the natural resources ot the 

Borne years Bince this valuable property came Into the possession 
of two gentlemen <>f this t- i t > Messrs. Johnson and Allanson -who 
have expended a large amount of capital in the erection of the 
necessary works for the manufacture of salt, by artificial as well as 
solar evaporation. 

The water Is drawn from the lake through an iron pipe by 
means of a force pump, and is conducted into a reservoir, 
from which it is led by a wooden pipe into the kettles in 
the boiling house. This building is about eighty feet long, and 

t tains forty-eight kettles, which are kept constantly heated. An 

the suit forms in the kettles it is removed, and water added in pro- 
portion to the evaporation. The salt on being removed from the 
kettle is ready for market, only requiring time tn dry. The process 
la very simple, and the production of salt abundant, from the intensely 
salim- quality «»i the waters of the lake. In regard to the amount 
of t'lu-l consumed, it is estimated that each cord of wood produces 
a ton of salt. By solar evaporation the salt ia produced at the coat 
of the tanks and attendance. There are five tanks in operation; 
they were cleaned up this week for the first time, and found to 

have answered all the expectations ut' the proprietors, That one in 
whioh the water was of least depth, proved most productive. 

The daily average product of the kettles is five tons. They require 
to be cooled down for cleaning once in ten days. Each tank or vat, 
yields about a ton of salt, in a crystal! red form. The salt is at present 
all hauled to the landing at San Pedro, at a large expense. 

The water of the lake is so strongly impregnated with the saline 
Constituents, that a stiek placed in it will be coated, in ten days, an 

inch thick with cryatali/ed cube-. We *aw some of them whirl, were 

li b a lingular met. that within twenty yaroaof the Imke, food fresh 

water ia obtained, within fifteen feet of the surface, I «n welU. about 

pth, and about twenty feet apart, supply fresh water to the 

workmen. f ,i 4 - .1, 

intend sending specimens ol their sew, 
packed in satin bag-, to the State Fair. 

Since thai time the works have passed through a variety of 
hands, They are, atprcsent, owned by Mrs Trudell. widow 
of the late proprietor. Tin -alt is extracted bj solar evapora- 
tion, simply, and twocrope are taken off each season, t l «- yield 
for 1879 being four hundred and fifty tons tn a crude 
it brings from nine to thirteen dollar* per ton, but when 
,l ,t Bells from eighteen to twenty-foui dollars poi 
ton Mrs Trudell owns a salt-mill in Los ijagi " ' a 


Bin mi n 

l naive deposits of bitumen, or "mineral pitch Bp Breaj, 
extend throughout all the southern counties of California 
According to Eittell Resource? of California, sixth edition, 
page 344 : — 

Bltumiuoua springs are numerom near the ooast, from the northern 
Une of Monterey count} toSan Diego. They throw npadarfc, pit; 
like fluid, of a strong odor, whioh on exposure to the air grows thick 
and finally solid, it collects in great masses about the springs, and in 
Borne places covers several acres of ground. After being expoaedtothe 

- time, it ia called "asphaltum," which ia very hard m cold 

weather, but grows soft at about seventy-live degrees, and becomes 
liquid at eighty-five degrees. Borne springs of it rise in the sea, near 
Ban Diego, and others near Santa Barbara; end meases of the asphal- 
tum ure Been floating many miles from shore. The air at Bea 1- even 
scented with it. and on several occasions frights on ship-board have 

been caused h> it- odor, which was suppos) d tocome t> some hidden 


There are two principal deposite of bitumen in Los Vn^-les 
county. The most important so far (because most developed), 
i> that on the Brea Ranch, lying almost midway between Los 
Angeles and Santa Monica. The second is found in the Canada 
de la Brea, and throughout the northerly portions of Anaheim 
and Santa Ana townships. There are many other known 
deposits within the limits of the county, but of minor impor- 

In 1854 Dr. Tvask Mineralogist declared this to be the 
most valuable of all the mineral productions of southern 
California. He estimated that at that time not less than four 
thousand tons lay exposed upon the surface of the ground in 
Los Anceles and San Bernardino counties, [ts market value 
in San Francisco (for tbe manufacture of gas, being sixteen 
dollars per ton, here was a total of sixty-four thousand dollars 
in sight. 

The mission fathers were familiar with these springs, and 
used their product to cover the roofs of dwellings. Thus for very 
many years, the roofs in Los Angeles were all covered with 

taken from the springs wesl of the town, nor ia ita 
use in this manner yel wholly discontinued, 

It La a matter of tradition, thai in 1830, bj some means thia 

deposit caught Are and burned with such fearful intensity, 

. ; .., [ndians from all the neighboring missions wore 

employed tor weeks in smothering the flames with earth, 

Asphaltum is manufactured from the crude bitumen bj 

,, , xhe refuse constitutes about onc-thml of the whole, 

and serves tor fuel. This asphaltum differs from that of inosl 

ities, in that ii is very free from earth- matter, bo pure in 

i,..., th a | when broken in small pieces upon a roof, ii will 

spread itself by the heal of the sun alone. The ranch has 

been owned bj Major Henry Hancock and brother since 1865, 

and during tho pasl fifteen years thej have shipped on an 

average aboul one thousand tons per annum. Major Hancook 

believes the deposit to extend over some eighty acres of the 

ranch, and the depth is wholly unknown. The principal mar 

k,.i for the asphaltum is Sun Francisco, where ii bring* IV 

fifteen to twenty dollars perton when refined. 

The deposit in the * !anada de la Brea was worked some years 
ago,andfora time the Gas Light Company of Los Angel 
obtained (heir Bupply at this point. In 1868, a New York 

c |,;ni\ bored here for oil withoul result, and the abandoned 

shafts are now filled with liquid bitumen of the consistence of 
e, .,i,l tar. 


It, is a popular belief that bitumen and petroleum, if oat 
actually one and the same thing, are at least, wry nearly allied. 
This, Mr. James Feore, agent and superintendent of the oil worke 
;,i Newhall, denies in toto. He claims that the) are separate and 
distinct mineral products. Having stated thai this difference 
of opinion exist, upon the subject, we will leave thi reader to 
form his own judgment 

Away back in the fifties, we find parties boring for oil in 
different parts of the county. Not far from Los Angeles I !ity, 
Mr. Ii Dreyfus, Judge Dryden, the "Pioneer Petroleum Com 

pany, ' Gilbert &C pany, and others, prospected and Bank 

wells with more or Less success. In San Fernando mountain*, 
the ' Philadelphia and California Petroleum Company," struck 
a flowing well in 1859, and from that time on, for Beveral 
year-, everbody had "oil on the brain." Many wells were 
sunk, and many hundreds of thousands of dollars likewisi 
Some good oil was manufactured, and much good money was 
wasted. Gradually the smaller and weaker companies died out, 
and those which remained, profiting by past expei 
restricted their operations to the regions where r< peated i Kpen- 
ment had fully proved that oil existed in paying quantities 
The present scene of operations is in the neighborhood ot V « 
hall Station, in the San Fernando untains Here three 

John E.Eberle 
F.X. Fflrfl 


lb. \ p *° 



oteberle bros 
San Pedro & Kohler ST, s Los Angeles,Cal 

Ju£t±SHea ar r»-?Mrscv &- wtsr. 



eompanii an ' work, but all alii*: I in ii : having 

tie; sami offl ■' iv , i -,<'■■ i . . 
li ild ; Secretary, D. D. Fi tesl 

The ' San Fn i co Petroleum ' ' impan 

adjoining Pico canon and i lin in ; a well, which h i 
down one thou and I vo bun li I feel and will be carried down 
two thousand fact if a a ai 

The ' Pacific CoaatOU >m no. 
about five mill o ith ol Pii iched a depth 

of ab mi. one hundred and twenl ) fi I Jul I I I 

l I to in! i hou and Ave hui ad feel 

if necessary. 

The "I lalifornia Btai Oil Worl ' ' panj have four pro 

duel no wi M i, ■ ituated in Pico i aflon i 

of Nowhall Station. Theaa well rang in depth fi seven 

hundred to one thousand one hundred feel One is a Sowing 
well, ili«- others are pumpi I bj team power, and the total pro 

duction la about one I Irod and twenty barrel of crude ml 

per day. The oldest woll was sunk fou and till 

yields bwantj Bve barrels daily, Natural ■< from the wells 
furnishes all needful fuel, The reflnerj ii located al Newhall 
Station, laven miles away, and al an altitude six hundn t f» 
Lower than thai of the woll 

Theorud I gravity tortj three la conducted thiedi 

in two inch iron pipes, and passes inl ammoth n 

tank, having a capaoitj of Bvi hundred barrel Phi total 
atorage oapaoil j of 1 l" 1 works is throe thousand three hundred 
barrels in bulk I From here it passes by pipes Into the stills, 
four in number, capacity two hundred and twenty live, one 
hundred and twenty, Bfty, and eighteen barrels, respectively 

These Btills are boated by refuse tar burned undei 
them, this being fed from a tar-still having a capacity of 
twenty five borrela Each Btill i ones ed In an outer jacket 
of sliei'i iron, to rotain and economise the heal 

The finer portions of the oil, being *-i lily freed by the 

heat, pass upward through vapor pipes into condensing 
pipes, and through these into a condenser. Thia condenser Is 
about four hundred feet In length, and holds Bix hundre i 
barrels of watei . w hich, being supplied from a Sowing artesian 
well, is kept constantly fresh and cool The vapors, pairing 
in submerged iron pipes through the whole length of this con- 
denser, speed il j assume a liquid form, and are drawn off at the 
"tail-pipe house" through faucets, and distributed according 
to quality, 

The first vapors raised from the crude oil are very lighl and 
high)} inflammable. Those are napthas, and are classed — 

No i Qasoline 74 

v> S Benaine 63 

Bkfter these come two illuminating distillates, from which 
are made kerosene oil Fire bests, K>< 1 and mo 

- a distillate from which i* ma le a lighl lubricat- 
ing oil. gravity 14 

r this a dark lobricator, gravity 19 

- Ur. which i- u-^l f<»r fuel and other |mrp sea 
Last of a is borne 1 an ler the b >tl< 

wi th gi 

The nap \ finer m!- are n i by pipes t-« the 

I which there of three 

hundred and fifteen bat rcU. Hei 

and then pass inl -f five 

hundre I bai n la iri n h :tion .>f 

tli«- sun. After bleaching I ir market 

By pipes extending from the "bli carrie 1 

to the ii"ii bulk cars standing upon the railwaj track neartn 
are owned by the Continental Oil and Transportation 

Company, of California and each car has a of fr 

eighty h Two cars are loaded ;«t onetime, 

the operation taking jusl one hour and thirty-five minutes. 

This L8 the Is ids fr f | 

inked in th< old coin 



Sonji — Carriage -""I U i mimrie* — Breirc 

Oil— Woolen M 
Fruit Canning \l . ■ D fiag Work*— Whaling 

I \*M M . i t i u T . 1 1 i in e I I 

Tin manufactures <>t' Lot Lngi k to the 

hmenl of the early missions, These as we bavi 
noticed conduoted Factories of various kind 
utes, and thus supplied their [ndian dependents with mo I of 
i of Life Later manufactui es ha en very 

numerous in the county, but we will briefly review such as 


Soap making is, probably, tl West industry in the county. 

A limit 1834a Mr. Carpenl I on the west sidi 

Gabriel river, at a point a mile or two below the P 
Bartolo, and a this manufacture. In 1859 ' 

Do Ison \- Wallace put into operation a factory with a 

lining out thirty thousand pounds ol soap per week. 
The only soap factory in the city at present, is located at Ni- 
l's 25 and -7 fanning street, operated by the Los Angeles 
Soap Company. 


Mr John Qoller was the pioneer wagon-maker of the 

He arrived in Los Angeles in 1849 with tho immi 
9 wagon he manu* 

the natives, who 
looked upon it with dbtrust, and I to use their eni 

in ids for the first >i\ or eighl 
B. S in 1855. In 

I fi64 I. LichU'iil blishe \ th 

I 147 M mi 
Aa high as three hundi have been 

turned oul at this faciorj In on I 

nu nt> in th 


The first bricks were mad* n Jobs D rtunl i a 

1852 tie burnt his next kiln in 1853 From th Ri I kiln 

was built the house at tl orner of Third and Main 

in 1858; from the second, In ' m nn< veai the brtoH [ail 

'■! i 183 i ■' |'ii Uulla Ij an >o ited in 

I. . \ ngeli and embai Iced in bricl dq iking I h< noxl monthi 
tn An i David Portei 

i tfullally, Portei & \\. 1 1 I" 1858 

they sold two million 

of i i59 Mi BfultaUj i- yel in the bri In Lo 


I \\\u:i: 

In 1854 I I by two French* 

n ..i] t ho corner of Aliso and Uain Is breel I hi j con 
ducted the but □ I i a few yearn and then gave it up, 
Another small tannei y wa t band of the 

Lo Ingelea river, bul had a fiort life Me i ECaltshei & 
Wiin i. tanner) was bnill in 1868, and wa, quite an 

excen liahraent In 1^7" they turned oul one t] - 

sand one hundred rides of sole and h ther, four bun 

dred sides of alum leather, four hundred and twenty hoep 
skins besides manufacturing a quantity of the n*nor grade 
In 1872 the building, with its entire content . was da troyed 
by fire, an I One of the greal draw- 

backs to tanning in Li been the can 

of bark and the expense in procuring it 


Ln. - -■ not manufactured in Loi Ingeli until the 

latter pari of 1854, when one Christopher Kubn I a 

brewery. 8ince that time several small breweries have been 
startel, but all had short liv.-v Thsi three breweries 

that supply the wants of southern California an<l Arizona; 
viz.: I'nit- Fn I I iprietor ; New 

York Brewery. Philip Lauth, proprietor; and the Philadelphia 
Brewery, conducted by l>. ICahlstedt. 




I" 1867 Mi i All. -ii \. Temple erected a mill on Spring 
' treet for bin pui po .■ beans Mr. All.-n 

being the practical man, bad charge of the mill. I 
tinued to manufacture oil I when the enter- 

prise w;is gives up, 


Whirl, are locate d on Pearl street in thi 
the city, wore builtin 1872 bj Mi n Bernard Bros The 
building la of brick and covers an area of one huodn 
thirty-seven and a half feel 

Thi machinery is driven by a twelve-inch turbine wheel of 
thirty horse power the watei b ing broughl from the hills b\ 
mean of ditche Since the mills were established Beveral 
parties have attempted to managi them, bul without uco 

The presenl proprietors, Messrs Torr & Horner, employ 
twelve men, and turn out six pairs of blankets and one hun- 
dred and twenty yards of flannel per day The) also raanu 
facture a II i cassi res and gentlemen's flannel under- 
wear The bulk of their product is bippe I to San Franci c i 


Tins business is oxtensivelj carried on U Messrs Speedy & 

I !o , the successors of Biggins, S] l\ & I !o , and they, in turn 

of Silas Bennett, who established the business si. up- few years 
ago The e tablishment turns out aboul forty thousand pounds 

of nt. per week, and over ten thousand pounds of lard. The 

greater partof their product is shipped. Ah. mi »-half goes 

north to the markets of San Francisco and various towns in 
Nevada, the other half to Arizona. 

They slaughter seventy five hogs daily, or an aggregate of 
four hundred and fiftj per week, Messrs Spee K & ( !o. 
intend soon enlarging their establishment, which will enable 
them to handle one hundred and lift \ hogs per day 

\i; I'li'iri \i. STONE WORKS, 

This industry was introduced into the county bj E M. 
Hamilton and E, II Barrett, who commenced the manufacture 
of artificial stone in December, 1875 Their works were located 
in Easi Loa Ingeles. Mr Barrett sold his interest to J.J. 
Bushard, who, with Mr. Hamilton carried on the business until 
L876, when Messrs L, E. Page F. E Gravel, J. II McElroy, 
H T. Hazard, Theodore F. Barbee and -I J. BusharJ became 
interested, and July ^s, L876, formed a stock company, undei 
the name of the " Asbestine Artificial Stone Manufacturing 
Company," withacapital stock of fifty thousand dollars; H. 
T Hazard, President; and J J, Bushard, Secretary. In .htm-. 
L877, NT. lla/.ar 1 and E, M Hamilton purchased the prop- 
erty of the corporation and conduoted the business until Januarv, 

1878, when they dissolved, whereupon Mr. Hazard erected thfi 
Pazzola Stone Work- on Sansevaine street Mr. C. W, Karl 
ime associated with him, and their combined efforts have 
oped the Asbestine Sub-Irrigation system, which is meel 
ing v. success throughout the county. 


Broom* were first manufactured in Los Angeles, July 15, 
1875, by -I P. Woo I ward, wh<- started a -mall factory on Uiso 
He was joined byt 'aptain Clark, and a few months after- 
ward they moved their factory to the corner of Fourth and Fort 
streets In May. 1876, their establishment was destroyed by 
ho which caused Mi I lark to retire Mr. Woodward rebuilt 
the factory and resumed the business. The broom-makers 
found it difficult at first to procure broom-corn, as there was 

very little raised, and that of a j ■ quality. It is now raised 

in large quantities in the vicinity of the city. There are 
now two factories in Los Angeles viz.: -Thomas Dunn (J. P. 
Woodward, manager . San Pedro street, employs from four to 
Beven men, and has capacity foi making two hundred and 
twenty-five dozen brooms per month. Charles Young, Boyle 
Heights, employs two men, has capacity for making one hun- 
dred dozen brooms per month. Several other factories have 
started, but wnc not long conducted. 


In 1878 the Home Industrial All Association wasorganized 
with a capital stork of five thousand dollars, divided into five 
thousand shares of one dollar each. They commenced in a 
small way the businessof canning fruits and vegetables, which 
was continued for about six months, when the enterprise was 
given up, on account of had management and general dissatis- 
faction among the stockholders 


In L878 a factory was started for the manufacture of 
matches in a small building on aJiso street, by Mr. 0. F Was), 
burn, who continued for about one year, when the business 
was given up for want of sufficient support. 


In 1876 a company of Eastern gentlemen erected a mill in 
the Soledad canon (on the line of the Southern Pacific Railroad 
for the purpose of.crushing cactus and turning it into pulp, for 
the manufacture of paper. The mill was put up at a cost of 
about thirty thousand dollars. The cactus, which could be pro- 
cure-! in unlimited quantities on the desert, was first stripped 
of its outside covering and then carried to the mill, where the 
fiber was crushed and put through various processes, until it 
was finally eliminated in the shape of pulp, of a very superior 

quality It was then haled and shipped; most of it being sent 

to Maryland. The mill ran for nearly two years and 

pi ill d owing to financial complications. 



These works were established h\ Messrs Davis ft Co in 
1874 The building erected h\ them, is of frame, thirti two 
h\ forty feet, and three stones high. The establishment ispw 
vided with three AJden evaporators which have a capacity for 

two thousand pounds of fruits or vegetables, The works have 
not been in operation of late years; but are now running to 
their full capacity . A canning dep trtment is also con lucked in 
connection with the fruit drying establishment. 

Wll \l,|\<; 

This business was quite extensively carried on in I860, id 
and '62 in San Pedro bay In 1862 a whaling company whs 
located on Headman's [aland, off San Pedro. During the sea- 
son they captured twenty-five whales, which yielded an aggrs 
-aie of over six hundred barrels of oil. A small species of 

shark was also taken, which yielded al tagallon of oil each, 

this being procured from the liver, which was the only part of 
the carcass used. At present there is nothing done in the 
whaling business. 


In 1866 the Common Council granted a franchise for bhe 
purpose of furnishing the city with gas, The following year a 
company was duly incorporated, and established works on lln 
corner of Turner and New High streets. The principal mer- 
cantile houses were first lighted h\ gas on the evening of 
November 20, 1867. In 1876 the company was compelled to 
move their works, as they were too near the business portion 
of the city. The new works are located on AJiso street, and 
have capacity of manufacturing one hundred thousand cubic 
feet of gas per day. 0. II Simkins, President; Daniel Qllman, 
Superintendent j H. L. Macniel, Secretary 


Messrs. Nadeau & Gennert have pun-hased a large tract of 
land on the San Antonio Kancho, adjoining the railroad, and 
have recently erected thereon a factory for the purpose uf 
manufacturing beet-sugar. This promises to be one of the 
greatest industries in the county, and should prove profitable 
both to the farmer ami the manufacturer. Messrs. Nadeau 
».v Gennert have imported bi i t-seed from Europe at an 
expense of several thousand dollars, and have distributed it 
among the farmers. There have been some one thousand acres 
planted in beets this season throughout the county, and the 
crop will average about twenty tons to the acre The beets 

*Vttf3HI6 ** 7*0A*PJO 

Residence. Orchard k Vineyard of A.F.CORONEL. Alameoa Street, Los Angeles. Cal 



have been analyzed for their saccharine qualities and the 
analysis haa proven very at! factory, That this new entei 
prise will be a grand success is undoubted. The beet* an- cat 
up and dried before being operated upon 


This system of Bub irrigati iginated with E. 11 Haroil- 

ton, of East Los Angeles, who, in I.s7t;, laid concrete pip 
conducl water to each tree, delivi watei "" tht u 

ofthe grownd This proved better than the ordinarj wa) of 

irrigating, but required too much watei tl ud I 

be dug around the tree to prevent its baking, and tended •■■ 
keep the root i too noai ill 1, surface Then he invented thi i 
and earth guard as now used and allowed no water to reach 
the surface, 

In M;liv|i, 1878, Mr. Hamilton proposed to C N Ear] thai 
they apply for a patent for the system, which wafl acceded to, 
Mr. Hamilton assigning a one half interest in the in\ antion to 
Mr. Karl, and applying for the patent, which was issued June 
17, L879, I '|» to this time the eosl "V making an- 1 laying the 
pipe was so great that people could not afford to adopl the 
tern, To prove thai il would work in otht c oil than that of 
the experimental grounds "I" Mr Hamilton, Moasra Hamilton 
and Earl contracted with Moses I'. Grove i" pipe one acre For 
Forty-five dollars expecting i" lose money b) the job, Then 
Mr, Earl proposed to make o machine for laying the pipe con 
tinuously, After consultation anil many experiments, the 
roughly constructed machine was made to do fair work, which 
Mr. Grove was so well pleased with that he offered to assist in 

introducing the system and its applia b. This offer was 

aoceptod, a. patent secured on the pipe machine In October, 
1870, and a partnership entered into between E, M Hamilton, 
C. N. Karl am! M, P. Grove, known as the Asbestine Sub-Irri- 
gation * Company. 

Messrs, Hamilton & Gh*ove attended the California State 
Fair in 1870, making a practical exhibit of tht- Byatem. The 
Brat to notice anil adopl it were the well-known raisin growers, 
tic. Briggaand K. I> Blowers, of Yolo county It is now 
being extensively ustvl throughout the State. 

rii LPTEB Wl\ 



Muiow Sol li The Pirai English School History o) the Publi S< hoc 

Their Prannl Condition List -<i bh« DUtriota St Viuoant'a * oil 
Bitten mi Qhuit] Lawlot [nstitut*. 

Even >o early as is^7 some effort appears to have been m* 

in Los An^oK's 

" To teaeh the young Ideate shoot 
i i" germs of common sense." 

For under date September 28th "f that year, we find r 

ity archives a payment • •(' I ir- by the Alcalde 

for a bench an«J table pureh iaj, " for tl. 

a hcIiooI in Los An." 

i the secularization ■■! the mnarioiu probably about 
I 935 »■ s school ■■ t a i tovenuneot 

briel, an. I in 1838 at I.-- Angi . |s^7 hav- 

ing, moat likely, died a natural death. Sot can thi- but 
■ itablishmenl have Cared much bettei for I ton tfanui R 
in 1844 congratulated the out-going Ayn > on having 

established a primary school in tbe city of Los Angi \- - the 
recollection of sunilai institutions bavin -t in this 

unfortunate country Be weni on t" state thai the Di | 
in- m Qovernmeni had appropriated five hundred dollars a 
ml this object, and bad given leave of absence t.. 
Ensign Don Guadalupe Medina to act as preceptor "on the 
principle of mutual instruction whatevei thai might mi 
One hundred and three children attended; but unfoi 
the school suspended afters ession of leas than half a year, 
owing to the school master being recalled to bis military duties 

by thi Go True to the instincts of his profeeaionj the 

"learned preceptor/ 1 before leaving, "held an ^ap" nation 
which proved his devotion t" In- duties, and the rapid impn 
ment which the youth of Los Angeles had made in tin- short. 

period of five and a half i iths .'" Four months later the pn 

ceptor was returned, but il chool house for a 

military barracks, the pupils were turned out and school once 
more suspended, it waa -\ pitj that il bad to be given up, for 
itcertainl) had a fine-sounding name. This pioneer public 
school-master of I."- Angeles has left on record the following 
inventory, translated by Stephen < ' Poster, Esq . for the 
Express: — 


Inventory of the honks ami t'urniturf in thi- abOVS institution 

belonging to tbe Ayuntamunto 4 . chirtyHsix spelling book*. bIi pen 
ond readers for children, fourteen catechisms by Father Bipaidi, one 
Cable without corer, writing desk, six benchea oue blackboard. 
angelea, February 3d, i-u Qm dai < n Ubdova. 

Lbout 1850 the first English school was opened in Los 
h\ Rev. Dr. Wicks and J »J. Nichols. When Mr. li 
1> Barrows arrived, in 1854, there were but two public schools 
in the city. These were conducted hi the present Spring 
street school-house, and that still standing on Bath street above 
the plaza. They were denominated respectively School No. I 
ami School No. 2, and among the first teachers were William 
UcKee, Miss Maty E Hoyt and Miss Anna nfcArthur. Mayor 
S I ' Foster, iu Ins message of that year, called attention to the 
fact that within the limits of the city were five hundred chil- 
dren, three-fourths of whom were dependent on the public 
schools for instruction. He advised the building ot' three 

s, and called attention among other a> 
to certain propert] ity which had been deeded to the 

Baahop "f < '.tlifornu on . onditioo thai he should ereel a college 
n which he had I In this r a Mrs 

' I A oiil hold an 

exam in I 3 when ber school contained "twelve 

In Is".", under the administration of Uayoi rhomas Foster, 
anil school onlin incea established 
In January of thai fma us thai there are 

now on • thousand one hundred and i children b 

of four u Lo \ i « El Monte and 

San Gabriel school districts pel not more than one hundred 
and fiity in all attend school. 1 ' I" th in ber 5, 

Is."..". .1 F Burns was elected School Sup rii 
bag \ l C it mel who bad held the office from 18 U 

In 1856 7 there were seven acl la in Los Angeles county, 

four of these ited in the oity En Februarj i I 

these lattei were cloaed by order of the Scl l ' otnini ion i 

there being no funds to pa) expen t the 

other two were bust* nded foi an I educational 

matters in the ci I gloom) enough, until w illiom \\ olf 

skill stepped forward with a donati I lollars, 

which enabled one of tl"' closed chi a I o tide 

thee rgency In 1859 'i'» iimilai financial il 

again caused th peals were made 

to the libei I in both years. 

In I s<; i then were Fou in the city, Includin 

primary, one intei liate, and one sjran li cl I The 

nee was four hundred and ci htj threi 
in«i- i hundred and a preceding 

year The total expenditure for 1861 ws j 

hundred and sixty-three dollars and twenl lud 

ing Foui tl sand eighi hundred and ai and 

nineteen cents [i;ii<l to b a< i i 

In 1863 the apportionmenl of State school U) 

An- was on the basi ol two th iu and three hun- 

dred and ninety eighi children ai ■ and the amount 

four thousand five hundred and eight) on 
nine cents 

In I S66 thi re wei the cc i "ty ( 

and two thousand ti\" hundred and four children between the 
ages of five and fifteen yea 

By act of the Legislature, appi -zv 1^7^, the 

public schools of !>'■• Angeles ' lity wi 

Minty, an<l placed undi ■ Board of Edu- 

cation composed of five members elected by the people. Th 
five to elect a president and secretary out of their number. 

July U» 1872, tbe com the Los Angeles High 

School building was laid with considerable ceremony, by the 



Masonic fraternity; Grand Architect I, C. Goodwin; Orator, 

Lv - ■'- T. Willi Thi n wa a lai and all the 

prominent societies wen repn entod The contract of build- 
ing was awarded to Jam. M l:,i. . for nineteen thousand and 
ninety even dollars During this yeai -i\ thousand one' hun- 
dred and seventy-one children attt a tunty. 
Tin; State and county apportionment* amounted i-> eleven 
thousand eight hundred and eighteen dollars and forty-three 

On July I, 1873, the county had thirfcj nine di 

f'" 111 ohool li Hftj fivi teach i and i I I and ni thou 

sand one hundred and one school-children Onlj thr< 
tricta mil .i,i, of Loa ingeles haduithoi intermediafc 01 primary 
schools, The Stat.- and count) apportionment Eoi the year 

amounted to so thing less than fifty thousand dollars Dui 

ing this aeaaon the Bigh Scl I building waa completed, and a 

thorough Bystem of grading eatabliahed bj Dr Luck) 

Superintendent. I'ln- Wilson Col 1 at Wilmington, waa 

ajso founded by Hi-' late Son Benjamin l» Wilson 

lit L874 thoro wore fort) five Bchoo) diatricta in the county, 
an. I seven thousand one hundred an. I twenty-four children 
between the ages of ii\.> and Bevent. nyeara Los Angelas 
City had si\ school houses, eighteen teachers, and eight hundred 
and seventy five pupils attending ad I 

I" 187fi there were fort) eight districts, fifty nine public 
school-houses, Beventy-two teachera, an. I seven thousand seven 

hundred and eight) Beven achool children in the ( nty The 

city had elovep school-houses, twent) three teachers, and one 
thousand one hundred Bchool- children The Stat.- and school 
moneys received amounted to aboul eight) one t! sand dollars. 

In L876 there wore ftft) three districts in the county, with 
nine thousand two hundi*ed and thirty-nine Bchool-children 
between the orgs of five and seventeen yeara. In the city two 
thousand six hundred am! forty nine school-children between 
those ages The total apportionment was estimated at one 
hundred and til't\ nine thousand dollars. 

In IN77 the county had fifty-five districts, and one hundred 
and twenty eight teachers In L878, there were sixty districts, 
one hundred and twenty-nine teachers, and ten thousand four 
hundred an. I forty-six pupils, 

The present condition of the public schools in Los Angeles 
county, is stated by Mr. -I \\*. llint,.n. the County Superin- 
tendent, as follows: — 

The county includes seventy-two school-districts, and every 
district hasal leas! om sch 1 »l ; some have more Thereareinall 
eighty-one schools, and, with on.- or two sxcepl ons these all 
have school-houses, owned by the district in which each is 
located. Each district is managed by a Board of three school- 
trustees, one of whom acts as clerk. 
The city school system is separate and independent from that 

of the county, having their own officers, and examining their 
own teachi I mil. -nt moneys ate. however, paid •••> 

officials through the County Superintendent 
<•■ connection o 
The - urns for the year ending June 30 I B79 

including Loa Angeles City, show the following condition of 

tli.- -c1mm>|s; 

Number of children who have school during the 

year, -i\ thousand and twent) two 

Present valuation ..f school property in the county: 

Real estate and furniture sjor.i'.'.o 

Library 11:1s; 

Apparatus 3,135 

Total $220,375 

The roll-call of the Teachers' [natitutt Novembei 3, 1879, 
Bhowa an attendance of one hundred an I twenty-seven teachei 3 
male and female] employed in the county. 
Expenditures for the school-year ending June 30, Is7:i 

Teachers' salaries s 88058 07 

Total expenditure for the yeaT 111,913 4!) 

The following is a complete list of the school-districta at 
pr< sent in the county, with names and addresses of the several 
I tistrict < '1. 1 ks, up to dun.' 30, I 880 :— 


Alameda F. W. Venable Downey 

Alamitaa F. A. Gatea .. . Westminster! 

Anaheim F. \Y. A t hc.-trii Anaheim 

Arteeia — . .-.R.M. Williams Norwalk. 

Azusa - - J. C. I're^ton Lzusa 

Ballona 1. A. [.ami. _ Machado! 

g a y N u - w -W. D. Lamb ...Santa Ana. 

BogDale .J. A. Anderson El Monte 

Bolsa 1 irioi'lL- ... Daniel < iriswold Westminster 

Cahuenga H. B. Stewarl Loi Allele* 

Centralia ramea W. Laundell _ . Anaheim 

Cerritos William Bhaw . . . Wilmington 

Cunega ..William White 

Dflni a.B. Palmer.. Banta Ana 

Diamond .!.<;. C006 ... ..Santa Ana 

ga"* 6 S.B.Bellew . ...EI Monte. 

g. M ° n £y-; A.H.Hoyt... . El Monte. 

Elizabeth Like. Lou is Mayet .Elizabeth Lake. 

Fair view Sidney aolman. . _ Anaheim 

Florence 1-R.Raney.-. _ Florence' 

Fountain Valley. . \v. II. Caudle ... Santa Ana' 

Garden Grove ...Con. How,- Garden Grove! 

Green Meadows Tames 8. Hart Loa Lngeles 

LaDow J. A Nichols . .. Loe Angeles' 

! - 1 - ,l,1:1 -P.M. Goff... Tuatin City 

La Puente J.D. Durfee Loa Angeles. 

Lutle Lake Thomas Lshell. .. . ... Downey 

Loa Angalea John F. Jackson. „ Los Angeles' 

Loa Nietos .C. C. Mason . Norwalk 

JVy- Il^i -• "CompfcoD: 

Mai/eland L. L. Be.juette Downey 

Newhall .-.George Compton N'ewhall 

New Hope.. W. H. Jumper Santa Ua' 



N. w River 


< teean 

i tcean View. . 


I (range 

'( iraugetliorp . . . 


Pasadena .... 


Providenoia. . . . 
Banchito ... . 


s,ui Antonio 

San l limas 

San Fernando 
San < rabriel. . 
San Jose 

San Juan 
San Paaqual 
San Pedro 

Santa Ana 
Santa AnltH 
Santa Moniea . 
Simla Susanna . 

Saul iagO 


Silver . . 


Sulphur Springs 
Trabuco . . . . . 

Westminster . . . . 
Wilmington . . 

Pis-run i n.KKKS. 

'■"■' 0PP1I u 

I '!' M '"r' Santa ina 

William Justice, Jr. Downs] 

E>. D. Johnson .... Norwali 

C. E.J. White. Loa An ,.|, 

I- Johnson Weatminsti i 

.... Ore 

F. \V. Squires 

N, I ). Ilarwoo.l 
Alfred Metcalfe. 
i \ rua BurdicR 
LB. Clapp 

J. K liill'ree . 
John .Morris 

A. II. Dunlap 


' 'range. 





l.ns Angeles. 

F. \V. Tempi.- El Monte 

\V. W. Jenkins .... Downey 

W. I Martin Pomona. 

Jeronimo Lopes. , . Snn Fernando, 

"■ Hamilton. . San Gnbrlel 

Jo Wright gpadra 

l; ! pan Caplstrano. 

s. Washburn Pasadena, 

.li. II. Twombly .Compton. 

Daniel Faulkner .. Bantu Ua. 

i leorge S. Safford San Gabriel, 

W. s. Vawter Santa Monica. 

Henry Schoasen Ban Fernando. 

W. II. Phillips ... Orange, 

D. Snyder Savannah. 

E. E. Shaw Loa Angeles, 

W. F. ( tooper Downey. 

John Bell. . . Ravenna. 

John Lang. Lang's Station. 

•'■ > s - Bice ..Tustin City. 

'•'• l: Staples Santa A..a. 

'- Dukes Los Angeles, 

J. II. Brewer .. ... Lot An ;ele 

1 leorge C. Mack West ter 

Charles Seyler Wilmington. 

Tilinan Bush .. ..Anaheim. 


In August, isnii, the corner-stone of St, Vincenl i Collegi 
was laid at Sixth street, Loa Angeles, with appropriate cere- 
monies. The building was completed during the following 
spring. It is two stories high with basement and attic; the 
main building is n,rty by eighty feet on the ground, with an 
extensive wing at each end. The grounds cover about ten 

^This establishment waa erected under the auspices of ihfl 
Fathers of tin- St. Vincent de Paul Mission, and a staff of pro- 
B ■ n was aecured from the Atlantic States and Europe, with 
a view to making the curriculum as thorough a. possible ; this 
embracing not only a fuU English and classical course with 

modern languages and mathematics, but also b thoroug] n 

mercial course. 

This institution is chartered under the lawa of the State, 
and is empowered to confer degrees. The first officers were: 
Father McGiU, President; Father Flynn, Vice Pr< identj 
Father Richardson, Treasurer; Father O'Brien, Professor ol 
Biathemafcics. For Borne yeara the average attendance fftf 
about seventy-five. The college is at present closed. 


View in the Wine Cellar or Thomas Leahy 

Residence ^Partial View of Orange Grove ^Vineyard of THOMAS LEAHY", Alameda Street, LosAngeles, LosAngeles C°, Cal 

■lltSHfg Br T*u\*t>£e» * 



December 16, 1855, ["it uanl to a call from the Right Rei 
Bishop Amat, a meeting we held by the citizen ol Lo 
iagole for the purpo e of taking ini > eon (deration the prac- 
ticability of establishing the Si*tera of Charity in the • 
The meeting w,. organized by calling Don Abel Stearns to 
the Chair, and appointing John <J hour. tarv On 

motion of Hon Benjamin Ha) a commits ■ ol oil 
in. ii wore appointed, wai Hon, Thome i tei Don Luis 

Vignos, Hon, Ezra Drown, Don Antonio I C nel Don Mum 

ue] Etequena, Don [gnacio del Valle and John Q Downey, for 
the purpose of drafting resolution and to appoint a commi 
bo solicit subscriptions from the citizen \ large amounl was 
subscribed, and the old B, l» Wilson property, located on the 
corner of Alameda and Mac) troel ■ -> purchased for the 
ihi' of the Sisters, six of whom arrived Januarj 5, 1856, 
throe of them natives of the United States, and thra of Sj 

The R mi i iatholic ' Orphans' Aalyura and Scl I were 

hero established the s i year, The present building i prin 

oipally of brick, and is threi torie high The avoragi num 
ber attending aohool, including the orphans and pupils from 
abroad, is aboul one hundred, including the daj schoi il, two 
hundred Sister Sohola^tioa, onoof the sis Sisters who came 

in 1866, is the Sister Superior. Thore are al prosenl I ■»• en 

Sisters in this institution. The Los Angeli Enl arj located 

<m Main Btreet, is also under the charge of the Sisters. I' 
established May 31, 1858, in the house of Don Cristobal 
Aguilav. Subsequently a Bue brick building was erected, and 
the grounds tastefully planted in orchard and vineyard. 
Sister Ann, who alBO came to Los Angeles in 1856, is the Sistei 
Superior, There are Boven Sisters oonnooted with the Lnfirmarj 

lawlob institi n:, it. , i re 

The Lawlor Institute Eor the education of youth of both 

sexes, was established in !-<>. Angeles by William Lawl 

1870, tt had a very fair attendee and good success until 

1878, when it was discontinued. 

There have also been private schools and educational institu 
tions oonduotod within the paal rev; years under direction «>f 
the Christian Brothers, the Misses Chapman and Cole, Miss 
Bengal, Mis. Bengough, V S Frambes, T B Julian, C \Y. 
La Fetra, and others The two lasl named gentlemen are still 
conducting business colleges in the oil j 





i \ ... ], .. »,,,[ |„.i, p 


THAT the Aborigim □ < alifom s h 

extenJ familiar with the arl of nai igation, is indispul i 

a " writ within saj one hundred 

miles from the main coast lis nearly all occupied 

by them; an I thai traffic between the islanders an. I the inhabi- 

' the main-land was constantly carried oa In his 

1 ! I ifl -o,\^ that 

mIi. in Endi boats 

u< ol trong planks, fastened together, and paid on thi 

with bitu n; also sometimes dug-outs similar t<> 

tho ■■ u ad '"■■ I be northern 1 1 

The Spaniards and Mexicans coming nexl in I 
timi -■'•in i" have paid but littL attention t«. navigation 
Occa ionallj a vi isel came up from San Bis oi \. ipulcowith 
supplies, but that any vessel was built or owned up 

|"i i "' '" thi little acl ner Refugio of Sanches Wolfskin 1 

and others in 1831, does not appear. This then, and the brig 
won aft rward purchased by Knar Sanchez Ibi trade with 
Mt ico and South America, were probablj tin fii | vessels 
ever owned in Los Angeles county \- 1 even in mission times 
(after Mexican independence there were a goodlj number of 
\ ankc- and Russian ships const mtlj i 
exchanging manufactured goods foi hides and tallow Thus 
■ I .' Warner writ - 

Ban Pedro nr&a often lively in L840 -and bad been loin musioa timei 
•by the trading vessels engaged, wiih aetire competition, in the 
pun basi ad tallow. Errancis Uelltu rii those oa 

timeout, August -"-I of that year, thirteen in Dumber, at I 
'*Shipa i I laptain Arthur] , ipp), Jfoi 

cent . Alert | Phelps B - w titers . Hoi 

maphrodite briga - 

■'■ ■ Dunkio), Boh i Nye Schooner*— jty (WiUoo 
VyinpA, formerly Vi Pitch), and tvo more i 

In L855 the clipper ship Area I fi ' was owned bi 
Stearns, EUq an 1 som • others in parte irship, and w i> employed 
as a regular trader between San Pedro and Boston 


Appear to have been unknown until l^i.r and the first one 
cleared in that war for San Pedro from San Francisco the 
t "ii 5 Propeller Edith, sent tu bring commissionen 

the I i the bad fortune t*> be 

d bar down trip According to Mr Warner: — 

Th* tint steamer tb»t ever visited 

wheel, which mad I from San I 

Mazatlao. I 

The '• ■■' - // klnort !j/,.\., 

1851; and the Ann 
in I s '-* The line « v v\ < trloans 

1 Company bul quuntlj purchase I i.\ \li John T 

Wright (Tndei hisadmini I \ i '. 1 1 

T(l md Ban 

id the 
bill ..i fare embrat ■ -I . i , 

without ml - the diel of the 

I do Dot know sod twenn ll\- 


* • • • 

"'■ on Uompanj bough I th 

u ri I | 

had boon n -I I to 

Ire dollars, and tr. .. .., Ilin . 

Bui here Mi Haul. \ \n prol il ., , , j^ 

April I I 1st. -j the Los AngeK \ th- klu ol the 

Bteamei John T Wright, leavin topend on 

., | . 
■ ■ ntj Hvt dolli : l d Lo in ■ Ii in I San 
i ■ in I I ' ton doll ■ ,,,„. 

p -mt-. after al i - ighl months with the i , ■ ■ tivel> 

ten and six dollars Li I . the mail, Lo 

,: " ■ onlj bad I ion with the North evei j 

two \\--.-k- The following yeai the Senator made throe trip 

:i """"ii In June 1863, Hi P Ba ha d i littli 

n«T named I ■. m„ tl and dolh 

abacks; but with what object doea not appeal In 1870 fl ■ 
pei in mth were made b I I , M i s UM 

In |s7i a movem< nl ■■ .... ,,, |,,, \ J( . 

■ i dollai 

was raised l-_\ subscription toward pnrcha ng i trolling 

interest in tl H 

In 1872 the N< rth( rn ?m 
to the Pacific Mail St amsbip Company, and these wer< 

1 in 1875 by the < Perkii in hip 

1 im] pn -•-!.( earrii > - am- ,,„ ,,i ,,f ; , 

wharf at Santa Monica, and until il i , 

ion of tl.. up and down rtopped 

arly at that port In I>s7s an agreement with John 

Wright <.f San Francisco \\a- largely signed bj 

of L - \n_- I- 1, by which I ■ between 

and San Pranci kcertain 

they, on th* ir part, agreeing that they would ship only by 

his boats. The wharf at South Santa Home . in 




PBOM L855 i" 1875, IM< u bivb. 

ITO. "i ABBl 





Ml VwmU 



1 B66 

















1 ■ 





1 . i' 


i . i 


, . 

34 766 

B0 t 48 

* ♦ 






















1 1,841 

# # ■ 


« ** 


[n our former chapters we have noticed the Mexican aar- 
retaa (heavy lumbering wagons with solid wooden wheels, 
drawn by oxen) used l>\ the natives in earlj days For long 
journeys, of course such vehicles were not available, and here 
the Baddle-Jiorse was used exclusively. The bottei classes took 
u itl, i linn :i drove of horses, and one or two vaqaeros bo take 
nU v of them The cavalcade was urged along constantly at full 
speed, and whenever the ridden animals showed signs of fatigue, 
tli.\ were quicklj exchanged for of ere "f the band, and on 
they wont again as before In this waj ii was not an uncom- 
mon thing for a traveler to cover eighty to one hundred miles 
each day, and as horses were of '"it little value, and could !><■ 
had for the breaking, it mattered not how many he ruined. 
For a time, American immigrants conformed to Mexican cus- 
toms in this as in other matters; but after the occupation 
Eastern traditions re-asserted themselves, and the drove of wild 
horses was supplanted by those remnants of medieval times 

known as 


The first intimation we have of this invasion of the antique 
i»\ the cinticjui is in 1851, when Gregory's Great Atlantic and 
Pacific Express brought the Eastern mails to Los Angeles in 
the hitherto unheard-of time—*' one month and nineteen days 
Yet saddle-horses were not altogether discarded, and the Express 

messenger who, in December, L856, rode from San Pedro to 
I. - Angeles twenty-seven miles in one hour and eighteen 
minutes, most have surely worn Me xi can rowels. In the 
following year we find David Smith running stages semi- 
monthly t i Viaalia, and thence to San Francisco In the same 
year Wells, Fargo S Co established a branch office in Los 
Angeles already the Tejon road had b »en improved at ■ 

expense to the i ity, and in 1858 the County Supervisor* 

voted an additional outlay of five thousand dollars. In this 
year the Overland Stage Company rented a portion of the 
Mission building at San Fernando, and established e station 

; > Paul & Chapman established a weekly I 
between! in and San Diego San Juan Capistrano, 

and in the same year we find " the overland" coming into Los 

In i860 Mr. 11. 1 > I'.ai lows and wife made the trip from Los 
Angeles to Si Louis by the Butterfield stage route in aim fcei d 
leaving the former place January 5th. The line led 
through Arizona New Mexico, northern Texas, Arkansas and 
Missouri, and noi one particle of -now did the travelers see 
until they reached the Missouri river. In this same yeai a ponj 
express was estaUishe'l b\ butterfield ^v Ca, between Los 
Angeles and Fort Smith, Vrkansas. connecting witli tin- tele- 
graph line at each end of the route; time, five -lavs, thence on 
by telegraph to St. Louis, and the Bast Ah, those were times 
of hard riding on many a tender saddle 1 

In istil Cattick & Co, made bi-weekly trips between Los 
Angeles and San Bernardino. In his letters to the San Fran- 
cisco Bulletin, under date of Jul} 3, 1862, Mr Barrows 
writes: — 

Why cannot our Los Angeles and Baa Francisco stage line, which 

gets well paid, be made to do better service '* It ha- heen rui ■ 

Don more than a year without any schedule time The Hutterlield 
line ran regularly in three days, or three days and six hours. This 

line is always four or four ami a half days, and Sometimes more, and 

very frequently bringing nu tlm-iiu-h mail. It doe* just such service 
as its pacdmonioua proprietors have a mind ta It gets fori i 
thousand dollars from Government, and I know not bow much for 

express and passengers per year, and is '"cussed" by all as a hig 

humbug. In San Luis Obispo county the passengers have to walk 
nearlv a quartet of a mile (ladies and alii over a swamp on poles. 
It runs a large part of it* route with two boisea only and small mud 


PukmWv thi-, had something to do witli th<- i— nance of the 
following time-table one month later: — 


Distance, four hundred and twenty-five miles. 

Time, eighty-rive hours. 

Leaving Ban Jose Sundays, Wednesdays and Fridays at hi a. m. 

Arriving in Los Angeles Wednesday.-. .Saturdays and Mondays at 
seven p. m. 

Leaving Los Angeles Sundays. Wednesdays and Fridays at live a. m. 
Arriving in San Jose Wednesdays, Saturdays and Mondays at six v. m. 

In September, 1802, we find that — 

Alexander -v Oo, have established a line of stages between Los 
u and the Colorado river (fare, forty dollars) also express foi 
Id dust, letters, etc., ate. 

rnJui i stage line was established by C M Small 

,v Co., between Los Angeles and the Soledad mines, making 

regular trips to conned with the arrival and departure of 

steamers In August Messrs eorge P Andrews & Co, had 

completed arrangements for running a line of four horse stage 

hes between Los Angeles and San Bernardino, leaving Los 

Ingoles Wednesday and Saturday of each week, leaving San 

Bernardino on Monday and Thursday, and connecting so us to 

I ttc steamer passengers. 

In this year also Messrs, Bruoe & Knights stages mad.' 
regular trips between Los Angeles and La Paz; time four and 
;, half da} - . Rare" fortj dollars. 

hi July, L864, P. Banning established ali f stages between 

Los Angeles and Wilmington, and on.- month later Mr. Har- 
rows writes: 

i..,- \n ■■ i. i i . getting to be e bhaaa "our bone" stngo town, 

Besides theoverland itages, which arrive and depart three tlmei a 
week, we have three dailj stages to and from Wilmington and San 
Pedro, -i tri-weekly line to Ban Bernardino, and a weekly to La Par, 
and to Ban Diego, Ban Juan and Anaheim: and alto a lino to Ban 
Gabriel, and to the Boledad mine,. Owing to the competition between 
here and Drum Barracks and Wilmington, the hue is down to two bit*, 
with stages loaded at that. 

Tin- only Dew line we find established in 1865 is that of 
Tomlinson & Co., who ran weekly stages from Los Angeles to 
the ' Hear * 'reek mines. 

The year 1866 was a perpetual "Field day" for bage lines. 
Under date July L3th, we read in the News: — 

In addition to the line of stages from ho-* Angles to Situ Iter- 

nardino belonging to Tomlinson <v Co., Measra. P. Banning A Co. 
have just put on another line. There is now do leas than Beven 
lines ot stages arriving and departing from Los Angeles to Ban Fran- 
etaco, Santa Barbara, Ban Bernardino, San Diego, Clear Creek, 

Wilmington and San I'edro. at all hours of the day. 

These- were supplemented in September of thai year by 
Messrs. Banning & Co*s weekly line from Wilmington to Fort 
Viujih via Los Angeles and San Bernardino, carrying the 
Tinted States mails, etc., and by Lovatt's daily overland 
line, between Los Angeles and San Francisco, 

In 1867 we Mud that Tomlinson \ Co ran a line of weekly 
Btages from Los Angeles to Tucson, Arizona, Territory, but 
owing to increase of travel, in July of that year mad'' arrange- 
ments to leave tri weekly. A daily line to San Francisco was 
also in operation this year, which the proprietors claim W0 'I" 
longest sta^e line in the United States with only one excep 
tion. En October Banning & < '<>. drew off their stages from the 
San Bernardino route. 

The only new line we read of in 1868 was that of Har- 
TK-r A; Co., from Los Angeles to Owens river Banning and 
Tomlinson .still ran rival stages between Los Angeles and 

Residence of JNO;S.O*NEIL, Los. Angeles City; 

\% Miles South Wec~ of Court House. 

rvat/ititA £r T>UQM»$gH a vj -.> - 


Wilmington, and thi competition wt bittei nuking profil 
for the passengers, if not for the propi ,„tlv 

fluctuating between the two extrenn dollar sod ten 


Id 1872 we lin'l that a at n ovi i land who ever b 
bages traveling over water, except, perhaps, on a forty - 
fcri-weekly stage Line was - I < ! >Ii h i b I .-.■ enLo '. 
ViHfjJia; time, forty-eight hours; "loss by sevei than 

in usually the case by thi ea roui* and li bj a day than the 
pre ont land route 

BUfc by 'III . Mill" I; b< |,; ( .| n .,.,. , ,] r r . . . 

blow from the aggre ivi beam boi i of the railroad Lib 
the rugged frontiersman whom ds elbow room, and feels ont 
of place in the neighborhood of large aebtlemonl we see the 
dear, lumbering vehicle of our grand daddie pu h furthei into 

the interior, following unfrequented by way d mountain 

solitudes unbroken by the profane steam whistle of the lot i 

live There are but three regular stage lines lofl in Lo 

Angeles county, viz.: a dailj line between Santa Lna .",.1 Ban 
Diego, connecting with the Southern Pacific Railroad al the 
former place; a daily line botweon l.< Ingelea and San 
Buenaventura via NWhall, an] a tri-weokly line between 
Los Angeles and Ventura win rluonemo. "The king is dead, 

long live the king I " We turn now to the latest i le -»f 



Looking at the map of Los Angoles i nty, we find the main 

lino marked "Southern Pacific Railroad," extending from the 
north, through the Mojavc desert, until ii strikes the mountains 
at aJpinc Station, thence weaterly to Newhall, and down 
through the San Fernando vallo} to Loa AngelesCity From 
here extend four divergent lines, marked n rpectively Los 
Angelas and In-lri.rinl.nri- Railroad (extending weal to Santa 
Monica), Southern Pacific Railroad (extending < i terlj toward 
Arizona, Los Angeles and San Pedro Railroad extend 
southerly to Wilmington), and Anaheim Branch San Pedro 
Railroad (extending S3Ubli-oasterly toward Anaheim . Of all 
these, the Brat built in the county, and therefore firs! inhisl 
ioal sequence, is 


So early as Slay, 1861, we find thai the Senate passed a 1-ill 
authorizing the Board of Supervisors of Los Angeles county to 

subscribe one hundred thousand dollars, and the Mayor and' 


Common Council of the city of Los Angeles to subscribe fifty 
thousand dollars to the capital stock of a railroad between Los 
ajogelea and San Pedro In 1868 an act for the construction 
of such a road passed Loth Souses of the Legislature. In 
December, 1864, a meeting of citizens was held in Los Angeles 
to deliberate upon the besl means of bringing about the desired 

connection with Wilmington now San Pedro and to pi 
foi a convention of the dtixeu ,: Los A 
nardino counties in forth 

1" tl '- v I February tl Ifl 

; Ti aces-one in La Ann town- 

lively circulated u -hold 

er * * ■ therailroa 

la uu Hon. I* Ba rtalcfa 

wenaveecen. thi m( j 

mil be foot mile* fr«.m the iteamU-at anchors^. ; md l| bl contended 
that it w,li Dot bare tl relieving tl 

meD sod trarelfn 

result iron, low tides sod an ddcsti 
already burdened with h heavy debt, aod the 
Bundred thousand . lo I lare would ao opprew the tai-p llia ke 


f> In 18«8 the matter came to a bead Bills wore 
I by the Legislature and dolj approved, authorising the 

Board of Sup rvisors of the county to take and Bubscril to 

hundred and fiftj thi .ward the capital ate 

n railroad between Loa Ingelea and Wilmington, an. I the 

Mayor and * bmmon t buncil to subscribe seventy fivetl 

dollars toward the Bame objeel \ proclamation was duly 
published March 10. 1808 bj T D Motl then I ,k. 

calling upon the people to vote on this question in their several 
districts on the 24th insl The resull of the eloction waa 
favorablt to the proj ct In Los Angeles City the vote si 
thro hundred and ninet) seven for subsidy two bundred and 
fori | fivi against Ground waa broken al W ilmii 
tember 19th following, and from this time on the work was 
push,, | vigorously The cars foi this railroa 1 wi n all built al 
Wilmington, thus keeping the monej in the county, and thi 
outlay had a marked effect in an increased actii al 

bothendsoi the line \ ship-yard was alaoaboul this 1 
established at Wilmington, in which s tug and pasaagi Btea 
for harbor duty waa built Qn October 26 1869, the last rail 
was laid, and the connection 30 long wished for wa 1 
reatizod. CJnderdate November I". L869 thefo ov 1 notice 
was published in th< tVi k»: — 

U a special meeting of The Board of Directors of the Loa La 
andSanPi I I d, on Monday, the 8th day of November i» 

ad, ihal the Superintendent ..1" the Loa L 
Railroad, to the matter of receiving and forwarding freight over the 
road, conform strictly to the rata stipulated in the contract, and u 
the universal custom hi retofore established bj the forwarding bo 
:u \\ ilmington and San Pedro was t«. charge bv the pound ind not 

: - >l »- hirthei ord< n d thai a ton carried oyer the road of 
the company shall be construed to mean iwo thousand pouods avoir- 

H 1*84.1 t i:a 

Prom anchorage si Ban Pedro to L<* Angeles, dry goods, six dollars 
per Urn; groceries, rive dollars per tun; empty pipes, one dollar each- 
- tour dollars per too; lumber, fire dollars per 51. All other mer- 
chandise at fire dollars per too. 

From Los ingelaa to anchorage, grain, two dollars aud lift r cents 
pet t«.u; wine, three dollars per ton; wool, three dollars and fifty cent* 

per ton; green hides, three dollars and fifty OSBM par loa: drv hides, 
eight cent- 

T r v. ' Dbvwiibi 

i i. If, Oiipi iv - 

In 1872, this i .,.| borHlj to the Southern 

P* 01 ' mpanj is a portion of aaubaid} to thai 

i bj ji ooo thirtj 

■ a count} and waa ratified 
\ ivember election 

n PA( in. i;\n road 

I in 1 \>. . count} November 
"■ 1872 the p I Jin. I confirmed bj y 

ol thirt) oitimna, pre> ntt I, 

: which included tbo following agreemenl with the Southern 

'" ' B till i I < ompanj , which had I n in I oni 

\ .;n |.i<-\ ious 

' f ' ! " L Railro i i I u\ upon tl, I within 

months from the anm uno menl , truel 

in the count) Bfty ml ■ ■ unl road ti idin i 

•'' San Francisco via VUalia, through San Be dine to 

conneel with th I Pi fti il Porl ^ u I in addition 

' • thia to i i ,,, \ M1I 

heim both I <[ within two \ ... fi ho 

■'""i" 1 ""''- "t ssabo In • m i I ration ol th. Foi 

1 ■ l "i then p o thi aid 

pan} of five per cent on thi i ntire taxabl prop rtj ol thi 
count} as follows The count} and cil I id En thi Lo 

Ajigelea and San Pedro road, a anting in all to two hundred 

and twentj fivi I hon tnd dollai b md I I - 1 i.\ at 

twenty years bearii roe hundred and 

aevent) ibvi ti thousand dollars, an land oi 

say about *ix hundred and ten thousand dollars in all, 

Early in 1873 th began work both on the line 

northerly to San Fernando and < iward Spadra The 

! ' »in- fi I,..* Angeles t<» these twopoinl wen run April 

21 In7+ Work on the knaheim branch coi need in 

the winter ..f \sj:\ i and the ti; tohed thai 

town January 17. 1875 'I h ib qui ntly 

extended to Santa Ana n h \ hand 

some bridge across the Santa \ eobI forty thousand 

dollars, of whirl, twenty , i \, K the 


The greal engineering foal "f thia road wan the con traction 
of a tunnel through the mountain range tying north -.f 
Fernando Work was commenced thereon in July, 1*7.1, by 
gangs "f men at each end of the cut, one thousand five hundred 
men being employed upon this work alone, yet more than a 
year elapsed before the tunnel was completed Thia tunnel 
situated abonl six nrflea north oi .,t,y. 

seven miles from L - Angeles. I' is six thousand nine hundred 



li\. <l" 

«,t the ' i' 1 '" 

train of I Mhl ''' 

Mdtixl arty a mile and a quarter in I. 

lion di 

r this work 

milli loll 

irkad by U 

! and fifty- 

(},. f.,rii»< i 'il/ availed ! 

Station, and proceeded In 

had bean providod, t.. the 

point o\ unioo, - 

Bftj i 

t thai oitj an I tin President and D 

I li, ' ,l '" 1 

■" haminei lodrive it pj L vi 
Thatclwi i : lorof Loai Iriven bj ' 

i , | r,, Ldanl of thi 
I i D.D Colton l.- Qovernoi Downey, 

[ ft yor Boaudry. Mayor '"'■" f ; "" ! ,i " n 

orft l Bai PheLosAn aciseans then 

, | | ,., i ., \,, ., i, wh n in tho evening i grand banquet 
i ,ii D ion Hall, Hollowed b) a ball which laateduntil 
„ . wu < „ tho Bai m boarded theii 
I pi lod homo Thai tho ceremony ended, and Los 

,,.[ l | ■> \M- I\|.l II M'tN' I U VI I ROAD 

On Do© ml ai IS 1874 agitated queetion of uniting 

Sum ii Monica, L in i Ban Bernardino and Indepoi 

i ,nv bj i railway found venl in a public meeting in 

i House on Main street, at which » imittees 

tppointi 'I i" olioil Bubacripti U The upehol "f tho 

,,,,,11, i in . ini or] ion in Januai j 1873 ol the tx» 

\,, . :, i .. ■ i i ■ . . . j ■ ..:.,:.. Raih . I ■■ | ay, hat ing ;> ■ I 
, | lohn P Jones preridonl R 8 Bak< i F P, F Temple, T 
w Park, James A Pritchard and J S Slauaon The route 

i be bj waj of Cajon Pass, and the capital stock was 
placed at four million dollars in shares of one hundred dollars 
each, twenty throe thousand, four hundred dollars being paid 
up Work w aa at once eommenoed, and the first train between 
Los \n ■■.,-,. is and Santa Monica was run December I, 1875 

dorable grading was done on the line "f the road beyond 
I, tagolcain the direction of Cajon Paaa, and in the Pass 
but Una waa finally abandoned, and in 1878 the road 
was purchased bj the Southern Pacific Bailroad Company, 
which Mill own and conduct it; but they have destroyed the 
>ad wharf built by Senator Jones as it interfered 
with their business at Wilmington. 


lUilrc* " Loa A-. *, with tho dnte upoa 




ipton - - • - 

March, 1>7* 

Savanna • I " , > l87fi 

I. \i at. ■>•»* ,S( * 

Bpadra Lpril. 1874 

Sa„ Pernando -M"' 1 |s < f 

Downs) N "* l87a 

dk N1 1 " il ,s7 * 

Anaheim April, 1874 

■na ■ I,ll > |s7 ' 

Orange I,,r ls " 

\n;. Dec 1877 

all B pi 1876, 

Santa Monica Not , 1875. 

i ii \i\ i:i; \\\ i 


(1861 1-" 

Southern CWiforaiaa— H I 

•<;,i, (.'Iiurvh Xfw« Aunt!" 'I'l I'"- !■■ Expr Lfl 

.• n I ■ ■■ i r 

[/Union Command*! [/Union Novollc Jonnul 
\\ ibningtoa Jonnul aiumum <■ ■■■ 
v . .1 n i ild Santa An "- r - 

Thi popular belief that anyone can run a newspaper, has 
i man) a rude shock in Loa Angeles county. The 
course <<f time throughout the past thirty years, lik<- the Pora- 
peian "street of Tombs," i- \ by the Mausoleums of 

dead journals, whose untimely tar.- might well serve as a warn- 
that enterprising cobbler, who would fain leave his last, 
une tho cares and responsibilities and battle for the 
1 ore "i ■ the fourth Estate." 


tunded in 1851, the first number appearing May 17th of 
that year, printed in English and Spanish, issued weekly, John 
A Lewis and John McElroy, publishers In July the 
the firm was Lewis, McElroy & Haul. Win. If Rand having 

a partner that month. November 4th McEIi 
his interat to Lewie a: Band October 19, 1854, Mr. M 
again became a partner. In 1855 the Star was conducted by 

, g NV;i .,_ s rjo Decetnbei 15th of the same year J. S. Wait* which time the Spanish depart- 
mentof .he paper waa transferred to the Clamor Publico, 
Mr Waite continued the publication of the Star until April 
l- 1856, when he sold to Wm V Wallace, who, tho following 
June , ,■ ;i . ii Hamilton Mr Hamilton published tr-e Star until 
the fall oi 1864 whenil waspurohased b) General P Banning, 
and removed to Wilmington, where the material waa used to 
publish the Wilmington Journ U In 1868 the Star was again 
established in Lo kn : published and edited bj Mr Ham- 
ilton [nl872G W Bartei became a partner, but retired in 

a few months The dailj b liti m al o made il ifirsl appearai 

, li:lt yew Mi Hamilton conducted tho Star until July 1, 
1873, when he sold it to Major Ben Truman. Mr. Tni- 
)li;U1 edited and published the paper until October I, 1877, 

w hen he retired [I was then published by Paj r & Co., 

, m ,l afterward bj Brown & Co Duringthelasl fifteenmontha 
of its existence it had several different managers and editora, 
a11 ,l represented three oi fom parties El ceased publication in 
the earl) pari of l s 7'.'. 


Published weekly, was founded b) C. N Richards^ Co, The 
are! number was isaued July 20, L854, Win. Butts, editor, 

November 2, 1854, Wnv Butts and John O, Wheelorsuc ided 

Richards & I !o. in the proprietorship. Messrs. Buttsfc Wheelor 

,■ lucted the paper for some time, when John P. Prodis 

became the publisher In 1857 it was discontin I, andinthfl 

following year ite press and material were used fco publish the 
SoiUlu ''" Vim yard 

i i. CLAMOB PI BLU 0, 

\ Spani h publication, wa established by Francisco I 1 . Ram- 
irez, in 1855 It made it^ first appearance June L9th, of that 
year, and continued ass weekly until it suspended December 
31, foi want of sufficient rapport The materials of the 
office were transferred to the Los Ingeles Yewa, 


bed by * folonel .1- J. Warner, March 20, 1858, as a 
four-page weekly, twenty-two by thirty inches insuse, ttwas 
devoted to general news, and i (ued every Saturday morning. 
December 10th, of the same year, this paper was transformed 

semi-weekly; size twenty by twenty-sis ind I 

and Kii'l:i\ mornings. It continued under the 

patent of Mr. Warner until June 8, i860, when the 

office ami materials wei bran E rred to the I-",-. Ajigeles &0W8 

Till. <TII'.IVH\N (III I' li 

A monthly paper devoted to religious subjects; published by 
Win. Money, made its appearance April 10, 1859. It was 

Residence of R . NADEAU, Corner Olive ^5 T :S T f 
Los Angeles, Los Angeles C° Cal. 



printed at W, Ola/mar office, in both the English mud Span- 
ish languages Thi papei "•■< receiving sufficient support 

-i: i ontinued affe i i nil 


The Semi Wecldy . '••■■il<- rn A'. <«■-. independenl 
every Wednesda} and Friday, ws i tablished in I-"- Angeles 
liy(' If, Conway and Alonzo Waits Janui 60 In 

their opening announc at thi peak of a " cri 

depre ion in bu in hi n tofoi I nown within ths limits of 

our rich and pro iperou i State ■> I hi ■■ I 

whs enlarged 'Inly in, 1800, and again angu < 18 1862 
OctobevS, 1 802, ths papei wa tyled the 6o« AngeU* 8emi 
Weekly News, and continued a ;> emi weekly until January 
12, 1868, when it appeared as the Loa Ant/eh Vn Weekly 
Nrtrn issued Mondays, Wodni daj and E i 

The tri-weekly ws enlarged Decombei 16, I n*;;i Novera 
bar 1 1 , lt*65, Messj I Ion n b j and \\ aiU old the \ 

Messrs. A, ■! Km" & Co., A J King i ing the editorial 

coni i'o] "I' the papei . which n d agi ihange I bo ■ 

will i\ 'Hi.' ■ h. . i un onlargod January 5, 1866, an I 
•Ij in \ 1 , 1807 

January I. 1869, the Borai weekly was discontinued, and Thi 
Los .1 ngslea Dwily 2Vswe appeared, publi bed bj King & Oftuti 
(A, J, EUngandA. N. OHutt), R ll Offutl businoas manager. 
The daily was enlarged in Way, i860 October i<;. 1869, R 
H. Oflutt sold liis intoresl bo \ Waite; Btyle of new Brm, 
King & Waite. The daily was again enlarged January .">. 
1870. Mr. King rotirod from the editorial chair January 1, 
1870, The papor was then published by King, Waite A Co.; 
A Watte Ihi .in. . manager, Charles K. Beane editor, October 
hi, 1872, Mr. Waite sold his entire interest to Chw 
Beano, who oonduoted the paper for b tew months, when it 


This paper, printed in the Spanish language, published bj 
Jose* K. Gonzales & Co., made its Srel appearance November 
L5, L861 ; was q weekly paper and independent in politioa In 
May, L802, it announoed its suspension tor want of adequate 

BUppOl I 


A German weekly journal, published by F Q. Walther, was 
tuet issued Ma\ lit, L869 li continued until Angus! 1870 
when ii Btopped publication for lack of support 


Wn^ Btorted 03 on association of printers April 18, 1^71 
LTnder this management the Sxpn ss was Republican in 
politics, 11. C. Austin editor. In two yean the pro] 
ship was reduced to II C Austin, George A. Tiffany 

John Peyuter In 1*»73 Mr Austin withdrew, ai.-i Ja 
Lyere, the present manaf 

tion Jul) J Is7:i On March 15 1875 ej mpany 

rganused aii'l the Bxprem purchased 'I 

then managed and edited by Joi I Ayers and J D. Lynch 

In October, 1^7'i Mr Lynch withdrew and assumed 
the Herald Sine- the paper has been under Mr \ 
management il has been independent, with a D 
in;; in national politics The / i a weekly 

\\ A 8poulding .'..r 

Published weekly, was establish i Ha] v 1872 bj 
i ■■. twenty -i\ inches It 
;. weekly until February 1. 1878, when it was issued 
semi-weekly. March 11, 1874, '!■• enlarged to 

by thirty-four inch* ed sfaj 

l!i, [875 June 24, 1876, i 

impany under the title of La 
pa/ny with a capital stock of ten thousand dollars one hun- 
hundred dollars each The following officers 
were elect d; A I I ! iron il Presidi nl I' b i de ' & lis, Sec- 
retary P Beaudry, E !■' Ti doli i 1 Garcia, and R R Sotelo, 
It continued under this management until ftarcfa 
:{, 1880, when it was leased to Pa tor do* is and M •' Verela 
La ( ronico i- the onlj Spanish paper of any importance pub 
lished in south* ra l lalifornia. 


Was founded by C \ ^ f irk, the tii-t number ap] 
October 2, 1^7^> Sir Stork conducted the Herald until 

August, 1874, when he sold Ins interest ; and a stock c pony 

was organized, J, M Bassett becoming editor and mat 
En October, 1876, J, D. Lynch retired from the Express and 
assumed the entin if the Herald, and is ita present 

editor and publisher. The Herald has always been Democratic 
in politics 


The first number oi the Mirror was issued February I. 
1873, by Messrs xarnell & ( !aystile, who are the j 
editors and proprietors From Harch I. 1873 t" the early 
part of In7"> the paper was conducted by Yam.ll, Caystile & 
Brown. Thesiaeof the sheet was enlarged April 19 1^7:>, t<- 
fourteen by eighteen inches, and again March 27, Iff 
eighteen by twenty-four inches, which i- its present siz*-. The 
Mirror is published for gratuitous distribution ; about one 
thousand copies are distributed weekly. 


iblished by Conrad Jacoby, who is the present editor 

an-1 pro] ts tii^t appearance Jul) 2o, 1874, 

• -iir bv tlnrt\ m\ inches It was soon 
i t" twent; inehea which i- ita present 

published in southern 

' '.ilif-Tnia 

rai I \ tMN-. El PI Bl K \s 

led in June, \^:> b) WW' \ the 

name in-i ( Rrpublican in politics It was printed 

at tin // r part of D when 

(li.- /. In Am- ii i 1^77. thi- 

office was purcluv*nl b) tin Republicans, and the papei pub 

ii Berrj & ' ' • w ho continued I 
months, when il was conducted bj the Kcpul I nttn 

■\ Durin s weekly oditioi 

issued In Beptembei 1^7^ :li<- dail} was discontinued for 
la<k of support and in January, l s 7' ( . the woi I 


I it MAST I It 

ished in 1^7ti li was edited bj !►- W T Lu 
win. was al thai time Superintendent of the oil The 

•. as iln- organ of il"' i of the i ounty, 

anil «a> a v.i \ \ aluable pnbl 

inten »te I in eduoal ional matt if Di Lu 

: the paper t.. be discontinu 

i i \m\ 

A French pnblii tied weekly, wm established in 

p. Tan ■ I i d pulitii 

edited bj P ( until •' 1870, when he 

was succeeded by •' B Pin 

L' Union made its last appearance in March 1880 

i in i:\ « Mil OBMI I HOBTH i li ii' 

The first number of tlii-> magazine was issued in & ptembei 
1877, at Los Angeles b) the Southern California Horticultural 
L M Holt, Editor In the I ber a i find the 

following ao 

Inirnfiiiitely upon tin- adjournment of tl i ted 

Board of I > and organised b ' 

:ii Preridt nt» L. M. Holl , and M. Thoi ] iror. 

A. Committee on Publleationi iraa appointed, coi 

i h . . i i i and T. A. Garey. On motion, Mr. Bhorb, 

Preaidenl of the Society, «;i^ added to the Co ThU i ommlt- 

tea wsa inatrnetcd to proceed st once to the publication oi a monthly 
periodical In pampblel ronn "t tfairtj two pages, t<» be 

■ r ■ boubl ii- ths organ oi tbl 

ciety. Tha Committee decided to po the first 

•embtr. Thi* nui. <■ ;»'J- 

iog mailer, :be premium lUt of the joint Agricultural an»l liorticultu- 
ral exhibition and a limited amount of advertiiing. 

The //". ' free to all mi i the 

Society, but to others the sabacription price was twodollara per 



annum It column 

tira and Agrteultnn in KraUwrn Califbrn ■ 

"'" ' uwy, 

1880, th< t>3 ftfeaan 

of I. ,,f 

u niopii - urvouij an wi reus i lliporitu hob- 


1 .v published u duu inches by twelve 

Inch i 

h numb i 

"i- ttagriculm found on the 

raolfii ' 


VV " ' ' l! u " Oould m 1879, and tbo first number 

1 ' ' ' ib!ic*n in politics, .ml 

dovutod mainlj to I ,. i(ii . 

' ° i ! '" 

" a ' "" ' nuj ' ■ | r; ( 

I bj I* M l 

i i MIOM KO\ M i i 

JJ ' tortodJuna i L870 bj P Qano. former. Ill t I. r, 

'I.- ii» -I the boel ii twenty foui U .1, 
II l" d wet Idj and i 1 1 in politics 

v " 1 t*D « I l RL1 , i» y 

u ' ' ,,Ml '" ■' to I87fl bj J C Uttlcfleld and R II Hewitt 

, "" 1,1 ""' I 14 Hewitt The first num- 

'"" M WO andappeared aa an 
ovo ' '"" l»toi En the seanon il was changed to a 

" U "" paignin 

' i 1 ' ' ' ' ' ■ ■ v- « Mr I | ht ~ tlii . 

,,l,i ,1 "■ J ->"»- been conducted bi R H 

Howitl aaoditoi and pi .pri« 

Nil (VBBKL1 Rl 

'" " ta *•* Jovotod (0 I.,,,,,,,:,,,,-,. .,„„,„ 

"'-I »■■»* II h tbo official ,„.,,„ of the 
le Independent Order of 

,|lt: ' "««»puWfa I under the di ti f 

\ ' ; tl.eOnu.d Lodge Independent 

-hMhewtotoroJbMo ,„„„., - 
November I 1877. Virnell & CysUU, publisher^ the * 
■"•' »o edit tad publish it f,.rtl„ 
rat «ii vin ,. xu 

W« eatablkhed ... \ ,„|. ,, ,s,. t p Vtlmu ^ ■ 

fho first few ,...,„', 

.1 J Warner, aft. r which K E. Hewitt now Assistant Super- 

cted a- manager 



W Bart r October 29, 1870 It 

\ Gardner in 1871. Gardner sold 

Richard ' editor and proprietor, in 

I 872 

inged in nam.- by Gardner in 1871 to /'/« Southern 

I was changed back to Th* Anaheim QazetU 

in 1878 It commenced a daily issue in August, 1875, bul this 

otinued in September L877, from which time unti] 

s ptember, 1879 it jemi-weekl} Since 

that date it has been published as a weekly on! Sal 

If " "' ! it. tone, and aima to be an exclu 

sively local papei I i fi etU office and mat, rial were 

■ J mi ai | 1878 

mi PEOPL1 '8 IDVOt vn: 

Waa eatabliahed by Majoi Stroble ai Lnaheira in L871 
weekl>. It lived bul , ,ntha, and was absorbed l.v the 

which purchased thi outfil and material. 


rj I", 1-77 Knox* Cahill 
It suspended with the close of tl, 


from Maj 5, 1877, till May 26 1879 
"" 6 -ther juvenile paper, had a yetshorter life. 

THE SANTA w\ i A | I j \ HEW 8 

)) : ' ta W5,byNapo] D ■„,, „ a weekI „ 

He sold out after abou( six montha Ir al terward ', 

through aeveral hands, and ia now owned by J W uC 
who haa changed it- name to " 


J K Uklin is tli ( .- present editor. 


Was established by Frank Cobler February 22 1877 I 
d column paper ' ua 

Wm ; 13 1875 bv \ Wnlf a 

- 7; i ninrr" 

then »blished under 

cWrter. ana is pnbliahed eve^ b£L ' " ** " 


1 1860 1880.J 

«.8tr«ii b Storj I rime id the Earlj Daya Tho [rvin i'„ u v,, 

no! B H.,,, 1,! ,.. Uvitrc Munlw ol M, i , ,/? 

"■ lv,,|t ' "■■<■ ■ ■ Nicholn Oi Lham Ru B ' "' ; ' 

""' Pw*l Execution u„i 1 , ,„;,,,,. J™" 

Jam« B '■ 1 on Murder ol Sheriff Getmnn Alvitrt Cot 1 1 "i"' 
del— Io :■■■,:, ... Duimwood 1 ulothei Wilkin M 

N " n ,l " 1 PI h* ■ D n K,„. ,,,,1 Carlii! ( Ml, " 

Mll " i ' 1 '■' u Uliara I Kimball Dye inul Wnrren Vffrnv Tl, | 1 

M » ""' Mu ^« ... Bilderbeek Bnithon Tnniw »mt (lordo Affi ' 

n "' Bandil N "'"• Ph Foweh Unnlvi I'l.olpa r,„i, . 1 „, , „ 

Shot Hamilton Defoli itiou Counterf. itor Criirn in I8S0 s b 

l|..yl.- ' "' 

"My friend," said a certain well-known old resident to 
whom "'' ,i: " 1 applied for information, "It is not so much' tha 

"" history of this countrj thai requires to be written oa 

,llr "" / '' '"■ the inside history, Thai never has been wril 

^and never will bo; bul if it was whal a rattling thoro 
would be among the dr) bones!" 

He paced alowly up and down the -of hia !Q fl ppa> 

entry immersed in thought. At last., turning suddenly toward 
U8 » he ■"* v "" have heard how David Brown was lynched 
by a mob in 1855 '" 

u ' re P lied lli; " we had, and had incorporated thateventoa 
;i choice tit-bit in our dish of " crimes." 

" But did y° u IVtr f "' ; "- the inside hi torj of that little 
queried ha 

Weconfeaaed thai w"e had not, and then, having Bi I locked 
"" l dou blo-bolted the door to prevenl intrusion, and having 
extracted from us a solemn promise of the mosl profound 
"7 whlch *« readily gave pencil and note-book in hand 

l, "'" lM( " 1 " 1 " Allowing strange story, which we ropro 

l|Mi " as nearly aa ma} bo in hia word 

' David Brown was a worthless, drunken fellow al I Loa 

Angelee for some year Naturally more weak than virion,, 

he waa a fit tool in the band of de ignii ,en men with 

111 " '■"' cience as himself, and much larger intelli- 
gence, which made them the more dang | ■„■,, 

. "" r emplewasanoIdandmuch r. pected n identofloa 

"" "Ch aamud." I mean the man who leased the 

""'";«'< mint in the eity of Mexico, and throughouta 

["•'-"«» ' lif, coin,,/ n.Mn-vn ,, , ,, , | 

I think it wash, tl,.- y.,ar iH.'rJ that -,-r.ain ,.;., ■.,. . m L„s 

eles found out that on , e i day M, Temple would 

Z?*'"* by Bfe8 ^ , '" 1 ' SanDie gOfWhereheintendedt0 

embark for Mex,co. It waa discovered, also, that he would 

carry w,th hnn the snug Kttle aum of two hundred and fifty 

-' hilars in,, in Now, even in those flush times, a 

* » * 

* ♦ f 
f M 

* * * 

3 f f 

* * ♦ w 

* t * t 

j. # # y 9 r * 

* * t * * * * 

t M f M ♦ 

■ t • f 

• * *• r t y r 

? * * # * f f 

+ f -4 » * * * 

« * « « * * • 

• ♦ 

♦ * • MMff 


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• ^rrrv^ * f~t ■ 

, „ r ... .. , ■ - ' - ■ " ' ■ ' 

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- - - • - •*•**■* .-•*■»*■.---» J- -" ** 

.. v * V y v 

I • - * * ? r t • f * 

• « r » * • ^f ^ 

LtJf J rrJ iff Jill iff jIS f*£3 

fHt ftTf 3ff tttJfT+tff* 13 

», + ; ; f , . -r f f f 1 1 tJS .« f * f * f f * i» f 
ff «ijj»t y * *?• I*J«3 ttJt f^fJ^t 

—&* „ tB HO 6 I - 







t f f 

* 3.3 
f ! * 







1 34***91** »•?;; 

ki « i t -f & * * f f ******* 




ji? til i* 

lf| ft 


tt tt tf 


♦tttt» r jvj 



3$3f 3 3 9 93iiilll\ 



■ ■ 

of the Proper 

Los Angeles. Cal.(For Sale.) 



cool quarter of a million as no 

ven bu b, and a couple of prominenl citizei hall be 

nameless) put up •■• job to relievo thi old gentleman of this 
impediment to locomotion) and hinderanci I n Bui 

,i ,.., ,,. ce ai | to have a third pai ist in tl 

prig) and David Brown wa ettled upon b a fil and 

I,,.,- ,,,, I!. ■: ;i <ImI . appi oachi d upon thi nd being 

willing to turn an honest pcnnj in u< mpany, con- 


The plan agreed upon '■•■■> thi Th< li ■•• (all well masked 
and otherwise di gni i d weri to hidi ti ethei in the wild 

mustard at a point which the tage would \ 

about dusk in the evening not far from when thi town of 

( Sompl now is, A halt having been coi and* d I he I ■■■■ o 

gentlwneTi were to cover the stage with I and intimi- 
date tin ps longoi , while I»jim<i Brown wcnl through thou 

purl 1 1 and re ved thoir poi babli . po ( in ■ pi i ial attention 

to old Mr, Temple, and above nil thing makin i 

valise. This dono, the stage waa '" be ■ "i on 

"swag" waa to bo buried in the dry river bed neai i<\ until 

such t,i us nil oxcitemont hod blown over, when il wa I ■ I ■ 

larthed and divided, The parties would return to town by 

ii oirouitouB route, and tho i tabli hod re pectabilitj of tho two 

would shield them Prom all suspic while their inti o 

would protect Brown from anj hado* of connection with the 
affair, bo all would bo Bafo, 

But alas I 

••Tin- best laid loliemeBo' mice and men gas sfi d jley; 
Ami leave us noughl I [rief and pain for promised joy." 

Upon the nighl preceding thai upon which the tcheme waa 
to be pul in .'mtu lion, the two oitisens aforesaid had prepared 
their masks outeiter the latest and most approved ] 
.( la i liaudo Omni, etc., and had loaded their wot -mis with a 
ohoice assortment of pellets, to act as an emetic in casi Hi 
Tomple should prove refractor} and refuse to throw up his 
handa All was in readiness on their part, when news 
that that awkward bungler, David Brown while loading his 
revolver, had accidentally shot himself through the foot, and was 
quite incapacitated from attending to business in consequence 
Ii was now too late i" procure another man, besides the danger 
of exposure through multiplication of confederates was great, 
so, after talking it all over, the scheme was reluctantly aban- 
doned, and John Temple Esq., carried his quarter million safely 
to Mexico, little suspecting how nearrj be had tost it ; and pos- 
aiblv liis life into the bargain. 

But from this time out, David Brown had two powerful 
enemies. The best and most forgiving of us could hardly look 
with complacency upon the man who had lost 'is a fortune by 

h» carelewness in loa 

■ -: — 
" A Uule learning « » d»ngerou* il. 
-I deal ii perhaj y if it 

conct i n- thai ■ who hai * I 

Brown found it ha.l be 

in*- time whilo 

drunk, I knife between the major and minoi 

an acq friends pi 

whirl. Job mud 
have i w hen he sighed — 

'■<», that nine adversary had writ- 
At tins time ti topping in Lot An.- 

f.-llow of -oiiio leisure, and withal of a rather inquiring turn of 
mind. Brown had been tried, and lay in jail under rei 
The evening before the daj fixed for h 
man strolled down town, and [uainted 

n ith thi jaili ' wa admitted to ; I nknown to 

aed, and his visitor per 
suaded the prisonei that s this was Ins lasl nighl on earth, he 
Ii an bn asl n garding the pasl Brown 
consented, and did ■ nfesaion whirl, the 

down wherein wi I the plot against John Temple 

which I have nan >n why it miscarried, ai 

ni of bis accomplii 

It was. in fart, his lasl night arth. for at the moment 

, j hand Bign rchmenl unknown to thi m 

which would Burolj at Bome tin o tht u nai 

infamy, those two citizens all unknown to him were h li 
tog crowds upon the streets and inciting the peop 
,1,, jail and Ij Qi h I be prisom i Within twentj four houi - 
thoir words bore fruit Brown was dragged from his cell and 
1 ii\ an infuriated riob led by the mayor of the town 

in person, and then these twi st respectable citizens breathed 

] -efreelj Brown was dead, and his story died with him. 

" Dead mi n t>U no (•>" 
But the manuscript I 
•Ah. the) did not know of that, and d 
matt r. Yet it is —till in axisteni i - u| on its 

page the traced stain of two names -then prominent in the 
county, still prominent in the St 
■ Whose are thi 

S ■ 

We report this interview not so much on account of its 

historical bearing upon any particulai I • illustrate 

how utterly lawless these early times were It i- ever thus in 

antries, and pardon the fcriten en who wear 

the best broadcloth, are not always the beat men. 

California has attaint an unenviable notoriety throughout 

tba ■ ' and frequency of crime. 

1 has so 

many acta of an unlawfu andnearlj all 

i within thirty years It wall 

understood thai in 

Fining aft i [ in the murdei Hies 

from the 
nt wo 

t.. tl pinion that p ib ^ v llh &• 

| i , 

,1 by battle" h niahed from our statute 1 1 

yet I ' i ' ■ ■■ ' 

the knife an i ■"' ,l DMial 

not i The man who the 

unate, but in the wroi 
What then, i- the remedy Onlj a condition ••! rampant 

and thni, the 

lilt) end 
If tho several counties of the State wei '■• thoir 

tinal record ! ■■ ' " the 

f,„,: Q ■ - It LV0 all 

tnd we will conolu li thi e 

general remarks by i Rev. James Wood "Cali 

fornia Recollections wherein h .,,....,... 
\. rifled by othi ' 

deaths in Los Ai ■ ool li 'I"'" one a d 

An. I ft t, bo few cases wore ever I jht to 1 1 

of the guill y p 

nai ral mea, which have occui rod 

in the count] Q o\ oui 

The following account of a " muc ; i la relatod 

i- llo 3l phi n t Fa tcr : — 

Tin. il'.\ [NO PABT7. 

i ■ parly of Qtes, from 6 all Lai ■■ i ami dow n 

at far as S nd stole a large number of horses, includ- 

ing one hui thirty head ■ i leof the 

owners of u dino Ranch. The Endiai wei i 

I with iiH i party ol 

twenty ' Wifornians, who on the Mojave met an Irishman and 
■ in a wagon coming toward I The 

traii of the stock was fresh. Tiny asked these nun to describe 
the Indians who were with th and ho* thej were 

armed. They >ai<l they w and bad only bows and 

arrows The Californiana hurried on to overtake them, hut 
quickly received a volley of rifle balls from cade, 

which killed one of their number; the rest fled Coming back, 
they passed the men with the wagon, encamped on the far bide 



of the i 
and enoam| 

Bernardino but Lhs i fow im a lin ■ ' 

Ikk I lo 

men murd 

...,, ■,,,. | t. ;, r »n fell on 

i behind thi j 
and ""' of tha nutnl 

,,, || | the iih ii to .-<■■■ 'I.- ii.- di itli of 



■ if tmirdi i 
h, the month ol Ipril foil neoe man nam- I 

h \ in, to Lou A i ■ i ■■ northern pari ■•' the Bl 

trith him a part) of nome thirl) men armed 

M. and hi pai I ■■ profi ■ il to !»■ on I ■ 
w&\ i . ti.. oountr) now called Arizona, on a pi Uiui 

Thoj wore tl) young men and among tbem won anura 

bi . from \ ■ \ idontl) of the con* icl 

• Bytlno) duclf Tho) n tnainod in L d 

lattoi pari ol M>\ conducting thomselvei in the moel oul 

urn. i AM. i tli. I 

I i to l ton Antonio m I 

young in-ii then in priaon thai he would break open the jail. 
hi,, , ,, M • loo, f-»i the 

Mini of five thou in I dollare Lugo replied thai he had 
retained J I- Bronl Esq who waa a prominent membci of 
Mi. Lo Lngi I from 1851 to 1861 . to defend h 
soiw, and ho would I"- guided b) hia *d\ loe I Fpon being 
nil ,| i:,, m of com I have an) thing t.« do with 

anj such ontei pi i 

i i the da) of tli-' trial arrived the witneeaea for the 

poopli wore onl to Sol i where the) remained, beyond the 

jurisdiction of the Court and then affida\ it- being there 
taken, tho) wore found toawi establishing an i 

on the pari of the accused On these affidavits application 
was made to the District Judge, Hon l ' S Witherb; 
admit the prisoners t.< bail Irving boasted thai he would not 
p, milt the Judge to admit tht I u to bail, and that if he 
,l,,l M . 1 1, [Irving would take them from the Court House and 
hang thorn 

Phe evening before < I for hearing the i 

pain of l nited States dragoons encamped on the east bank of 
the Los Angeles river The Sheriff, O.F B irrell, applied to the 
commanding officer, requesting his assistance to protect the 
Court, and tli-- officer consented. The next day when the 
Court opened, the prisoners were present with their bondsmen, 
and the Irving part) ranged thorns side of the 

room, all armed with revolvers At this moment the drag 

"' tlu ' 

1 r,a ' lv 

" I ■wowd and 

teed on 

them to the east bank of the 

nreed the d d lawyer 

- >«n,| swore 

ton he wa> don- with 

In ti. thirtj men armed like 

i from the upper oountT) This 

with [rving'a parly, left Los Angeles 

about the lai nd took the road toward Sonora The 

party t] bad the appearance of being honest 

timed t" be, and wi i nod for 


[rving'a plans wei h« ksfl tl "' ' A " 

1). pro] with his men to Hexi i of the 

nlver 1 1 wa) from * fhihuahua to m i.and w ith 

index thereof make hia way across the countrj t.i I 

..ii his wav to ataxic I San Bi i 

nardino Ranch seise thi j lungLugos and hold th 
in the sum of ten thousand dolls I un< time to 

Upon this expedition only 
, ,,f bis im> d my him, tli remain ler 

joining the last arrived parly, [rving'a intention was reported 
in Los Angeles, and a messenger was immediately di p 

iwn with word t-- the ) rnng Lugos, warning them to 
r to L '- nd for those in charge of the 

ranch to look out for their horses [rvingpi i far as 

the Laguna U inch, on the S ■ camped- 

\li\ 30 th, he, with eleven others started 
for Sni Bernardino expecting to reach the ranch at night-fall, 
and from there proc* - I to Warner's ranch b) wav of San Jacinto. 
His party left their rifles in charge of tlu- five men who 
remained, and these were instruct* 1 1" proceed to Warner's ranch 
and there wail for their comrades, [rving was unacquainted 
with tlit* country, and onlv succee led in reaching Jurup 
eight miles from the ranch thai •fay- Next morning, before 
the party started, Roubidenx of Jnrupa sent a m< 
warn the Lugos When [rving'a party reached the house 
where tl ted t-- find the ;■ I . discovered 

that the family and servants had fled, thai rXoubideu 
and thi Iriving the horaea towards the rodeo 

ground, while some thirty va 1 in brand- 

ing cat 

\ tmpan) of rangers under Lieutenant -l A Bean bad 
been raised sotnetiii Act I for the 

defense «<f the frontier a 'ain-t Indian depredations They 
made their headquarters on Logo's ranch at Sao Bernar- 

dino, bul as it happened, had that dav gone over to the Blojava 
on a a ut Jose* del Carmen Lugo was in charge of the ranch 
11,. ..,.,,, ,,, o post baste to inform Bean of [rving'a 
arrival, and dispatched another to •'nan Antonio, chief of t w. 
» 'ahnilla Indians, bidding him raise all the Indians in the valley, 
and follow [rving'a party until the rangers could overtake them 
From the first house, [r\ ing proci edod to old San Bernardino, 
where he and hia comrades broke open the houso, tool* b silver 
mounted saddle and helped themselves Liberally from q keg o! 
idiente. When the) saw the Indian-- coming (some fort) 
strong the) mounted their horses and proceeded toward San 
Jacinto bul wore soon overtaken b) their pursuers, The 
ma were under command of Drives, oi f Lugo's tMousroa, 

It seems that [rving had been a cavalryman hi the Moxioon 

war, and had his men drilled like d i ^ the Indiana 

came up, Ins company wheeled, formed in line, and charged 
them m regulai cavalr) form, firing their rovolvers as they 
i I. The Indians replied with volleys of arrows their only 

hpons The parties continued thia skirmishing nearly all 

■ i ompan) n ting fresh bands of Indian i, which 

aver roe I the) took No one wa i hurt on either side, however, 
until late in the afternoon, when the Indians charged tha 
frving party and came to close quarters; then a brother of the 
ehied wa mortall) wounded by [rving, Finall) the [rving 
party took a wood road leading back to the Laguna llanch, but 
terminating in a narrow ravine filled with underbrush, mid 
quite impassable for horses Thia ravine is situated on the wost 
dde of tl" 1 Timateo \ alley, 

The Indians now numbering about one hundred sheltered 
by the brush, Bhot down [rving and bis men with their arrow . 
killing eleven of them, The remainirj ■ one concealed himsell 
under a bush, ami after night-fall took the road back toward 
Laguna. At the first mentioned bouse on the San Bernardino 
Ranch, the Sheriff of Loa Angeles with a large poaBfl bad 
arrived in pui uit of the [rving party, The fugitive mounted 
a mule !i«- found hitched outside tin hou i , belonging to fchfl 
and with this overtook the remainder of the Irving part) 
at San Felipe. Bis nam.- was Evans. The Coroner (A. P. 
Ho I/- proceeded to San Bernardino to investigate the affair, 
being accompanied by the Count) Attorney [the lab Benjamin 
Hay-- , who took down the testimony given before the jury. 
The verdict of the jury, wa , that Edward Irving and im 
others, white men names unknown, were killed by the Cahuilla 
Indian-., and thitthe killing wa ju itifiable. 

At the time of the "i; acT< a membi i of the Sepulveda 

family joint owner with Lugo, of San Bernardino Ranch) wa» 

and riding rse througl th< bn hi aw tha 

twelfth man, Evans, in biding, bul pretended nol to ee himi 

and bo allowed him b 

The Indians divided the Bpoil of the dead men between them, 

Residence of GEORGE DALTON, Washington ST, 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

l^fjjj^ff 0r T«c>t***Bff *■ wj, 


but nine out of the twelvi hoi and laddlea were p 

away from them by the owners, from whom [rving an 

parfcj had fcolen them. In Bepl n , ;iI „. (i 

man, Evans, returned to U> Angel- 

of the Weekly Stwr II- gave an account <.f the whole affair. 

which was at the time publi bed Ht aid thi | * nl to the 

Sim Bernardino Ranch intending t< ( drive ofl I 

and were pursued ae above tatod Thai oon after entei 

the ravine where In eompai . . ,. i , . | , , .,, , , 

and crepl away among the bushc* II.- watched Bepul- 

veda ae the latl de toward hi i hidii 

revolver rearlj cocked to hoot him down on thi „ thai 

he had discovered him Sopulvodi i and thu I o ■ 

weir- spared 
According to Major Horace Bell of Lob Angeles, there were 

Ave American and a ' !] I ec Indian lain bj Lu 

in the < tejon Pass. What* n i the number may b 
(and nil accounts diflbi in regard thereto , one thing i i . rtain 
the slayera o leaped col fn i 
Shortly after thi on atti mpl was mad* to b a inafc thi 

I 'niiniy Attorney, Benjamin EJay< but whether the aurvivoi 
of Irving'a partj had anj hand in thi , doi i not appi ai The 
following account is clipped from the "Historical Sketch" before 
quoted (page 42): — 

Novembei r. L8B1, lateof o bright od light eve Jone 

at the door of hii office, Main street, | where ia tha " Oriental, "j B< i 

uiiii Hayes wsi shot at by one within three (eel on I bad " Tin 

boll," says tho Star, "pawed through the rim ol In i,.,i I lodged In 

ilic wiill on the opposite aide of the » perforating In il 

the 'lorn-, which i^ I'nlly nn Inch Id thluknen The rub in I 

Instantly gallcinoc] off. A party of three, Including the BherifT, J 
R. Barton, traolced them auoul ten miles to a houn lien thai were 

received by five 01 six n on horseback, who charged upon them, fired 

si' vr nil shots, and drove them from the gi id rhe ShtriU deemed it 

prudem Lo return to the city." He did so. obtain dapo ie, went I 
to the place of encounter, and made a search thai provtd Ineffectual. 

I I lias always been believed that thli assault was intended for another 

Probably to intimidate further attempts on tho lives of its 

officers, the Court of Sessions entered the following ordor on 

its minutes of Novembor 22, 1851:— 

" Ordered, that the Sheriff cause fiftj goo I lances to be made for the 
use of voluatoer company." 


On October 26, 1854, an Indian half-breed named Felipe 
Uvitve was arrested, charged with the murder of James Ellii 
ton, an American, at GI Monte On Ins examination he 
confessed this crime, and also the murder of a Chileno a( the 
Coyotes; then, with an effrontery worthy of a Chinaman, 
I inquired whal was the price of these two lives, and be 
would pay the amount into Court lie could give no reason 
for slaying Ellington save that "ho thought he might as well 
kill him as not;" and the Chileno he sho( *>" account of a 
Baucy answer the fellow gave him 


rod gnfltj 

•fanattemtrf at 
bat the pr 

i '•> the mob 

all. an.] 

thr bushand ..(* the w..m«D abn 

i -r her hi. 




Mi KDEB of mi 

embei B, If 
a merchant of I 

!';"';" ruffian then i 

^■napp , Jat , 

""""' lh ' " thereu] »n - >■■ | a hoi and pur- 

! bimtotheoatakirteol -I, city, where I 

sl [ rwn Mi 

AN I \N \^« hi HOR1 S,, 

We clip the following account from B C I. en's 

pamphli i on the bandit Basques 

Bhortly aftei the capture and death of Joaquin Uurieta Loii 

■ to Los ao, !.„n t v.i,r,,y„ «, ;; 

■ "" ,l "'i- rel :■ wbointhe'reorganlzat , tl ., 

"ted Captain. Senati Being a member cTST. e Socie? J m 

dition. Hh 

;■>"■-!-,,.,, ere.who.up , t . H k ' 

it in hearrwt 

« dietarbi In i,„, , part. „, ™j 

■ arrivedf. SfcnFrs 

°f»«eeganil) fntedup bagnio bj a grand ball, to wj , 

,:il '"r '"invited. Whiletbei 

11 l T^'" ,lln "' men. swuoped down ui I 

"' £ [""vitiee, surrounded the bou , unconditional 

■urrender. Certain ol th« [DC b » 

[""!" J nd relieved eyeri man md woman in itofall the rnluablesthei 

"' fhem. Leaving the ball-room, they went to the bouse ol 

a then resident ol Lob Aogelea, recently d 

i and syaten 

: litted an outrage too horrible 

J«wexisted ; Citisens were under _ 

intry. but ou .1 to mull p . 

rite iuat narrated the same baud made mother raid upon Los 
robbed several bousea and carried off a Dumb. 

During one of theii fori ti City UsrahaJ waaaasai 

~ Fifteen hundn 

red for bis delivery at the jail yard dead «>r alive. The jailor 
rakened qpe mgh I bj i demand :■■ 
aooraae fbUDd Moreno with an ox-cart conulniog the dead 
Bu via and Senati. Moreno claimed thai fa Bre d by 

. andthathemanagi 
to ol the men whose 
beoatl were identified by tin- woman who had 

the part/ by whom the offense was committed. 

iiie reward offered for the deliver] 

Moreno. For ■ i. ■» days he was the lion of the town, and 

upon Ins blood money. He happ 
the jewelry store of Mr I ,„,,„. who tl 

Uommercial Btreet, below his preeent stand, and offered a wa 
sale, .Mr. Uncommon reoognuced it at once as the watch ukeo from 

manner; aftei rhich they 

for recital. \ p rl 

of the 

lOlUD ».. ;,, „„,, lm| j| 



V' Mr ami 

■ - 

' in 

>ati was »ml 


licit hi- h. 

etetl bis 
•'>' pi""- hlade tbmu I 

HII R01 v> OH mi \m 

d vraa I r In I 

for themui i , S()l preyi 

D took plan, (vitl | 

diatmrbance themurd. . irli( , ,, 

|: mi.I and oi 

He laid all , ,i..,,, f fj 

(Ml llWIHh 01 MS II \N 

The wintei of 1856 7 
uncerl untj to the law abidin 
brazen and d ifianl waa crime become that tl tin th 

in a minority, and q ,f | aw 
lei had indeed Hed the land, leaving their i 
'" he filled t .,,, Bol at laal the 
tranagr aaion, til!. I | ,,„,. j^p t , ( 

ngefulsword of outraged justice long iimponJed by ■ 
hair, Ml with crushing force, and wu I 

Bering but now th ughly aroused j pl< 


. | Jam, i 
Los Angele*. that in tho vicinity of San Juai 

boldly plundering, and com 
Taking with him t u , M II Little and 

Baker. . ] , . ihi , j.' i;in j. : 

1 "I! well ai rith a I n nchm i 

tlide only, the SheriB j uan 

ning, the party « 
lliat t(i well armed and mounted, 

larked upon theii ate, and would probably i 

them They made light of this information, bowevei and 
l on. 
They bad i milea fur'; 

Erom the Coot-bill rapidly 


level plain of the San Jo. '- h 

n them i 


of the MIU new by 

and thetbn 
,„, band ,, una. then fighting hand to hand 

theii pi toUclubbed Th 

'II I.I v.... I l ' 1 "' 


bv II.. u,l "" : »■ '-""'' il ' 

, ijl|lU , 1T1 .| Al , aped and returned to Lm Ui| 

S.,ll latei n u tbml the robbers bad th 

bofon plundorodSan Juan, ...» I n lered a n h 

'li The murdered Bherifl had 

i ■ ,,-, populai and thi dea ' rengoon h 

.... i I ri indignation when the 

bod! - recovered the) I wounda and marks of ill b 

evident! 1 -"< 1 ' 'l'""> ™ n 1 " 1 "" 1 WI,I, 

Nl n | ingbeen ■ prominanl 

Ma on . . i 

\i n public tin| held For the purpose o! deviain| 

to rid th. coi nit) nol onli ■ rho had taken pari ... 

th, i i lei - ■ oriminal eUae within the 

,,|; , M .| ' ' ' ' ltmeD 

todo oi lo "" l t1 "' howemon '" 

to Oompa were al o formed a1 San Bernardino 

and El Mont, vl I u ■ Mitl il I irl I 

and San Diego di patched ol I M Ml tlirir 

Lworl ol i b ■■ Every house in Lob Ingelea 

w„. :■• I l,and m bM '•" 1 

,., RSI li "i imi BAKDITB 

Within twohoura aftoi the arrival ol Hard) and Alexander 
in ,„, \ u ,;, B , tj horaemen had left this city for 

gan j Uftn Othoi eompaniee under Jamea Inompaon Di 
QontT3 ,,„, ^,., Left late! the latter taking with him 

a nun.) I Indiana to aol aa scouts. 

iurroundod upon all aidee, the robber band took to the 
ahnoal who)!) inaccessible f aatneesea of the mountain* • 
,,„. ,,,., , ol despair thej forced their jaded h nrsesalong 
rov ledges, and down steep precipices, then hid thema 
from sigh! in oaves, and undoi the dense chaparral, but all m 
vain Some ware shot down and killed, while three were 
taken alive These proved to be Juan Floras, captain <-f the 
robber band, ex-conviet and murderer of Baker, Tapia 
Upea, and Espinosa Th* ***** 

guards, all three again escaped thai night. 
" Some days later a Mexican unarmed, and mounted on a 
r oor and jaded horee, having a little dried beef strapped upon 

0* „ 1 bim, was anrpriaad and arreated m the Simi 


aimed to 

n He was identified as Juan 

„,.! was d inj«l at 

and Eapinoaa abo 

apsaa I W 

3an Buenaventura. 

,l bung.ii «^n J" 

othei U M ' 


about the time Sheriff Barton and hia tbr ipanions 

5an Joaquin Ranch a band ol Mexican dea 
inicl with certain parties i 
I Cittxena from El U nb ! ™ ,! " 

lowing f"ii persona were i a cul 

Joan Valenxuela 
Pedro Lopea 
1 (iego Navarro 

BXBci ii"N^ in uia won ■ b 
01 the fifty-two persons arrested in Los Angelas on Buapicion 
1(f u j . ,.,i with crimina ! ' death al 

the hands ol pie The naraea ol thi 

1 Juan « fctal " ; ' ' ~ ■ 

2 Prenciac i ilia* i lui rro fcrdttlero 
:; Jos. Santoa 

4 Diego Navarro. 

5 Pedro L 

6 Juan Valem 

7 Jesus Espin 

\ Encarnation !'•• in yessa. 

9 Name unknown. 

[n addition to these the following fa n members of the 

robber band also suffered death: — 

BXB i riOH OF -li an I LOR] - 

February 14, 1857, in presence of nearly th.- whole i*>pnla- 
Uon, ti.<- bandit chief was hung near the top of Fort Hill, 
og been condemned by a popular row He waa only 
twenty-two yean ol aga, andol a pleasing countenance and 
appearand In an address from the scaffold, be acknowl 
the justice of his aentence He me< death bravely, but owing 
skillful arrangements Buffered much unno ary pain. 


February 16, 1858, under aentence of court, I*nard<< I 

, Luciano Tapia , was executed for the murder al San 
Cap'istrano, & the German merchanl Pflugardt. January 
557, H. wis but t\\.m\ two years ol age, though old 

in crime. 


In January, 1858 Pancho Daniol [munlerer of Sheriff Bar 
ton a nd alleged by Juan Floras bo be the real loader ol th, 
robber band waa discovered concealed in a haystack at San 
.i. il- waa brought to La In ■ les and tried in the Dis- 

,-,.,„, Two chaJlengej to the arraj foi bin on pari ol 
th c Sheriff and Coroner, n pootively, were sustained Vthird 
challenge to the array, for same cause in the Elisor, was din 
allowed. A motion foi change ol venue to Santa Barbara 
eountj ■• i i mtad then the people loal patience 

The Sheriff; Deputy, and ''its Marshal wore wnl off on i 
„ w j W into the country, bj moanH of Rctitioua 

reports. The citj cannon were procured Eor b protended cola 
. lD The jailor was stopped upon the Btroel bj a bodj of 

I „ md hi kej demanded Poncho Daniol n i taken 

from his cell, and in the early morning ol Novembor 30, 1858, 

the i;,., of the San Juan bandil dangled I he cross-piocD 

ol the jail d b lif. I. corp . 

i iihm \s kin.;. 

September 27, 1857, in the Montgomery Bal , al Lob An 

i King and Lafayette King, quarrelled over a 

. of cardB A the lattei wa i leavinfi the hou e, Thomas 

King tabbed him to the heart, killing him instantly. Tho 

nilll ,i, r . i wa am ted tried and convicted o* will! rdor, 

II,. wae executed in company with Lenardo Lopez at Loi in 
I ! | ■..., 16, !*■">* 

.i wu.s r JOHNSON. 

L . ningol March 30, 1857, James P Johns I' 

El Monte entered the aaloon of Henry Wagner, at Los An- 
geles, apparent!) intenl on raising a disturbance. He waa 
finally peranaded to leave bu( returning, deliberately hoi Mi 


\fi.i a long and tedious trial he was con 

nctod, and suffered death at Los Angeles, October 8, I8fi7. 

Immediately following this murdei th. authorities arrested 

every drunken pei on found <. r , the streets without regard to 

i, in life, or previous condition of i . vitude, 

nit being ;< motley congregation in the city jail, includ 

ing al one time a doctoi two prof, oi ■■> Mormon elderi 

oaf i of every shade ol complexion, 

from lily white to coal black. 


: ■ i named Eteed apparently deranged 

in mind, entered a pawnbroker's establishment in Lof 

ntsiDENCE df M. P. GROVE, Adams Street, 
Los angeles. Cal (Sub-irrigated.) 


and handing fcto proprietoi e pi fcoj commanded him . 
penalty of iramodiafo death to I ■ I Reed - life it 
moment Sheriff William C Oetman enter, i and placinj 
band on the madman's shouldei requ t to p ah to biro. 
Tin- latter turned quickly, and i ,, tne „,f;_ 

cer through the heat I 

i:v bhi a crowd had collect* I and Eta i from within 

the pawnbroker 1 * ihop fired repeated!) D pon those outoide 

Then began a regnlai I ibardment ol th« p 

the maniac fell, fairly riddled v. ith ,. | ,,, , 

gers, two Colt's revolvers, and a bowie knife wore band on 
his body, The only othi i casualty wa th< woo i I offl 

cor W. W. Jenkins, who received one of Reed balla in hii 

Foratimo the cifcj was wild with excitement, and on. M. 
Phelan, charged with being a companion <>t Reed, narrowly 
Mcaped lynching. Tan daj later the remains ..f the mur 

dered Sheriff were buried The r .1 we attended by a 

large concourse of eitizon . and all Hi- principal buildings were 
draped in mourning, 

\i.\ 11 1:1 28, 1801, 11 noted Mexican desperado m td AJvitre, 

residing near El Monte, murdered his wife, whom he bad long 
been in the habit of abusing shamefully. He then attempt d 
to escape, bul q crowd collected principally Mexicans and 
hung him up to the nearest tree 


Ootober 17, L881, about 10 o'clock, \. m . a Mexican named 

Francis ota, entered the grocerj itore of Mr Lawn 

Lock, on Main Btreet, near the Roundhouse, and finding only 
Ml ■ Leek and two young ohildren in the building, murdered 
1I1.' ladj i'\ cutting her throat. His object was doubtless rob 
bery, but being frightened bj the approach of other persons, 
hefledtohis home on the plain west of the town, where he 
was sunn afterwards Pound his garments steeped in blood 

During bhedaj hand-bills were posted abuul town calling 
for a meeting of citizens at Hi.- Lafayette Hotel, A* the mur- 
dered was being oonduoted to jail from the Ju tic - office, 
where he had been taken for preliminary examination, he was 
sei ..•■! bj an excited crowd, who placed e ropi about hi- neck, 
dragged him down i>> a tannery on the corner of \lioo and AJa- 
da streets, ami hung him up to the high gatoway 

MM II \l I I Mill \ \l- 

September 29, L861 in the evening), two Frenchmen named 

respectively Michael Lachenais and Henrj Deleval, sat watch- 

ingby the corpse of a mutual friend, recently deceased. A 

dispute arose between tin- two watchers, through Lachenais 

ingthe French Benevolent Society [of which Deleval was 

•""ember; I : InaI| ,, 

intheabdomen inflict - 

of l nd bong 

We dip the b own . }it . ,^ 


urn ....„ IIE Mf:r ,„, rATI , v 
Tin m-ii.jn 01 
Ap,,., ofthj recent - 

1 Mai-, which t.Kik place m 

ber 17. IHTO, * 

US that til." M 

s-hoeyti tool refug In loutbrrc 1 diforuia. and Hi 

reputation of having "killed hu man." but thi 

rion to dispense with in Indian, for whom be b 

' ' u "' poot wretch down sod then loaded th< 1 i. into hii 

drovetotown, proceeded publicly to the . 

■ grave and buried hit ri< thaa> 
d&re-di 1 ... donewithoul eliciting any prutef! 

wonder thai dc of J 

himself whenever thi 

nally overstepped the forbearance of the - ,,-r. wai 
»W*I looded murder ore msn ns 1 ft II. (tell wai 

man, who, it 1- laid, would bardly itand up fbt hli own rirhu 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 , . . 

■" hI n "" ll:l1 ■ "Hghl 'l"i. 1 1 d them «m. refer- 

ence to Irri sting from tl 1 ntothe 

; ' M ■*•« » " "■" si work, ind, wltbonl giving the man s ».»r.| ol 
olverand ihol him dead. The murderer then rode 
lutothe pit) sod bosstingl) informed thi peopli .1- t.. what he had 
done, and told them where they would find B 11. (1,,-n *ur- 

rendered bim 1 < to tin- officers, and was placed En tl 

Meanwhile, public indignation bad 1 - {an to its M Itaelf, sad . u 
tod in the determination thai I. 1 . ;1|;|I1 \„ tne 
community, and bsd bettei i-e out of it Borne of the thorough- 
people ol El U and ether oat-lying towna came in and 

B«« :l ^>'" oond to the movement A public meet in 
held in Btearni Ball, al which all of the details ol the execution 
1 ed to the jail, t...k the 
ra'sersble man out, ind I with bim up Bpring and Temple 
to the Pomlinson corral at Ne* High itreet, itraogfed 
to teath with a rope. The evidence broogbl oul before the 1 
pffloe waa to the efiecl that numben ol nd law-abid- 
ing citizens iv nitrated with the crowd beiore the execution, but 

they were Implacable, and nothing abort ..1" lumman vengeance 
would appea fl«,v^. ir .l. rapported bj ■ - 

priest, pleaded foi fifteen mi no tea in which tlie wreteh might pray 
utinn, but thi- was denied. Then they aaked for 
ten in mute-, and Dually r..r five, hut the request was withi ui avail. 

!■. miat railing it- resolution, it' put t.. the teal of d< 
Bwung the red-handed murderer into eternity. 


M:i\ an Irish peddler named Frank Riley arrived in 
1 k - n Francisco, and pat up at the house of 

a Mexican named Syriaca Ana, situated on thi easi sidi 
1 kngelesriver Altera time the peddler duappeared, and 
the wife of Ana began to display jewelry and trinket-, which 
hitherto she was not known t.. posa - A » arch ..f the prem- 

- I the pediller's pack bid away. The w an then 

ssed that he had been murdered, and diivcte-I the offii 

buried in the garden 

\ ■ 

* !l 1 the 


her 17 186S John nt of < 'ucs nga 


harm n I hi so «■ ., t i„. 

it t».. miles from the wagon, pii reed with balls, and beai 

in- ■ 

made l"i ; 

'• 1 D 1863 '''■ Shi rifl ol 1 I mtj I. it the 

c* 1 ) : M M ntoncod t.. 


" i;i " " :1 - r '"' rdi \ the Sherlfl wenl on I 

Banning | w ilmin ton to pi — 1 to the t« ami r 

■nil In- pria m 1 quite a numbei <<f other p 
took 1 On I 

' I I hui hn 1.. 

the 1 . ing him the benefit ■■( the doubl 


In the rail "i 1863 i- 1 rain become rai 

and defiant in I. \ criminal . ,,, 

of the chief ruffians was a man 1 ton Daimwi «j 

formei ly on the city police Ibree He had recentlj returned 

from the 1 which il 

was whispered he bad ob , ,,,, 

lescrl II-- was loud in his thr 
various citizens, and was ft nail) lodged in jail, togethei with 

four other known criminals, W irl Oli 

for tl..- brutal b Ifi I: A H> U > at I 

Novembei 21st a crowd of del n marched to the 

jail, and upon n 

atelv battered them down i 

hung them tf the corridoi in front •>{ the old 

; ng done 'lii-« the cro 
quietly disp 

1 11 IBLEH W1LB I 

Ai 13, Mr. Banford red 

near Fort Tejon under tbe following cn*cumstanoes: Driving 
in bis boggy, be overtook two men one of whom named 
Charles Wilkin-. ha<l been employed in the neighborhood a 
Bheep-herder. Mr Sanford stopped, entered into 1 tion 



with h I finally bind Willcinn. Ukintf him b 

with him 
All- i 'ti iving ;> f- N I ford had o 

Of Mi' Wing Will 

|)iht/»l l\ fog in Mm v< i,. 

■hot linn dead II' tb< n rifl ra, pro 

one "f U 
ii - .lit- od thi ■ i iroe with t • nonchalao 

■aid ho killed 

if be had "'. By hi- on n 

Bond in humeri gui u, foi hi 

i. I lil ti< i know « it) just 

bow roan Hi clainx I i 

mi nil" i "f iIn Mormon church; end thai h 
In fcho Mountain Mead Win n sski I il It 

i nuni I ' ' i "I " No, thai be thoo 

The offioei « li" 

i nd brougbl him to L Kn 

you i time 

I [q v i ■!, an I com icted 

While boinjj roturnod Shi riff on I ►« ombei 17th, 

In- was i land bj momboi "t the Vigilanoi Commiti 

I. Ml, 

\i 01 KDVi UtO HI W *i ^ 

Tin- w mi' i of 1808 i wai marked b) leveral atrocious tnur- 
, I. 1 and\ pi f Los 

\m ■. i, . -1,1,1, i , vincod thai an organised band "t" 

out throat wow It was supposi '1 

that iln from fifteen to thirt} strong;, and 

lui n Carrillo, a well-known desperado, « ted of 

In HI till 

Earl) in January, 1864, two young men Edward Newman 
and Fisohloi I Lngelee tor San Bernar- 

dino and whon within about five roiled of thoir destination 
Bred upon bj three men in ambush, Newman being 
severolv wounded in the neck. Their I iming fright- 

iverturnod the bugg) end threw thorn out Thi 
sins tiien proceeded to sta Mi Newman as hi lander 

the cushions, end had wounded him fatally I I compan- 

ion came up, The latter being armed with e double-barrelled 
an, the ruffians Aed. 
Fisohtei assisted his companion into the buggy, and they 
followed l>\ tlu 1 murderers, one on each side in the 
brush, and one behind, and only when other travelers came in 
Bight did they leave The) were all Mexicans, ainl quite 
young man Mr. Newman died of his woun Is t^hing 

San Bernardino; his bod] was brought to Los Angel 

was a 

part in Una mur- 

he resided 

i-k into hu and snaU volver and 

ife from under the pillow, attacked the officers with 
furv In that ensued be was shot and killed. 

Kani'.ii CarriUo ' found munlei 

ti,. aga Ranch. r " he the third 

man was bong in i the murder 

of '•' I i\ *- 1 1 1 ol 

BOBHf run \ i a 

Tho itealing ol hones and mules has been so common an 
f it hardly seems worth while to record such 
trivial cri i, m tin much grai 

In A ff ill ..i i M . n imated From 

eleven to forty, swooped down upon tho northern portion of the 
county, and ran off some two hundred head of horses in the 
•In- ' Lake Tho thieve* were supposed to ba i 

Confederate soldiers A reward of half the hoi offered 

for their recovery but without avail 


On the evening of Sunday, April 23d, Robert Parker, a 
'•i»i|' i I the cornel of Main and San Pedi 

was called to the door and shot down l\ p i b ai the time 
unknown. < >ne month latoi Jose* Domingo a Mexican 
found guilty of this murdei ree and was 

d in tli.- I - rt to ten years' imprisonment 


duly :.. im;;. occurred oi t the >t desperate and 

sanguinary aifrays evei witnessed in Lo \r 

On the night of July 4th, at a ball in the B CTnion Hotel, 

under-Sheriff A -I King bad some difficulty with one Robert 

isle, who cut him severely with a knife Aboul noon on 

the following daj as the stages were leaving for thi 

and the hotel and expi crow4ed v. ith 

le, Frank bang and Houston King, brothers of the under 

: the bar-room of the Bella Union, and attacked 

with pistols, who defended himself in tike mam,., 

i shot with great rapidity, am .,, ,|„. 

lisabled by a ball from Carlisle's 
pistol Bis brother i ghl alone 

1 stricken. A -tray ball killed a 

horse at the door A by-atander was shot dov 
and some eight or ten bad thi | by the leaden 

, hail. At last the combatants reached the sidewalk. B 

Frank King seiaed bis antagonist and bi fan beating him over 
id with his revolver, injuring the weapon in gui |, - 
manner as to make it useless So far King was uninjured 
but Carlisle was fairlj riddled with balls. With a last eflbrf 
iroke away, staggered into tho doorway, leaned 
painfull} against the casing, raised his pistol in both hands 
and fired his last shot. Frank King foil, shot through the heart 
Carlisle died three hours after, King Knalh recoi 
ered, was tried for the murder of Carlisle and wai acquitted 


In July, 1865, George Williams and Cyrus Kimball, of San 

Diego, were on their way to Los Angeles with thoir h h, 

and had camped for tho night by the Santn Ana river, 

il oul s ise in the morning, while the w m and children 

were ai souk- little distance from tho camp, seven American 

cut- throats the leader being Jack O'Brien) rode up and 

deliberately ahol the two mon dead When tho women ca 

up to ice whal was meant b) bho firing, they found their hus- 
bands both dead, ami wore ordered l<\ their murderers, under 
pain oi death bo hand over all inonej belonging to tho party, 

This thoy did, and the sen Ivela left, having secured about 

three thousand dollars Thoy were never captured, 


October 3] 1870, a quarrel between Policeman Dye and 
Marshal Warren led to a shooting affray between these two 
up .n the public sir. et, in whirl, the latter was killed, and ui 

Bral spectators ■• or less wounded Dye was tried and 



October, 1871, will long be memorable in Lot* Angelesfor 
the enactment of a Bcene, wjiich for barbaric atrocity might 
put savages to the blush; and which must ever remain a 
hideou blot on the fair e cutcheon of this ' City of Angels." 
|,: "' i:N " ■■ mi thi details ai best, thej an here briefly con 
densed from the very voluminous reports publiched immi 
diati U aftei their occurrence 

I wo rival t'hinese com pan i i quarreled aboul tl i | ion 

"* ;i woman Both parties purchased fire-arms, and prepared 
[orconflict On the morning of Monday, the 23d, they met 
,n Negro alley, several shots were fired, but no one injured 
n " l"' 1 ''"' am ted foui of the combatants, and these were 
held to bail. On the following day, after a preliminary hear- 
ts ,, " t "" ,I '" Justice, the fight was re-commenced, and many 
shots were fired Officei and citizens repaired to the Bcene, 
but th.- comhatants rc^sM am - I wounding officer Bilderrain 

J. &SlJi ■"»*" »ny.].»U think we have nventated tbU ms^ 

^iur ° " P * ] '' ■■'" xl " ''- mentioned aud judga for 

Residence and Cheese Dairy of JOHN JAY BULLIS, Compton. LosAngeles Co.Cal 



ami two riii/> n oni R ib rt Thou ly. The < 

mm engaged in the mifej then took refuge in the hou 
tin ii counfci ( mi n 

The m ■■ pread rapidly. Almoal immediately an < 
and angry mob lurroundnd thi ' him i moringfor 

ti,.< bio id of the inmat I >ne of,l ; 
seized, hurried up Temple to Now I li jh 
id, door ivaj oi b coi ral i h i op I i for 

mercy, but amid jeers and imj m 

and loft i" -li'-. 

Like tigers maddened by thi ta b of blood the mob returned 

and iin indi ici iminate rni began M tinting upon 

roofs they bi'ol e hole - 1 I igh and hoi dow n thi 

creatures within, rogardle of a " Burn 

bhei it'" was the cry now and Rn ball Hung with fearful 

preeii ion, added dread to dread. But bore, nol mol 

I until y, lull, Tear of a general conflagration, into i p i i and 

the Barnes wore extingui hed Noxt wafc i 1 1 

drown tho t was tiiod, bul owing to lack of ui 

attompfcalso proved fruitless. But the human animal when 

hunting his kindred 5 has an ingonuitj fairlj devilish in 

il i scope. < Ino by ■ the \ i. i im wore i ei si d qui !■■ 

murdorod; and for throe I I tho* Angel City" seemed 

l i " ; ''' ; id bj bhe p iwers of hell. \ '-\\ . oui i ■ pi b 

and pistol shots rent the air continuou a Ii we a carnival 

of ''I I , murder wa i rampart Vol rourdoi i omi times 

roiful ; but hero mercj wa i lacking \ i at h " hi a1 

was dragged Forth, ho was stabbed, shot, beaten, kicked, and 
tortured bj those of hie " Christian" captors who I &1 

liim, incited h\ the furious crioa of the other l<-s> fortunafc 

Christiana (male and female) who i Id nol Then, a rope 

about his neok, he was dragged through dual and miro to the 
place of execution, aud, more dead than alive already, was 
strung up by eager hands to anything which could possihlj I 
made bo servo the purpose of an impromptu gallows Trees, 
awnings, lamp posts, even farmers' wagons were thus utilized, 
until eighteen ghastly corpses one thai of a mere child 

dangled al i tho Btreot9, even in death nol free from insult 

ui. the hands of their inhuman executioners j yet all, with 
scarcely an exception, as il afterwards transpired, guiltless of 
on^ known offense, tho real culprits Ii i\ inj escape I. 

Noi was tin* hand-maid and inciter of red handed murder, 
s, absent from this orgy of human passion. E> 
nousein tho Chinese quarter was saoked. " Boys, help your- 
selves, was the maxim well obeyed, Everj victim was first 
robbed American "hoodlum" and Mexican "greaser," Irish 
tnp and French " communist," all joined to murder and 
desp til the common foe, He who dare not shoot, coul I sh 
1,1 who feared to stab, could steal ; their was work for all; and 

murder. Certain r 

' any 
wond M 

I em 
wonder tl 

./ n fool ' 

nt) nine w 
jury, and one hundred and eleven - Qrand 

jury, called for the purpose Indicti .mist 

one hundred and fifty p i aid t«> havi tively 

Tin as w. i nationalities. A 

a ru bring the gu Itj \ a 

failed utterly, and while a few leaa than a do sen 

u to six y ai in t the 

Mi i:io i; OP lilt Dl RBI « K BROTH) 

In January, 1871, two brothers by the name of Bilderbeck, 
who were mining in a canon near Tujunga Pass diaappi 
undt r oircumstanci uspicion -<f foul play A 

jammed into a narrow hole 
in Bui kakin caflon. They bad t> en ahol and beaten r i death 
with an 

\ man named Gardner was trii d 

r this crime, and acquitted. Another 
named David Stephenson, oil is Buckskin, Buspected <•{ com* 
plicit) in the murder, was shot in I ifornia by a 

Shei lit > | osso 

II KM i: 

I in June, 1874, a Mexican named Gordo entered the 
store of Mi. William Turner on the La Puent Ranch. Mr. 
and Mrs Turner both i to be in at the time; and the 

lady was fortunately arme 1 with a small revolvi 

ng him bj surprise, the Mexican assaulted Mi. Turner 
and endeavored to cut bis throat, when Mrs. Turner drew her 
little pistol and fired several shots at the ruffian with su< 
effect that he fled; but not until be had woun iverely 

He was pursued by oituens; was captured and h u 


This noted bandit was horn in U ■ in?v of Mexican 

parents, in the year 1837. When only fifteen years of age, be 
opened a -Ian 

ward i roiled with certain Americans who 

frequented his plac«, was obliged to By the town He after- 

■ »lly in 
ml t at in taking 


with him n H 

■ m then pro 

to hi* n ' [ n rt i,. n. 

m Inv- 
■ it on his 


' | 
who acknow ledged him ■ ■ \ . I his 

comnian la H is .; „ hon 

I in I Ai 

up his abode ai San Qucntin Wearying 

i. and 
served until 

noted '■■''ii lits and ai 
prist - thro ■ ' ■' forni l, m 
witli 81 riff H i 

as be said I"- was 


with m ml ' ho d m 

raid I : n whirl, they mu 

up a numb he 

it o herein dl i 
ra , but he a Imittod 

m n * wife at 
once brought him a specified sum of money, \\1>" 

He now ■' tried ■■■• il i hia band foi ■ I . i . 

while on ii I in sod icing 

i irocoede I 
at "hi- to Los Angeles wh 

«i iblo infoi ma! > 
pursued by Vasquez 
- 'U after thi at, CI 

he robbed ion -.mi thi 1 1 

uring in all sixteen men from whom they t-,.,k 
two hundn elry and 

II 'Tl 

April 16, 1874 ■. lexao 1st 

: fcyi ig B petto '■•> a tri 
compelled him, under pain of instant death, to sign a check on 


Temple & Workman's bank, Los Angeles, for eight hundred 
dollars. A nephew of Repetto's ww then dispatched to Los 
A.ngel< bo jet thi ca lied una was warned that at the I 

symptom of treachery his uncle would bi killed U\ arrival 

at the bank the boj manni i i ceited a picion and the bank 
officers detained him until be told why the monej was oeedcd 
so urgently. Sheriff Rowland ai once organized e po - and 
tartedfor the mission, but the boy, by bard riding ac 

e itry, reached there ahead of them, paid the ransom and 

relea ed his uncle. The robbers fled, and when not more 

a thousand yards in advance of tl (Beers, robbed John Osborne 

tad Charles Miles of Lo ingeles, wl the) mel in a wagon; 

then awaj a and ma I I their escape This was iho 

last exploit of Vasquez. 

| 1( „ a longtime Sheriff William R. Rowland.of Los Angeles, 
l,,,,l been quietly laying plans for his arrest. Again and again 
the game had escaped him, but " it is a long lane that has no 
turning Earl) in May, L874, he learned thai Vasquez was 
making his headquartei al the house of " Greek George," 

:,i | ten miles duo wesi of Los Angeles, toward Santa Monica, 

and not far fr the Cahuenga Pass. 

The housw was situated at the foot of a mountain, and was 
built of adobe, in the form ol the letter L, the foot of the letter 
being toward the mountain range, and the shank extending 
south. Behind the house ran a comparatively disused road, 
leading from San Vicente through La Brea Raneho to Los 
Angeles, tn front of the hou e a small bunch of willows sur- 
rounded a spring, and beyond these a vast rolling plain stretched 
westward and southward to the ocean. 

A window in the north end of the building afforded a look- 
oul over the plain i ward Los ingeles for many miles. Other 
windows in like manner commanded the remaining points of 
the compass. The middle section of the shank was usedasa 
dining room, and a small ro mi in the southern extremity as a 


It was well known that Vasquez had confederates in Los 
Angeles, who kept him constantly posted as to all plans laid 
for his capture This being the case, the utmost secrecy was 
necessary. The morning of Thursday, May Loth, was deter- 
mined on Foj making the attack, and during the full.. win- day 
horses for the Sheriff's party were taken one byonetoa ren- 
dezvous on Spring street near Seventh To disarm suspicion, 
it was determined that Sheriff Rowland should remain in Los 
\ M ., ;M1 i the attacking force eight in all was placed in 
charge of the I a ler Sheriff, Mr Albert Johnson The remain- 
ing members were: Major U M Mitchell (attorney-at-law of 
I ,, \,, , :, i S Bryanl City Constable), E Harris police- 
man), W E Rogers (of the Palace saloon), B. F. Hartley Chief 
f police . I' K Smith (acitizen and Mr. Bears of San Fran- 
.rrespondent of the San Francisco Chronicl 

.. were armed with rifles, shot guns (loaded with slugs) 

and revolvers. , 

At l:30A. M. they started, and by 4 o'clock had arrived ai 

M ,,,„ Mitchell's I ranch, situat id up a small canon not far 

■ I Greel George. Here Mr. Johnson left a 

portion of his party, while with the rest he climbed the raount- 

i :co re A heavy fog at first obscured all objects, 

but as this lifted they could discern a horse, answering in 
ai mce | , thai usually ridden by the bandit, picketed near 


Vasouez eame out of the 

the house: Twice a man resembling vasq 
dwel ing, an I led this 1. >rse to the spring, then luck agiin and 
re-picketed him Soon a second man, believed to be the bandit's 
lieutenant I Ihaves went in pursuit of another horse, and then 
Mr. Johnson prepared for action. 

Bis two companions (Mitchell ami Smith went in pursuit 
of the man last seen, while he returned to the bee ranch, mar- 
shalled his forces, and prepared to attack the house. Just at 
this moment (providentially it would almost seem) a high box 
wagon drove up the canon from the direction of Greek I Icorge s 
house. I" this were two natives, and the Sheriff's party at 
once clambered into the wagon and lay down, talcing with 
them one of these men. The driver they commanded to turn 
his horses and proceed back to Greek George's house, driving 
as close thereto as possible, an I promising him that on the 
least sign of treachery they would shoot him dead. He obeyed 
Ids instructions, and in a short time the house was reached and 

As the party advanced upon the door leading into the din- 
ing-room, a woman opened it partially, then, as she caught 
sight of them, slammed it to with an exclamation of affright. 
They hurst in just in time to sec Vasquez spring from the 
table, where he had b en eating breakfast, and through the 
narrow kitchen window, in the end of the house facing south. 
As he went through officer Harris fired on him with his Henry 
rifle, and as he rushed for ids horse shot after shot showed 
him the utter hopelessness of escape. Throwing up his hands 
he advanced toward the party and surrendered, saying: " Boys, 
you have done well; I have been a d-d fool, but it is all my 
own fault, I'm gone up." Two other men wore arrested at 
the same time (the one Mitchell and Smith went after, and 
another!. A large number of arms, all of the latest pattern 
and finest workmanship, were found in the house. "Greek 
i ;. mi l;. j Allen) was arrested in Los Angeles 
Vasquez was conveyed to Los Angeles and placed in jail. 
Here he received the best of medical treatment, and as his 
injuries were only flesh wounds, soon recovered. Much maudlin 
sympathy was expended on him by weak-headed women while 
he remained in Los Angeles jail. 

His last victim, Mr. Eepctto of San Gabriel, called to see 
him. After the u.tual salutations, Repetto remarked: " I have 

called. Signor, to say that so far as I am concerned you can 
settle that little account with God Almighty. I have no har.l 
feelings against vou, none whatever." Vasquez returned his 
thanks in a most impressive manner, and to speak of 
repayment, when Repetto interrupted him, saying, "I do not 
eX peci to be repaid. I gave it to you to save further troubli 
but I beg of you, if you ever resume operations not to repeal 
your visit at my house." 

"Ah. Senor," replied Vasquez, If 1 am so unfortunate as to 

sutler conviction, and am compelled b I irgo a di >rt fcer f 

imprisonment, I will take the earliest opportunity to reim 
burse you. Senor Repetto.Iama cavalier, with theheartofa 
cavalier ! Yo ^"i ><» cab Ulero, c •« el corazon & u,n c ib iltero! 
This with the most impressive gesture and laying hU hand 
upon his heart. 

He was taken to San Jose, and tried for murder. Being 
found guilty, he was there hanged March L9, 1875. 

Several others of the band were captured and sent to San 
Quentin. Some were shot by offi ai -. an 1 the whole band was 
thoroughly broken up. 


October 10, 1877, Victor Fouck was shot in the kg by C. M. 
Waller, keeper of the Lanl Company's bath-house at Santa 
Monica. The latter claimed to be acting under inst I 
from — Parker, agent of the land company. At the time of 
the shooting. Fouck was erecting a prival ■ bath-house on the 
beach, in defiance of warnings not to do so He died two days 
afterward from the effect of the wound. 

Waller was found guilty of involuntary homicide, and was 
sentenced January 25, 1878, to one year in the | 
Parker was found guilty of murder in the sec >nd d \g - March 
8th), and was sentenced to ten years in the penitentiary. This 
had such an effect on himself and wife, that they both died 
broken-hearted before the sentence could be executed 

c. m. PHELPS 

On the morning of March 25, 1878, it w i d that 

the safe of Mr. G. E. Long, assignee of Temple & Woi 
bank, had been robbed of ten thousand five hundred dollars in 
gold and silver coin. The burglary was proclaimed by Mr, & 
M. Phelps, book-keeper to Mr. bong, and examic 
that the outer door of the vault had been opened by working 
the combination, while the padlock fastening the in) 
had been broken. 

The case was worked up by Chief Harris, Detectivi 
and others, and suspicion at last fastened up .-keeper, 

Phelps, who confessed his crime and made restitution. He WW 
sentenced to one year in the State Prison 

Mfi^iTWnrrV- *^ S - - 

'fffffi ft // fall f : fill U V V "K' J %-^* MMi* »* ■ ''' iJ fcg 



Residence fi5 Vineyard of JULIUS GUENTHER WEYSE, One Mile S-Outh of 


\*0 */• rnt,f**£QH * *jcbT 



KlGl hi. SOTELO. 

This man, supposed to be one of the noted Vasquez band, 
had followed robbery from lii^ youth up. On the evening of 
June 17. 1878, Sheriff Mitchell and Deputy Adolph Celis, 
armed with a bench-warrant for his arrest, discovered him at 
the door of a small groggery in the Verdugo cafton. He 
mounted lii- horse and fled, and being pressed by the officers 
fired on them. A. running fight was kept up for two miles, 
when Sotelo fell from bis horse mortally wounded. He died 
the following mornufg. 


December 4, 1879, the city of L<» Angeles was thrown into 
considerable excitement by the disappearance of A. J. Hamil- 
ton, city Tax-collector. It was finally discovered that he hv\ 
onded to Mexico with some eight thousand dollars of city 
funds, He was tra !ed to that country ami arrested, about one 
thousand five hundrd dollars being recovered, but the prisoner 
Baccee led in again escaping on the return trip, from the officer 
having him in charge, and was never re-capbured. He left a 
wife and family in Los Angeles, wholly destitute. His bonds- 
men were obliged to meet the deficit. 


Tin' passing of a number of bogus five-dollar pieces in Los 
Angeles during the fall of 1879, le 1 to the capture of a gang of 
counterfeiters, who operated in Dalton canon, Azusa township. 
The leader of the gang (C. A. Matlock) escaped from jail 
December 6th following Ids arrest. Other members were sen- 
tenced to the State Prison, among whom were Graham, fiveyears; 
O'Rourke, six years. 

CRIME IN 1880. 

On the morning of February 18, 1880, the body of A. Peries, 

proprietor of a junk shop on Aliso street, was found in the 

■ b i ag evident marks of foul play. The murdered man 

was said to have had considerable money about the place. 

■ ELS missing. 

Ali Mir eight o'clock in the evening of March 4th, six 

masked men came up to the store of Mr. Growder at Orange, 

and taking possession, tied all the occupants. They seemed 

Borne three bun Ired dollars and left on horseback 

On the evening of March 31st, the store of Mr. Nathan 

Tuch, ai San Gabriel, was entered and robbed by disguised 

men. The clerk, Pedro Estrada, resisted, firing upon the 

but waa shot in b^th arms, they making gool their 

escape with about two nun Ired and fifty dollars cash. 

About the middle of April, officers Celis and Borham 
attempted to arrest two desperadoes, named Rafael Mirando 
0,1 Anaheim. The former was secured, 
but the latter escaped, suppos i to b badly wounded 

BAMUEL r. hoyle. 

On March 26, 1880, a man who gave the name of Ewing 
m arr< ted in Los Angeles on a dispatch from the Chief of 
Police of San Francisco He turned out to be Samuel R. 
Hoyle, a defaulting Tax collector from Atlanta, Georgia. In 
time, requisition papers duly arrive 1 from thai St ite, and after 
considerable delay had been caused on technical objections 
interposed, it. seeme I certain that he would bedeliverc lovei to 
the officer who had come for him On the evening of April 
20th, he shut, himself through the heart in his cell, while lying 
in bed, in the presence of Deputy Sheriff Huber, who had him 
in charge. 



il8r.o-i.S8i) i 

Extracts From the Report of the Lata Hon. B. D. Wilson, Indian Agentfor 
Southern California, 1832— Present -Status of the Southern Tribes. 

In a former chapter on THE aborigines, we have treated 
quite fully of the early history of the " Cahuilla" Indians, 
ext ruling from the first settlement of Upper California by the 
Spaniards (1769), to the secularization of the missions (1830- 
1835). In the year 1852, the late Hon. Benjamin Davis 
Wilson, of Los Angelas, was appointed by President Fillmore 
Indian agent for the Southern District of California, and the 
following notes are extracted from his very voluminous reports 
upon the then condition of the Indians in his district, published 
in the Los Angeles Star of 1852, and re-published in that 
paper, 1868. 

Mr. Wilson classed the Indians of thai Beet-ion of country 
embracing the counties of Tulare (in part), Santa Barbara, Los 
Angeles and San Diego, as follows: — 

Tularenos, Cahuillas, San Luisenos, Dieguinos — all of these 
were attached to the missions, more or less. 

Yumas, Mojaves — never much under mission influence, if 
at all. 

Mr. Wilson then continues : — 

These six nations (so to call them) inhabit a territory between lati- 
tudes 32° 30' and 33° (or thereabouts), with an area of about 
forty-five thousand square miles. Two thirds of it is mountain 
and desert, and not one-half of the rest offers any very strong 
inducements to attract a dense white population of agriculturists. 
There are the advantages of neither wood nor of soil ami water to 
tempt American settlers in large numbers further than sixty or seventy 
miles from the ocean, even in the most favored county of Los Angelea. 


The Tularenos live in the mountain wilderness of the Four creeks, 
Porsiuncula (or Kern, or current! river, and the Tejon, and wander 
thence towards the head-waters of the Mojave and the neighborhood 

ll! '- ],r ' l Bhmllaa rheir present common name belongs to the Span -U 
and Mexican times and is derive. I in. in the word Man (11 swamp with 
flags . Hiey were formerly attached to the mi--. . i Ynes, 

Santa Barbara, La Puri-mima, and San Buenaventura, in Santa ttai 
bara couuty, and dan Fernando, in Los 1 nm L'lie 

■ .i one ramflj : there Is very tittle difference in the Ian a i i puken by 
ral rannherias (villa 
According to the Stale census, juil completed, there remain six hun- 
dred and six Indian- " do ■ r irbara counti : m ill -. 
three hundred and twenty-Four; females, two hundred and eight v- 
two; mule.- ami fVmilei over twenty-oni fears ol « e, three hundred 
and sixty-four, nil, probably, claiming affiliation with the Tularenos. 
From the same a mrce, we learn thai in filiate cnunty then are live 
thousand, eight hundred domesticated Indians [mules), and two thou- 
sand six liuodred females; over twenty -one y< i dI e, three 
thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven; under twenty nnc years, 
four thousand six hundred and thirteen, the whito inhabitants of this 
county numbering only one huudred and Beveut> fi.ur. The) ppvak 
if" Santa Vnea tongue, In all, two thousund might he I 

at first within the plan 1 will propose hereafiei tube divided h wo 

puebloi ( towns). 

There is but one "Mexican claim" upon their land at Ihe Tejnn, 
of Messrs. Ignacio del \'.i!.l- and Jose Antonio Aguiie, in eleven square 
leuguvs; at least J have in, knowledge of uuy other, 

They often descend upon the rnnchoa (furmsj of Los Angeles and 

ftama Barbara, carrying back droves of hordes, chiefly fur loud, S e- 

times they are caught and shut, or hung on the spot, hs happened In 
la-t July to one ol their c ipitan b [chiefo); bui the same ni ihi bis mm a 
drove oil' all the horses of a valuable ranuho and, In fact, nearly 

ruined it. for it is not ea»y to repair the loss of sixty odd h Ired 

horses lit to drive cattle (the loss, I believe, on that occasion). Ihe 
people suffer severely from tins quarter, in the low of all kinds of 

stock, and without redress, as these untain fuBtnes*cs almost defy 


The main southern emigrant route tut he San Joaquin, passi a through 
tins nation; au.l is the principal thoroughfare of oui rnncheros tmd the 

upper country drovers during a great part of the year. I - . 1 

to depredations, in their pass ige, und even to ma were, is familiar to 
the Government, in some events of the past two j ears. In one instance, 
a citizen of this county, who bad been compelled to make an unusual 
delay at nr near Four 1 In eks, hud a tliousaud head of cattle taken b) 
the Indians, all of which he lost. It must he understood, however, 
that they were then excited to a temporary outbreak fatal to too 
many citizens— by Indiana who had fled trom the north, in conse- 
quence of the wars there waged against them by the State Govi mmeut. 
With the exception ol their frequent forages into (he farming country 
of the lower coast, aud an occasional restiveness which they show along 
the emigrant and traveled route, they get u ong ueaci fully ol late. 

lint these are neriuus evils, and prove that they demand strict atten 
tion, and a respectable military force stationed sumewhere between the 
Tejon and Four Creeks, to keep thein in order; even il it he thought 
that they cannot yet participate in plans that would 1 e expedient with 
the other nations, an opinion to Which I cannot assent. 

Under judicious treatment, they will not exhibit fewer of the better 
qualities of human nature than their neigti bnrs, whether ' 'aimi has, Hun 
Luisenos, or Dieguinos. 


The Cahuillas are a little to the north of the San Luis- 
enos, occupying the mountain ridges and intervening valii 
to the east and south-east of Mount San Bernardino, duwn toward 
the Mojave river and ihe desert that borders the liver Colorado— 
the natn n of the Mojaves living between them and these rivers. I 
am unable, just now, to give the number and nam., of their villages. 
San Gorgonio, San Jacinto. C.yote. are among ihoa besl known, thou ;h 
others, even nearer the desert, are more populous, Agua ■ laliei te was 
latterly a mixture of Cahuillas and Ban Luisenos —the, connecting link 
between the iwo nations, as San Vsidro is consider d to be bei wi en the 
former and the Dieguino*. The last chief (proper] of Agua Caliente, 
named Antonio Garra, is .-aid to have been a Vuma by birth, educated 
at the mission of San Luis Bey, for he could read and write. His 
appearance was not that of a Yuma, but there would be nothing strange 



in finding him "a man of power" a og the Cahuillas or San Li 

The village of 8an Felipe, aboul fifteen miles from kgus ' aliente, and 
always recognized as one of the Dieguino nation, I : i i aims to be 
closely related to, or a branch of Yumas; il uses, however, the Di< juina 
language. Agua Caliente, on the whole, may rathei be considered at 
out of the domain of the Cahuillas, since ite cnii i was shot and the vil- 
lage destroyed ( about a year ago. I will Bpeak of it in another 
connection, hereafter, as it is of some consequence to the* Indians. 

The Cab u ilia cjjh I-. and many of the people speak Spanish. Many 
still claim tn be "Christians/ 1 the majority of them are not, while the 
reverse is the case with the Ban Luisenos and Dieguinos. 
part of the neophytts of Ban Gabriel, the wealthiest of the mi-inn-, 
were < tahuillfls. 'I heir name means " master," in our language, or, as 
si. me of them render it, "I be greal nal ion." 1 heir entire number now 
scarcely exoeeda three thousand souls. 

San Gabriel Mission possessed a valuable establishment on the pres- 
ent rancho of San Bernardino, the ruined walls of which, and the 
rows of lufty cottonwoods, with the olives, and traces of zanjaa, and 
fields, remain to attesi the noble plans which the Fathers' formed for 
the benefit of this people. A large number pi Lhem had Itch gathered 
here between the years L825 and L834. in the latter year it was de- 
stroyed by Hi.' unconverted, and the last lie severed thai bound them 
to tneir spiritual conquerors, fa the end ii might have proven the 
golden chain of charity, drawing them to a loftier sphere oi moral and 
intellectual existence. 

B 'time afterwards, Juan Antonio (whose soubriquet is "General "j 

removed ami kept his village on the rancho until iis purchnse last \ ear 
by a Mormon settlement, lie then went. Bfti en miles further hark into 
the mountains to Ban Gorgonio, another old dependency of San Ga- 
briel, leaving the Mormons in quiet possession "i nlmosl a principality, 
capable of sustaining a working population of Bfty thousand bouIs. 

They employ and cultivate the kindliest relations with all tin' In- 
dians, and I am happy to state, never permit ardent spirits to be Bold 
ur given to them. 

Ai San Gorgonio the Indians are brought into contact with Mr. 
Pauline Weaver, who claims to have a Mexican title, but, notoriously, 
without any regular, written grant. The heirs of .ins- Antonio Estu- 
dillo claim the rancho of San Jacinto, the site of an titer of their vil- 
lages. The first claims three square leagues; the last eleven square 

leagues more or loss. Both were m i missi istablishments. They 

mi' ill i eighty mill's from the city of Los Angeles. In Mount San 

Bernardino there is a single mill site claimed by Mr. Luis Vignes, as 
Leasi f Mi'' Mexican Government for five years. I believe ; now occu- 
pied in his name by Mr. Daniel S.\lon. 

The CahuillaS have MOt had a head-chief, ] believe, BinCC tin- ih.itli 

of the i aie they called "Razon " (white). Il- - died within i wo or three 
years past, at an advanced age. They gave him this name, as they 
(old me, from his always acting bo much like a white man, in st lying 
at home and tending ins fields and flocks, for he bad both. When a 
man, he went oil' to Sonora, (under what circumstances is not 
known,) ami returned a farmer— which is all the early history we have 

of li i in. lie was always a quiet, g I. industrious man. and rendered 

material service to the authorities, in arresting the half-civilized In- 
dian outlaw- who have Bometimea fled with stolen horses t<. tin- mes- 
qutt wilds of hi* village, Cabezon, too, id a good old Indian chief, as 
also another named Juan BautUta, 

Juan Antonio , however, has a mure conspicuous figure among them. 
by a suit of iron energy which he often displays, and i- better known 

to the whiles, a passing con Hi upon some of bis act? may not be 

out of place, as they touch the present subject. 

In the summer ui 1851, the local authorities dee d it expedient to 

■ liate bim with a hundred dollars' worth of cloth, hats, and hand- 
kerchiefs—nut beads— paid for out of the county treasury. Tin- pres- 
enl seems to ha\ been the winding up of the following incident A 
while before he had killed eleven Americans, who were accused of 

robbing the aforesaid rand f San Bernard , where he then had 

in.-- village. He claimed i" be justified by an order of a Justice of the 

Peace, » of the proprietors of the rancho, whose house, it was alleged, 

the Americans were rifling at the time of tbe Indian attack. A per- 
fect uproar ensued in the county, and the Indians fled to the mountains, 

not, however, without offering battle to a company of fifty volunteers 

then si aim 1 1.' 1 1 n,:n tin- scene, who were equally anxious to punish the 

uiussacre uf their eounlrviiieu in this unauthorized manner. The 

exertions of their commanding officer, (be late Majnr-General J. II. 
Bean, restrained them (not without difficulty) and thus prevented a 
general war. which must have proved for a time disastrous to the set- 
tlements. Such a precedent is too dangerous for repetition. Doubt- 
less 'In- In.lian-i thought they were only acting in obedience \-> the 

authorities, it having been the custom in the Mexican times to employ 
them in Bervicea of this kind: and. I have reason to believe, something 
like it has been recently, in killing two Sonoranians, undoubtedly 
horse thieves The necessity for correct' ng their ideas on this subject 
i- evident. I mean, of coarse, that they ought never to he allowed to 
meddle with the punishment of whites for public offenses. 

Juan Antonio gained a less perilous celebrity in the winter of 1851, 
for his successful stratagem in capturing the Antonio < larra afore-men- 
tioned, and putting an end to his conspiracy lor the general massacre 

of the American inhabitants along the coast. This gave rise to a 
treaty of peace. Permit me to observe that this document means 
something or nothing— in the latter case, is worse than idle. The 
Indians, m their own unsophisticated logic, have ascribed some effect 
to it. On the part of the State, it i< at least a gwrantet <>/ tit- ,>■ nth- to 
a very large territory. 

Like a "treaty" made since, purporting to be with a large number 
of the same and other Indians, and aiming at a wider scope of opera- 
tions (and not yet fulfilled), it may have given them the most errone- 
ous notions of themselvi b, and of their true relations to the people and 
the Government. Vanity may do them awhile, but anon they will 
clamor for the promised beef! Seriously, there should be no tampering 
with these, nnr any Indians, by promises of high sound, that cannot be 
executed to the letter. This last-mentioned appears to have been 
hurried through in a spirit of wild speculation, wholly regardless of the 
interests either of the Government or the Indians, 


For the pu rposesof this report, the San Luisenosandthc Dieguinos may 
be considered as one nation, understanding and speaking habitually 
each other's language, having been more generally Christianized than 
tbe other nations, and more intimately connected with the whites 
They form a large majority of tbe laborers, mechanics, and servants of 
San Diego and Los Angeles counties. Obviously, their present dis- 
i tinctive names are derived from their respective missions, namely, San 
I, uis Key and San Dieeo. Nearly all speak the Spanish language, and 
some of the ehiefs r ead and write it. The two nations together are esti- 
mated at live thousand souls, a majority of whom are within the limits 
of the State. 

The villages of the San Luisenos are in a section of country adjacent 
to the Cahuillas, between forty and seventy miles in the mountainous 
interior from San Diego. They are known as Los Floras, Santa Marga- 
rita, San Luis Rey Mission, Waboma, Pala, Temecula, Alhuanga (two 
villages), La Joya, Potrero, and Brunos and Pedros villages, within 
five or six miles of Agua Caliente; they are all in San Diego county. 
The villages of the Dieguinos. wherever they live separately, are a lit- 
tle further to the south. Indeed, under this appellation, they extend 
a hundred miles into Lower California, in about an equal Btate of civi- 
lization, and thence are scattered through the Tecate valley, over the 
entire descent on the west side of New river. Far on the east side, 
nothing can live, except bugs and insects, among the dreary sand hills 
that form the barrier therefor the wilder Yumas. Until" very lately 
the Dieguinos have suffered much from the hostility of a populous and 
warlike village called Yaeum, near the mouth of the river Colorado. 
They are thought to be diminishing in numbers more rapidly than the 
other nations. 

Their villages (known to met are San Dieguito (about twenty souls), 
San Diego Mission (twenty), San Pasqual (seventy five), Camajal (two 
villages, one hundred), Santa Ysabel ione hundred), San Jose (one 
hundred), Matahuny (seventy-five), Lorenzo (thirty), San Felipe (one 
hundred), Cajon (forty), Cuyamaca (fifty). Valle de los Yiej.,s (fifty). 
These numbers are given from information believed to be correct. 

Pablo Assis, chief of Temecula. claims one and a half leagues at that 
place under a written grant; and a claim to the rancho of Temecula is 
preferred by Mr. Luis Vignes. Eight other of their village Bites -ice 
cla ' by different persons— San Jose, if I mistake not, by two oppo- 
site "claims," that of Mr. J. J. Warner and Portilla, amountinc 

to foursquare leagues. The claim of Mr. Vignes, at Temecula, amounts 

to eight square leagues. Agua Caliente is also claimed by Mr. J, J, 

From the City of Loa Angeles to Temecula is eighty miles; thence to 
Agua (.'aliente, thirty-live miles. 

The languages of the- Dieguinos and Yumas bear a strong analogy to 
each Other, if, indeed, they are not o:ie and tin- -am.- language. The 

opinion of Don Juan Bandini, whose opportunities of knowing them 
have been ample, is that their language is the same. 


ssociated with the Cuhuillas may be - times found theSerram* 

the Indians of San Juan Capfetrano with the San Luisenos. I ;U|1 ' 



not prepared to Bay that the two former are not the same people, ( r ,^')'| 

intents and purposes, at tins day. Mr. Keid has located the Serrano 

along the upper waters. of the Santa Ana river, and between the Los 

Angeles county Indians (whom be calls Gabrielinos) and tin- i abuil> 
las, .-nine of the Serrano women are good seamstresses. The Indians 
of San Juan— the finest of the smith in appearance, temper and intel- 
lect- -are now nearly extinct, from intermarriage with the Spaniards 
and other more usual causes of Indian decay. Very few of the Gabriel- 
inos are to be met with here now. "A lew," says Mr. Keid, "are u> he 
found at San Fernando, s.m Gabriel, and Los Angeles. Those in ser- 
vice on ranches are a mere handful You will limj at present mors 
of them in the county of Monterey than in this, including those placm 
named above. Death has been busy among them for years past, ami 
very few more are wanting to extinguish the lamp which God lighted. 
The Indians from the north-west coast killed great numbers vears ago, 
on the islands." (San Clemente and Santa Catalina). 

The three or four prominent nations that remain, as above described, 
have different languages, and a different physical appearance, in some 
respects. How far tbe Cahuillu and San Luiseno tongues resemble 
each other, is a subject worthy of investigation; and Mr. Reid would 
no doubt have thrown much light upon it, it he had lived to enrry 
out his inquiries. The Tularenos, Cahuillas and San Luisenoa are 
universally understood to have distinct original languages, but their 
common knowledge of tbe Spanish tongue forms their usual means 
of communication. The use of tbe last has tended to make them 
forget the original language. Individuals of the pamc nation, as a 
habit, talk with each other in Spanish, seemingly in preference to 
the native tongue; often, of course, it must be from necessity, in the 
poverty of the native tongue, or having forgotten if. 

"The language of San Luis Rey and .S.m Juan t.'apistrano bear a 
strong analogy." I quote a manuscript of Mr. I;. id's, which I am 
kindly permitted to use. "When we come to San Buenaventura, 
Santa Barbara, Santa Ynes and La Purissima, we find not only a 
distinct language, but a strongly marked difference in tin 
and physical appearance, tbe southern Indians being red. while the 
others here mentioned are of a very dark hue. Stronger set in their 

limbs, although less powerful, and very dimunitive in ststure. S e 

of the young Indian girls about San Gabriel and San Fernando are 
of pleasing countenance, well-formed features, and in many cases of 
light complexion, which is not caused by admixture of Mood. 
Females to the north are of coarse features, and even blacker than 
the men. I have been acquainted with tbe lodges up and down the 
coast for year*, and never recollect of seeing a fair-skinned female, 
without the blood had been mixed. This baa arisen, no doubt, from 
th*ir living principally on the sea-coast. Arriving as high as Mon- 
terey, we again find the Indians of the same color and appearance 

•i- those to Los Angeles and San Diego, but with another distinct 
language. In the Ban Gabriel language there is a total absence of 

'I — it abounds in Santa Ynes. 

In Santa Barbara, Los Angeles and San Diego counties, there are 

nearly seven thousand Indians, including the Yumas and Mojaves, 
and a few petty tribes. Not half as many as the neophyt< 
eft by the missions! Still, more than half of those wc have are 
the survivors of the missions. 

That they are corrupt, and becoming more so everv day, no candid 
man can dispute They do not always find better examples 
tate now than they saw in the past generation of whiles; for the 
latter have not improved in the social virtues as fas - Indiana 

have declined. What marvel that eighteen yean nejtlect. misrule, 
oppression, slavery and injustice, and every opportunity and tempt- 

^;;""'"f , 

5 i :£M 



|!| f f ▼ # # #. * mf^wr 


^lw# If II 

_ ;tf *' T*tHi*9afr * *v« 

View or Residence or W. H. WORKMAN 

View op Vineyard, Orange Orchard Ss Park dp W.H. WORKMAN, Boyle Heights. Los Angeles Cal. 



ution to gratify their natural vices withal, should have given them 
a fatal tendency downward to the very lowest degradation ?" 

* * * * * * * 

imi. i, IBOBEBfl am. SERVANTS. 

The Indian laborers and servants an- "domesticated;" mix with 
us daily and hourly ; and with all their faults, appear to be a nec- 
eesarj part of the domestic economy. They an; almost the onh 

h.msc or rarm servants we have. The San Luiseno is ti -i 

sprightly, skillful, and handy; the Cahuilla ploddiug hut strong, and 
. ml with instruction and watching. 

When at work they will do without, ardent spirits, hut must have 
K on Saturday night and Sunday. Very little of the money earned 
during the week goes tor meat ami bread ; their chief want with it 
is tor drink and Cards. They are universal gambler-, and inveler- 

■tely addicted to the vice; consequently then* clothing continually 
changes bands. Yet, I have met with Rome who do not drink, ami 
have an aspiration todecency. Borne, again, are idleand vagabonds; 
hut 1 have rarely found them unwilling to work when well paid. 

It ii be true lhat they cannot do halt the work a white man ran, 'tis 
equally true that CU3tom at best never allows them more ihan ball' 

the wages of the latter, ami, generally, much less than hall'. The 
common pay ol Indian farm hands i-> from eight to ten dollars pei 

month ; and one dollar per day the highest in the towns — hut tew pay 

hi. much. -No white man here, whether American, Sonoraniau, or 
Californian, will work lor such wages, nor anything like it. 

Thai ben.-, wages, merely, would make the Indian here abetter 
man. is doubtful. With more money he would only pursue his evil 
tastes to greater excess. When their weekly jwyot (plays) were 
restrained by the magistrates, and only allowed at distant intervals, 
they were much better off; and then, too, liquor shops were not so 
common. In aome streets of this little city, almost every other house 
is a grog-shop for Indians. They have, indeed, become Badly deterio 
rated within the past two year.-; mid it may he long, very long, before 
a sound public opinion willspeak like the potent voice of the mission 

ISut, let us remember, these same Indians built all the houses in the 
country, and planted all the fields and vineyards. There is hardly 
any sort of ordinary work for which they do not show a good will. 

Under the missions they were masons, carpenters, plasterers, soap- 
makers, tanners, shoemaker-, blacksmiths, millers, baki i-, cooks, brick- 
makers, carters and cart-makers, weavers and spinners, saddlers, sbep- 
herds. agrieulurists, horticulturists, vineros, vuqueros— in a word filled 
all the laborious occupations known to civilized society. Their work 
must have been rudely executed Bometimes, it may well be suppi bi d; 
and they have forgotten much they once knew. But they acquired 

the rudiments ol :i practical knowledge which has outlived tin ir g I 

teachi rs, ami contributed much to the little improvement this section 
of country ha- reached in eighteen years. 
They are inferior to the American only in bodily strength, and 
"ii rank with the best Californian and Souoranian in all the 
arts neces«arj to their physical comfort. They teach the Americans. 
even, how to make an adobe faun-dried brick), mix the lodo (mud- 
put on the orea (pitch lor roofing) —ail these, recondite arts 

to the oew beginner, yet very important, to be known, win n there are 
no other building materials, They understand the mysteries of irriga- 
tion, the planting season, and ihe harvest. Poor unlbrtunates ! they 
seldom have farms of their own to till, or a dwelling to shelter them 
iron, rain ! 
Such is tin- laborer and servant, of no matter what nation. A npend- 
I lit willing to work, if paid J never a beggar, save when obi 
Ige or infirmity has overtaken him ; humble, without servility ; skilled 
"j a ijrcat many Usetul [hlUgS ; yet full of vices, I am afraid, I ccan-e 

■ i' -v encouragements to virtue, lie always adheres to the 

truth Cost what it may; Still, many are petty thieves'. 

■men have nut forgotten their ueedle-work, as may be noticed 
at aoj time : they dress iu the common Spanish style of ibis country, 
and always make their own garments, Like the men, they are much 

dieted to iptemperai .. good-humored creatures, yet with 

! : to n gU :ir woik. ] refer to those a bunt the towns. 

A * a - the women are quick to l cam the various house- 

bold duties. There are striking examples of Indian women, married 
e.-rs and native < 'alifornians. exemplary wives and mothers. 


At the ei.,-- f the late Mexican war. | mission 

tDdiani remained in pi ■ -ion of tracts of | H nd, which tl 
held lor a Jong time by occupancy and license of the Fathers, or 
underwritten grant, from the Mexican Government. 

old out tor trivial considerations . others hav. 
ofl by white neighbor? ; so that, in the settled an l settling . 
the country, there are not now buy Indian [and proprietors. They 
are awaiting the adjudication oi the Commissioners of Land litlts 
x 'eague is the largest tract any of them claim: in general, their 

''■" I do ""' ■ ■ reed fifty 01 a hundred ai res. Many oi tin m are e i 

citizens in all n *pi i ta, i kci pi the right to vote and I e witnessi - in 
the State court?, where others than their own rac an coi 
I hey are anxious to hold on to their little homesti ads, and resist all 
offi rs iu buy as steadily as they can. How long their limited shrewd- 
ness en atch the ovi r-reaching cupidity thai ever assails them, is 

difficult loBay. Thei lack thrifi and prudent management, and are 
Btrougly inclining to dissolute habit-; though they plant regularly 
h >''■'"■ 'o year. 8 ■ have a small atock ol liorsi s. cows, and -h. i p. 

A better crop and mure eomi lious hut, perhaps a table nnd chair 

or two. may distinguish them from the denizens of the untnin 

pillage. Rverythii g else is quite after the Indian fasl Still, with 

these, and the right i.. bind, and honest conduct, they have made a 
broad step tow aids civilization. 

* * ***** 

To the mis-dons they can never go again, with hope of i i 
home. The successors of the Fathi rs are there, for a priest issto 
at ali, except two, I bi lievi Any Sunday, a few Indian- may still be 
seen near ihe altar, summoned by the chimes that one peal- d over a 
smiling multitude gathered for worship, or the harmless diversions 
wherein their happy noun passed away. These are all, an I they Beem 
serious and reverent at the church. The real linger there in bheii 
si raggling huts of hru-h or tule, trying to get a meagre subsistence oul 
of the small patches not yet taken up i\ the whites -ill-clothed, in 
filth and wretchedness without food half the year, shvc what i- 
stolen. If there be "nava les " among these southern Indian-, a mis- 
sion is now the place to Pt-ek them, where riot ami debauchery reign 
supre This is notorious to good citizens who have settled ar 1 

them, hot the violence of the n-ekle-s and unprincipled bids deli. nice 
Id restraint, at present. I am not certain that some of tin* Indians do 

not preserve a sort of vaeue belief Una these immense buildings, to 
our eye greatly dilapiduti ■! and I. .-i going to ruin, yet, with I In ir nob' 
repairs, ample enough for their accommodation*, are ultimately to he 
restored to them. It is no exaggeration, to repeat thai the Indian* 
lurking about ihe missions, with an occasional exception, are the worst 
in the country, morally speaking; ami the sooner they are removed, the 
better for all concerned. Within the last two years, the Indian- have 
had a very perceptible tendency towards returning permanently to a 
mountain life, in spiie of its forbidding aspect. 

They began by d< serting the larger rancl os fur ihe freer indulgences 
of the city and ihe grog-shops at the missions, where they could have 

their famous and favorite Jltej/OS. The complaint has been on 

tin- -object. Many have thus become habitual drinkers, who o>ed to 
he content with their allowances upon the ranehos— for custom has 
always allowed them ardent Bpirits, from which lamentable practice not 
even the missions cm be excepted. Yet the wonder i-. with some, how 
these Indians have become such drunkards! The laws of .Nature have 
had their course, as usual, and the Indian is paving the penalty 
e sac ho I of all who violate them. Unfitted- many of them— for bind 
work by drinking and their game-, (they have 'been known t.. die 
from the violent exertions required from some of these), ashamed or 
afraid to go buck to their old amos (masters, 1 , uncared for by strangers, 
in some way taught to dislike lot 4m ■■>■■■ i ■ -., and restive under all the 

neglect they stiller: having Caught the id- a that ihey are free (three 

years Hgo they were practically sluves), with none to teach ihem the 
true hopes and duties of freemen, ami finding, with the long experi- 
ment that American fn edom doe- not profit them, some such motives, 

I suppose, may drive them to enjoy the old and kindred ns-Ociatio - of 

their tribe, where they are sure to meet a warm friendship aud a hos- 
pitality, generous iu its exlremest poverty. Hospitality I know to be 

<>ne of their virtues. 

On the other hand, as the young men of the mountains grow up, the 
Cravings of hunger, or a love of novelty, carry them to the tuwn> in 4ue.1t 

ofemployment.ortogratif) curiosity I oto the bad wayaof 

their "Christian" relat -.and return a little worse for the visit. If they 

haveehaneed.ii) their "rounds," to have met with the Marshal and jailer, 

or their Indian "deputii Ii -. in common perlance) they could 

■ better anywhere else in the wide world; ind well may they 

return disgusted with their prospects in civilised life, if they areenpa- 

of thinking at all. The Indian has a quick -en-e of injustice; be 

can comprehend it when it is plain and very brutal, lie can never 

see wh) he is sold out to sen ice for an indefinite period, foi inter 
ance, while the wl ■ a unpunished foi the game thing, and 1 be 
very richest, or beat men, to hh iucb as tempi him to drink, 
ai.d sometimes will pay him fur in- labor in 1 ther way. I am speak 

ing now frankly of aim-,-- which actus lOttlll 1 ,1. 1, .n 1 ■■( the 

>iaie law, which i- a pretty good one m regard to tin- po nt, but can- 
not be enforced, tor the simple reason thai the Indians themselves are 
nol aliowi .1 to ba witnesses, a- to breaches of it. except for or against 
each other. 


I he be-- of them, in 11 eh as they has.' mixed with the whiles, or may 
know of labor and property, yet love to visit or revUit the runcherlas. 
I radition preserves a remembrance of things thej delight to tell of; 
Christianity has been fat from extinguishing their ancient Bupersti 
Lions and customs. Let a "Christian" set in. mind upon seeing bis 

/■•"'" " f ■ (relation;*] at Temecuhi 01 fcjnn ■ furgonio, no 1 [ship, ■ 

work undone, nor reasonable sum of money wul keep him with son. 

In the wilder mountain villages they lead pretty much the ami 
course of life their fathers did eight) rears ago, when the Spanish 
soldiers first trampled their gra - fields and Ho war b ds. On the coast, 

however, the supplj ol food must have been e plentiful, as the sea 

afforded so mam varieties of fish ; but since, they have learned to cul- 
tivate wheat. Their present country may lie described :i- a writo of 
low niuii 11 1.1 iti ridge*, a few peaks covered nith -now m winter, bavin \ 

numerous valley-. gt ncralLy smalt but very fertile, which little -I re, 1 ins 

irrigate, that do not run tar before 1 hey lose 1 lo-io-el ve-i 111 the sand. 
fn the valleys they have their villages. Sometimes all theii wutei 1 
from isolated springs thai do not run, or from hole- dug in the sand. A 

great portion of such a country produces no vegeti n nl nil. Other 

I'.ui- give their favorite mezquite henn and acorn, the pine nut, tuna 
1 fruit of cactus), maguey, me cal, berries and Beeds of grass ami hm b-, 

a I of which, with moderate culture of win a I. corn, meiOllH, and pump- 
kins and various -mall auiiuaN. form their staple food. Tin- 1 'ab 111 1 1. 1- 

are not foild of bear meat, and have no deer to hind ; tin- I) Oguillna 

and San Luiaenoshave no bear but hunt the deer aod antelope, the 
former abounding up in their hills and vales. They manufacture vei 

useful blanket,, ;L kind of urn 0. hold water and ke >p il cool in - 

mer (called plU t ) a sweat doth for the saddle from the inague) blue, 

called a coco, el C. 

Such i- lie- country, and such the actual resources of ihe,,' nan 
nations, in then- wilder state. Yet, in this dreary wilderness, God 
gave them land enough for then comfortable subs itence. But, of lhat 
presently. In bad seasons, as things now stand, they are often half 
Btarved They are prodigal too, by nature and by custom \i theii 

annual fea-t, which always takes place soon after harvest, I h 11 

them dancing around ; L large lire, iii le-rior of a deceased relation, and 
end the ceremony by throwing into the flames their entire stock of 
provisions and clothing. I have reason to believe that their impru- 
dence and want of forethought frequently lead to death by starvation, 

espi c a lly in cased ol sickness. 

Juan Antonio frequently call- home In- followers . and at any lime, 
such is the subordination among them, all, except the old and sick, 
woi^d permanently leave the si ttlements, upon a summons from their 
respective chiefs, I should, also, include the land proprietors iu the 

■■■ i 1 pt "ii, 1 some ' tbers who may have n peculiar devotion to 1 >■ 

tain families. And the same I believe, may be said safely of the chiefs 
of villages belonging to other nations. 

The present chiefs, in general, understand their affairs very will, 
and appear to be keenly alive to the good of their people They often 
come to the towns — to this city, at any rate — and inflict some punish* 
iiient in particular cases, the merits of which are left to he "best 

ki own to themselves." They exercise a sort of patriarchal supervision 
over the domesticated as well as the wilder classes of the nation. I do 
not wish to convey the idea that they have any regular government, or 




prXble, " the Loci ' "J*?" 1 ' ' ; \ 

' * would ■hoot.h'lf.o' "; 

^ b ^ I ^i^Wi«*^r2!r'«. ««--.«-.. ■ 

"" ,ch j i , iV'mii..- their people from oattl. 

rT'^.ta.StonDwSiffc T£efuoflhi.kind»renota. 

, v 3d boYefor •eelment. The crime » com , in- 

between them, und thw Kind oi P ro > impossibility 

There remain* but little to *dd tothostory Mr Wilson has 
here so ably told. Gradually these people have passed away, 
unt i] as a tribe, they are no more, and bntfcw individuals- 
ifany of pure blood, are now in existence. So much for our 
rood e rD civilization, as applied to the aborigines. 

Thu. ,-arlv in l.V-.ulT. Earl and a Colone Thorn bright 
s Angeles from the Southern States . arge numbe 

d. whomthej pro, d to work in the mines LVo d 

,1 their IV low on arrival, upon which one waa 

beaten and the other shot at, but both ran av One J.u. 

Putd3 was atthetim € acting as a police officer and marshal, 
and in discharg ofhisdut) mad. complaint against the pa- tie* 
who assaulted the negroes The null — «* ' '"' h wa * 

given forty-eighl 1 n within which to leave the town and 

the authorities being powerless to protect him, he was obliged 

, The following extracts from the docket of the late AM 

Stearns, Esq. then Bret alcalde of Los An-jeles), are clipped 

f, the columns of the Everting Express, being furnished to 

that paper by Stephen C. Foster, Esq.:— 


Tniii-i examined, recommitted. . . 

,V i , ' „ o he 24tb in*, an assault and ^tery was committed, 
llV I,', „ n?Lkno\vn, upon the bodies of Allen Sandford ami one other 
pernon. w)io*e name is unknown. 

Witnesses Dr. T. Earl and Edward Booth. 

OnthTSme nfcht, a breach ol the peace was committed by he 
firing of pi>tota at one Stephen Cribbs, by persons unknown to the 

P °W?tnesse*, Dr. T. Earl. Dr. Clark. E-q.. Blodgelt. Ross and Alex. Bell. 
On the night of the 25th ins,., an assault and battery was committed 
onlhpbody of Allen Landford, by some person unknown to the under- 



ThaSHvery Qu«l ^ Old Police Report-A CariouBDocament-Habita 

., Lite a .ementi -Tho •' Carmta --Prosperous Tmies-The Countj 

m |8fi3 Sketch bj \ Wail. -1654, fl Mixed Populati<ra-18o7, Habita 
, lf bhe Natives -Religious Devotions-Celebration of a Holy Day- U>r- 
DUB Chriati"-The Sunday Uw-Bull-fight at San Gabnel-At Lo* 
\„ .,,,., Chioken-Oatohing-Horae-Raeiaa-A Thre,-I*ague Race-A 
Falling off- Later Races— Current Evanta from 1850 to 1880. 


From 1849 to 1855 were Btormy times for public officers. 

The country was in a state of transition, and it was yet an 

oporj question between fche Blavery and anti-slavery parties— 

which would succeed True, slavery was unknown to Mexican 

law and the anti-slavery clause in the Constitution had just 

been signed with the rest; but California had not yet been 

formally admitted to the sisterhood of States, and a thousand 

thin-s might happen to prevent that admission. Already a 

movement was on foot to divide the country, the southern 

portion to remain as a Territory, with, of course, slavery as one 

of its institutions The bitterness of slave-holders and there 

were many here from the Southern States) was increased by 

the knowledge that one year's labor of a slave in the mines 

would more than equal a life-time of labor on the plantation. 


February 21 




Indian woman discharged, fined. n,« a » 

Captain A. Bell, Dr. Clark, M. Martin Rosa and Captain H. ; threat- 
ened 1 phonal violence to J. H. Purdy if _h< I do not Wave t he city 
within forty-eight hours. Witnesses: Col. S. Whitmgand L. Granger. 

Charles Matthews entered the counting-room of the Hon. Abe] 
Stearns with pistol in hand, and threatened personal violence. Wit- 
nesses: J. B. Barkley, Mnsea Searl, and Clark. 

Said Matthews then proceeded to the Court room and scattered the 
papers over the floor, threatening personal violence to all who should 
Sdmm him; and then assaulted J. H. Purdy in the door of the i our 
n Mm. drew a pistol, and fired on him. Witnesses: Jesus Gwrado and 

Jl Two nei-ons unknown to the undersigned rescued barlea Matthews 
from the custody of J. H. Purdy. while he, Purdy. was endeavoring to 
bring Matthews into the Court House. -'• ri. i lrd\. 

March ■"■, 18J0. 

The remainder of the slaves were taken up to the mines 
finally, but the white miners stampeded them; they all ran 
away, and their owners did not get even the cost of bringing 
them here. 

The following report of this matter was made by the Prefect, 
Mr. Foster, to the Governor of the State: — 

Prefect's Office, Los Angeles, March 12. 1850. 
Sir- It being one of the duties incumbent on my office to communi- 
cate from time to lime the state of my district to the Supreme Govern- 
ment, I avail myself of the departure of the mail tor the month to 
write VOU. , ., . ... 

Our city has been harassed for the last four months by various dis- 
orders some of a very serious character, and Berioualy compromising 
thelivuand property of peaceable citizens. These difficulties have 
principally originated anions the American gamblers, with whom we 
are infested; aud from the small American permaoeut population as 

rnninared with the native CaUorniapg and emigrants, they have, ins 
^fmeaeuM, let the civil authorities at defence On the 20th alt.. 
![the request of the municipal authorities, and on their inunction 
of the, mention to resign if they could not he »u*ained,l proceeded 
£ Sao Diego to commuuicate with Major F'tcgerald. I .& ... to prfr 
v,il on him u possible. I" send a force destined lor the Kancho Cniiio, 
,' , thirty miles from here, to this place. In consequence of these 
representations,] understand that a company ol Dragoons and one of 
Infantry are on their march here. 

\ movement has been made to procure a separation ot the southern 
i( ; . ,, 1M ,c California from the north and its organization as a Territory. 
A petition to I longresa to that effect, signed b 3 some two hundred per- 
mm has been forwarded to Santa Barhara and ban Diego for further 
ftiinaturea The ostensible leaders in thia movement are native Cali. 
rnrDiana and their ostensible motive is the tear ol taxation; the real 
Landers are Unerieans, and their motive is the southern interest in 
alaverv Quite an excitement, has been caused within a few days. | iy 
an attempt on the part of some Blaves introduced from Texan to aoerl 
their rights to freedom. One person, who had taken the negios part 
with more zeal than judgment, was ordered by a committee of live. 
annointed by a meeting of Americans, to leave town within twenty, 
four hours He appealed to the authorities for protection, but they 
were unable to give it, and be was forced to leave at the designated 
time Mob law, to use the harsh but truthful term, is triumphant u 
reeards the existence of negro slavery in this district. We are an* 
iously expecting something Horn the Legislature relative to our city, 
county, and judicial organization. 

Respectfully your obedient servant, 

1 J Stephen <_. Foster, 

Prefect of Los Angeles District. 

His Excellency, P. H. Burnett, . 

Governor of California, ban Jose. 

Bearing upon the same subject, we clip the following from 

the Evenimg Express: — 


Mr. Stephen Foster has brought to our notice the record of an old 
a reemont which be discovered in the archives of the District Court, 
dating back to the year L850. The agreement was executed by one 
Jas. R. Holman and recites that, 

» Whereas, in 1850, I removed from the county of Crawford, Arkan- 
sas, bringing with me a negro woman named Clanpa, aged about 
twenty-nine year?, which said negro woman has two s»ns, one namea 
Granberry, aged si.x vears on the 15th day of the month ol October, 
1850, and'one named llenrv, aged five year-ion the 15th day fit JU> 
unry. L850, and whereas said woman and her two Bona were. i'v iiiein*s 
of Arkansas, my slaves for life, and whereas the said Clanpa has, by tier 
removal by me to the State of California become free; and whereas i 
am anxious to retain the services of the Baid Clanpa for the period oi 
two vears from tin- date of these presents. I therefore now do covenani 
and agree that, if the said Clanpa shall serve me nnthlullv lor me 
period of two vears, I will agree, and by these presents I do, ttam 
and after the expiration of said two years, forever set free {nebnia 
Clanpa, and hereby release all right, title and interest m ber ^e 

And upon the conditions aforesaid, I agree that from the time LM 
aforesaid bovs shall respectively become twenty-one years ol Bgej 
relinguish all my right, title, claim and interest in and to tw ^ j 
vices of the said boys and then forever set them free, ine » 
Granberry shall be "free on the 15th day of October. 1865, and ma 
llenrv shall be frve on the 15th day of January. 1866. . 

And furthermore said Holman binds himself to pay the full * m0 "°J 
of money due from him to Whitfield Bourn, to whom said Doya 
mortgaged, and to redeem the said boys in full from all oWigfl"' "" 
consequence of said mortgage 

[Signed/1 O. S. Witherby, 

District Judge- 
Executed June 20. 1857 

Whether the woman Clanpaservedfaithfulh, hei two years ,t ' rm J' 
received the stipulated freedom for herself i- not f< l . 

before the buys came to their majority, it is certain that I new - 

RES. or JOHN MEADE, Vernon, 
Los Angeles C.° Cal. 

J**um.,t a, -runtnoar... ■ J.tor 



stepped in and executed the terms of the contract moat effectually. 
We are afraid, by the way, that Aunt Clanpa was guilt 

m in stating the ages of her boys; for, according to the 

locations hi the contract, one ran I have been born October Lfi 

isi4. and the other January 15, L845, making an interval ol only 

three months between the two, which was not consistent with the 

ibli easj going ways of ante-bellum times. Aunt Clanpa musl 

inly have been at sea in her datea. 


fatheearl) days, the habits of the people were like the 
times— primitive Thj only mode of conveyance (other than 
the saddle) possessed by the native aristocracy, was the carro 
or carreta. This consisted of a frame or platform, about 
five feet by twelve, set upon a rough axle and a pairof wheels. 
These wheels were sawn from a solid log of wool, two bo three 
feel in diameter; were about ten inches in thickness at the 
center, but tapered down to about five inches at the rim, \\ here 
they were sometimes bound with iron tires, but generally uot, 
An awning, dependent from corner standards, was Btretched 
over the top, and under this reclined the scfloras, senoritas and 
ninos of the family, on tli tir wa\ I i church or fa/ndango. This 
vehicle was drawn by oxen, and the yoke (a straight piece of 
tiiul. t wa- fastcne I across the foreheads of the animals, just 
l.rl.iw their horns, liy means of rawhide thongs The men 
usually rode on horseback ; now charging rapidly in advance, 
swinging their long riatas; now returning at full speed, shout- 
ing ami gesticulating like wild Indians; now wheeling rapidly 
around the slow-moving tram, and inciting them to greater 
effort by cries and blows; and now curbing their snorting 
steeds, and leaning beneath the curtained canopy, to exchange 
trifling badinage with its smiling occupants ; or, perchance to 
receive the guerdon of aflower from the fair hand of some dark- 
eyed daughter of Castile. Even l> m Abel Stearns, surrounded 
by his Spanish family, used only the native carro until 1853. 
When at last he did import e modern carriage from 
was lo Iced upon by his ueighbors as a vain innovation, rather 
to be deplore I than otherwise, and certainly n it to be trusted. 

Upon such expeditions as we have described, not unfre- 
quently in the near distance might bo seen several vagueroa 
following after with a hand of cattle. These cattle, in effect, 
constituted t/« purs* of the party, Upon reaching the city 
they were at once marketed, and their price was counted on to 
d< fraj the expenses of the trip. 

The purchases made by the vanckeros in those days are the 

■ scl of many regretful recollections by old merchants, Thus 

0. i Esq . started a store general merchandise 

in 1850 on the very ground where his office now is; and he 

■■_ I from five thousand to six thousand 

dollais per day Thus Mr. John Junes, another prominent 

merchant in th. icceeding 1832, frequently cleared *a;j 

his widow) sixty thousand dollars per annum over and above 

all expenses — from the local and Mormon trades The usual 

order for goods of a I man was h this 

was much more freqti ■ than his sign ture and was 

quite as well known N< arlj all . 1 in 

unbroken pacl an ,. . asked, Truly these 

were prosperous daj s foi the mi rchants of Los \i 

The following sketch of Los Angeles * litj and c untj 
appeared in 1853 isfromthi pen of A Waite, Esq., editoi 
the Dow ney ' !itv ( 'ourit r: — 

The population of llie city at that early daj was largely Mexican oi 
native, the total not exceeding, probably, three thousand souls. The 
settled area of the city was very limited -there being bul .< few adobe 
houses here and thereon Main street, below where the Round hou« e 
now stands, buili in L855. On Btreets back of Main, and running par- 
allel with it, a few houses were to be encountered, princip illy on Spring 
street. Lot Angeles and Commercial were the main business streets of 
the town. One adobe hotel :it that time accomodated the travel to 
the place, and was all-sufficient. But one solitary brick structure 
re .red its walls within the precincts of the Angel city, tbrei 
wooden tenements, and the balance were ad. .he bouses. A muil 

reached us about once a nth, by a slow-going steamer, from San 

Francisco. The post offici n is kept in a small seven-by-nine room, 
with an old box divided into pigeon holes, and was kept on a sort 
of free-and-easy principle, rlalf the time there was do one in 
ance, and if n citizen thought there ought to he something foi him 
he didn't bother about hunting up the postmaster— he went into the 
shanty and helped himself. It didn't take long to look ever the whole 
ol th" mail matter. Of the business houses in existence at the time 
to which we refer there is not at this time a single one doing busi- 
ness with the exception of M, Keller. Not n Protectant place of 
worship existed in the city, meetings being held occasionally in a 
frame building belonging to Wm. Abbott. In short, the town was 
then what many town? in Mexico are now — sleepy, and dreamily glid- 
ing along without caring a d— n for the future. Outside the city of 

Lufl Angeles the only lw " hamlets in the county were the Monte and 

Mission of Han Gabriel, each containing a few detached houses -San 

Gabriel nearly all Mexicans, the Monte, Americans. The wideex] se 

of country was comparatively abandoned to the immense herds of 
cattle ana hor-es, allowed to roam at their own sweet will Lns 
Angeles City had no school buildings, ami but one weekly newspaper, 
printed in the English and Spanish languages, was published in the 
county. What is now San Bernardino was then known an the Mor- 
mon Ranch, a settlement of Latter Day Saint-. ***** The 
exports, ofLos Angeles wrtr Vuuiiiii'd principally to grapes, agriculture 
then being in asort of primitive condition, the natives in imtny instances 
to Iif seen plowing with a forked stick. Fur years the county *lept in 
its Kip Van Winkle unconsciousness; it did not retrograde but it did 
not progress. The people were not ambitious; all their needs were 
supplied and calmly they drilled along without a thought of striving 
for greater things. 

In the fall of 1354, Rev James Woods, in his "California 
Recollections,' 1 estimates the population of Lns Angeles to have 
been about five thousand. About four thousand of these were 
Mexicans, five hundred Americans, and the remainder English, 
Scotch, Irish, German, Dutch, Swiss, French, Italian. Swede, 
Norwegian, Russian and Europeans g m- rally ; LosAngele* being 
at this time, as to population, a miniature of California, as a whole 
having one or more representatives from every country and 
nation in the known world. Nine-tenths of the buildings were 
adobe; bride and frame structures were the exception, and 
\er\ rare. 

Speaking of primitive customs, even so late as 1857, in his 
letters to the San Francisco Bulletin. Mr. H. D. Barrows says: — 

The California!]* atill keep up the prai ol plowing with their 

bull-tongue, one-handle plows, and in fastening then yokes to the 
oxen's bonis, as in the primitive times. Such customs seem odd in this 
fast age, and yet a Culifornfau will often net a bigger crop than an 
i ir "aharpened-stick plows" loosen the ground deeper 
than the more modern plow-sharea. Many of the natives also still 
adhere to their old. uncou with I wooden wheels, 

although modern ones and two-horse covered carriages are becoming 

very Common among thi The Spaniards drive their teams 

with goads, pointed at the end : and in driving, they go pr Escuoualy 

side, or behind, and more generally on 
back than afoot. The terma"haw" and "gee" have, I believe, 
in} m in Spanish, eithei technically or in practice. Although 
many of their Diodes ol doing things seem rfoiu to foreign ens, yet place 
one on horseback (their ■ irmaZ condition . and give lion a riata, and 
he will heat the world in expertnesa and skill. Give a Califomian the 
wild charm and freedom «.i' hnr-chaeL luiiti:, in. I he despises your 
cumbersome modern modes ol locomotion by railroads and steamboats, 

As in all Spani h c mnl rie the native « ire i er^ devout in 
their religious observances; yet bhej generally managed to 
unite' fun with their devotions, The following aocounl of the 

celebrati f a noted holy day. is from th * L ia Angeles Star 

of Ugusl 22 L8 n 


1 he Spanish baptismal name of this city is La Ouidad de Nuestra 
Senora <<■ /■■■■ Ingelee, and the 16th of Augusl is celebrated as the 
anniversary of the patron saint of oui vineyard city. According to the 
Catholic doctrine, the mother of Christ did not die, but was taken 

up into Heaven without the separation of the spirit from the body, 

and is continually adored by all the heavenly throng of angols and 
an ban jels as I hen- queen 

After the conclusion of early m w, an l at ab iut 9 o'clock a, .m., high 
m;e: was celebrated in the C.ithulio church. The Califomian Lancers 
on foot, armed with rifles, an steel in the celebration of the mass, The 
firing of this company fcomposed entirely of natives of the country}, 
and with hut little or no previous drilling, was moil admirable. At the 
conclusion of mas-, the pupils of the female Bchool, headed by their 
instructresses, the Si-tors of Charity, came out of the church in pro- 
cession, bearing the tniagp of our Lady, under a canopy; they were 
joined by the Lancers, and passing around the publicsquure, re-entered 
the church. 

The appearance of the procession as it left tbe church, and during 
its march, was imposing. The canopy covering the representation of 
the angelic queen, tastefully ornamented, was borne by girls dressed 
in white. The '_ r ir]s of tie- school, with their' heads uncovered, ami in 

uniform white dres es, followed; then came the I :ers, the rear of 

the company being brought up by a mounted division, which (armed 
with lances) had been on duty during the morning. In the afternoon, 
at prayers, the Lancers again attended church, and joined the evening 
procession. Their appearance and deportment throughout the day 
were highly commendable. A bull-fight took place in the upper part 
of town, in the afternoon, which was atti oded by a dense crowd of 
spectators. This diversion, as usual, was atten led with various casual- 
ties. One hombre, more imprudent than proficient, In the endeavor to 
perform some exploits on foot (which are usual at in Mexico 
and Lima), was caught and tossed high in the air a number of times 

by an infuriated bull. After some delay he was rescued and taken 

fn>m the 'ground in a ifeless -t ue. No hope had been indulged by the 
anxious crowd tor the unfortunate man from the moment he was first 
tossed in the air. a- he fell apparently dead After being taken from 
the ground, he showed signs of returning animation, and upon exam- 
ination, it was found that he had two rios broken and severe internal 
hruises. A number of horses were badly gored, and some even to 
death. Tins branch of amusementc was kept up for three days, to 
the evident delight of the hoy., and to the great suffering and' ruin 
of many a noble utet d. 

And again we read in Mr. Barrow's letters to the Bulletin : — 
June 3, 1868 — The feast of " Corpus Chriati" was celebrated in Los 



lei with considerable pomp, and irii \ i d u 

B holiday., [n the n aglow and high # maMea were fiaid in church 

under ibi ir priecta mieisting. In 

the afternoon, holy nnd profani her with the 

pcboola of the Bi«leni of Charity — nearly a bund all dressed 

in white, marched in a grand procession around the pi i i bv 

the "Southern Rifles" and the "Lano and of music. 

Up to the pa age of the ' Sunday law" (1855, amended 
L870J bull fights, an I all amusements of like character, were 
ii L on Sunday afternoon Lftei that Act was pa -i they 
were but t cbly -n itaincJ, for Sunday is th< M si can's holiday. 
Occasionally how \ i they ware held on week-days, and the 

t'nii w.i by n ui. re bricted to Los Angeles City. Thus 

we read : 

Turbday, June 24th, the good citizens of Sai iriel, in accord 

anco will] their ideas of amusements, announced ;i l grand combute" 
between a bull and a bear, a hull-tight, and sundry other aporla of the 
kind. A hi ■<■ number of people were attracted to the spot. some in 

carriages, i«om horses ond othcra on foot, which created no little I 

bun tie and excitement in thai usually penc^ful village. The -[..mi, 

<>f tin 1 , liuwi vi-i, did not by any means come up to tin i Kpeuta- 

tinn of" the crowd, owing to the shabby c luct of the bear*, who 

would not cimie and I"- killed. Two hud been captured fur the 
occasion, bul onp escaped, - 1 > * ■ i the oiln r sfier giving his captor a ppec- 
Imen of whiit he supposed was in at or*" for In m self, roocluded not to 
come up to the scratch. Consequently the fig In was only between 

I 'men and bulls; himI notwithstanding the expertnett nf the riders, 

so" i the linnes were badh gored bj the inruriaied bull-". The 

"-|M.ri" dosed by n c esl with a man on Com and a bull; and, but 

timi the sharp horns ol the quadruped had been sawn off, the " rorero" 
would hnve bei n disputched in short ordor. In the evening fandangos 
were En urder. 

And again, under date October :i, KSfiO, wu fin.] this para- 
graph hi tin- X< n:*: — 

Bi i I i ton i. "n the 31st alt. nnd 1st inst., bull-fights were the 

° r d>' ol lb* day a g the Californinn and Mexican population 

in the upper partol the city; given, we believe in * meraorat f 

Mexican [ndependi-nce, though at rather a late day we .-I. .mid think 
'J no bulls vveio killcil, and a little child run over bv one of them 

' ii with little injury to it We hope the time will come when 

such exhibitions, disgusting and brutal tu the eye, will cease. 

Another favorite amusement of the Californians in Los 
Angeles conswted in digging a hole in the ground, placing 
therein a live fowl, then filling the loose earth in around it, 
until only its bea I was \ isible above the surface A circle of 
horsemen was now formed— say one hundred yards in diame- 
ter; and at a given signal these would charge upon the 
.•hi. -km pell-melL He who could seize it by the head, drag it 

forth, and retain it, notwithstanding the efforts of his c - 

panions to catch him an I take ii away from him, won the prize 
Bul this pastime, in company with bull-fighting and bear- 
baiting in i.i st, all the destinctively native ga s, received 

their death blow in the much anathematized " Sunday-law"— 
Oarramba ' 

Bill of all ths many sportsand amusements current in Los 

■ during the earl) years, horse-racing was by far the 

tnl B ar-baiting and bull-fighting and ehicken- 

catcbing were well enough to while away a Sabbath afternoon, 

but a horse-race ■ Ah! that was the Califotnian s "darling sin," 
an'l npon that he ' id will yet stake hi- lasl 

dollar, or even the coat from off his back '. 

Of the many important races run in Los Angeles, but few 
have attracted more attention than that ol 1852, in which the 
"Black Swan" beal "Pico's gelding ' in a run of three 

The following account of this famous race, is from the 
Daily Star of June 24, 1875 


Twenty odd years ngo. tin Picosol Los Angeles owned n famous peld- 
ing of Dutive breed, which was unequaled for bottom, and with which 
they had frequently beaten Jo<e Sepulveda, winning from him consid- 
erable aunu of money nnd herds ol Block. He determined to get even 
if poA>|ble, and kept the mutter constantly in mind. 

('..nun- up from Lhe south with a herd of cattle, his attention was 
attracted h\ an exceedingly handsome mare, owmd by the ferrymen. 
The old man's eye* glittered as he looked at her, "Could she run?" 
■•.-mil »a Hie wind!" "Could she run n long distance)*" "Surely; 
she was a thorough-bred English race-horse." " Where did she come 
from?" "Australia, and her name was the Black Swan." "Did they 
think she could run three leagues?" "If any other horse could." 
Tins brief colloquy sums up the queries and answers. He determined 

to carry the mare to Loa Angeles ami challenge his racing cur ■-. 

T ■'■ Mott. one of the owners in the ferry made the bargain. I 

Jose was to pay expenses and put up the racing money, while the 
owners of the mare, were to give him the services of the marc and 
themselves, and havo an interest. 

Sn great was the event that tbev Rold nut their ferrv, and with the 
mare traveled to Los Angele*. The crafty old fellow went ahead, 
howi ver, and made the race before the handsome animal should tome. 
I he race was to be run on the San Pedro road, the horse* to sr ;ir i and 
run four miles and a fraction in the direction uf L is Angeles, then turn 
a pi*t and return to point of beginning. They were to run at the end 
ol three month*, play or pay, and thej were also to run for ten thou- 
sand dollars in coin, and a thousand head of horned cattle, to he mr ruled 
on the ground at ihe lime of the race, ft should be understood that 
no i.. t i, it was requisite in such ctwea, as the word of a Ca ifornia gen- 
tlemail was ; ,s good as Ins Lund. The Swan arrived, and went into 
heavy training. II. r opponent did not rei eive ss pood treatment. 

the nice day brought out the population from far and near The 
grandees of Santa Barbara, San Luis, and even from Monterey 
came, wlnU ail San Diej:o was there. The Californians had earli 
taken aides with their horse, and the Americans were rh-idly arrayed 
for the Swan. The horse was to lie ridden California fishion. that U 
the rider was strapped on the animal's bareback, and his owners and 
backeis wen- to be permitted to ride beside him and whip him The 
mare .' out equipped according to the American fashion, light 
racing saddle and spurs, and light boy— weights were not taken iT.iu 
account. * * It was agreed in the American party, that at 

the turning point, the Swan Bhould be checked, bermouth -poo | out 

and a moment given for breathing; supposing always that. he would be 
far enough ahead. She was to he kept under steady pull and spared 
It "in steel and lash. l 

The custom 

mongst Californians when they otter to bet 


h to hand you the sum prop ,>ed to be bet. If. at the close of the race' 
you have won. you keep the money, hut if, on the contrary you have' 
lost, you return double the amount given you. The crowd, as we have 
Bam, was immense, and the excitement intense. A German.named 

Bachman said that in a few moments-he had his buggy aii t laden 

with coin so eager and prompt were the Californians to bet. In fact 
h had staked nearly his whole fortune, which was considerable This 
occurred with all who went out. and who bet. which left the Califor 
mans .masters of the situation, so far as betting was concerned It 
length the home* started amid-t the yells of thousands, and were 
followed by hundreds of mounted cavaliers. The mare h-d off and 
under a strong pull, notwithstanding the convoys of the horse whip 

ped him unmercifully, at the end of the third mile, had opened 
a nap of about one hundred and fifty yards, but when -:., r ,]]', 
to the turn, the horse was so evidently holding his own \\ ',",'', 
at Mott seized her by the bit and jerking her amend 
ordered the rider to give her the steel and let her m 

gaining, thai 

the post, ordered the ruler to -i\" n.-r lhe steel and let 1 
Though she sprung forward like a thunder-bolt, yet the game hone 

cuniiiu'iHed cradnallv to close the erau. arid from t.hnre l>, .„,,-. ,i.„ .. 

. ium 8 .""""" '•"> «« i-huiiubi-wiv, v.-. me game bone 
comment ed gradually to close the gap, and from their In, me the atrue 
gle was terrible to behold, as with distended nostrils and ptniini 
the two gallant coursers thuudered forward. But condition wag too 
much for the wilil California horse; hid rival pa>sed the goal four or live 
lengths ahead, but bleeding at the Hanks from the --pur. nnd sn weak 
ami exhausted, that she had to be supported as she wua "cooled off" 
The i 'alih.r nians gracefully j Lelded the victory, and it \* ^ :u ,\ l j l . ll j )|(U 
Jose Seoul vedn was a winner to the extent of more than liity thousand 
dollar-. But that seemed to be of lesa consequence to hnii than hj M 
victory. A part of the contract was, that he should be permitted to 
purchase the mare if he would. As soon as nhe had been cooled off he 
called for her to be brought to him, and taking the bit out of hei 
mouth turned her loose, and raisiug his hand in the presence of the 
assembled multitude vowed that she should never a^aiii be bridled or 

saddled; and he kept his vow, she ran louse on ' 

the plains till | ier 

It was well for the Californians to enjoy life, and spend 
their money freely, while they had it. It did not lasl lone 
There was soon a falling oft* noticeable, both in the frequency 
of tin- races, ami in the amounts of the stakes. Under date 
January 9, 1867, Mr. H. J). Barrows writes to the Bulletin:— 
_ We had by way of variety, several horse-races about New Years 
time. Pio Pico ran Dtck Johnson aguinst Jose bepulvedu'a Bayn Pintu— 
three thousand dollars a side— distance, P ur hundred vaids, "Pinto hod 
There was a scum race next da) between numerous Californiaa homes— 
mile heats — .diortest time, two minutes three seioi.ds. Sundry cock- 
fights -took place on the plaza hint Buuday. 'lhe bull., are all tvo voc 
tu tight. ' 

Again he writes; — 

March 30, 1857, a race tookplaceatPico'sRandijstakesonethousam] 
dollar, lor three It-agues. The hor>es were tntered bv Pio Pko and 
Jose bj-pulveda. Pico'shorse won, making the distance in bevenleea 

and a hall minutes. After the race, there was a free tight, and a Qian 
was badly Stabbed. 

Ami again: — 

January 20. i860. A horse-race — in gran i i— of several horses, 

ram,- oil on the plain, just below town, lhe stake was a one hundred 
dollar purse, together with the entrance P es, forty dollars. Kadi nag, 
mile beaW, best two in three. A Kusida, or whitey-roan colt of Chico 
vejar. won every time-^horteat time, one minute and fifty-five seconds. 
All < ahfornia colts who had never run for over fifty dollars b. i 
nan l ie town went to look on, and considerable money changed hands. 

0, what a fall was here! From ten thousand dollare cash 
and one thousand head of horned cattle, to a paltry one hun- 
dred dollar purse— all in eight years. 


From 1850 to 1853, the Indian tribes of the Mojave deserl 
; ""l neighboring mountains kept the inhabitants of Lo> 
Angeles county in constant hot water; stealing stock, and 
not unfrequently murdering the ranchera. In the lasl men- 
tioned year, the Tejon reservation was established, and the 
wild tribes wee henceforth under better control 

In Lis "California Recollections/' Eto James Woods esti- 


View of Vernon District public SCHOOL BUILDING, and portion or Grounds, 

Los Angeles C° Cal. 

\**Q fir rnQMhSr/fj * *vf5T 



mates thai during the yeai L854, fche average of violent deaths 
in l...s Angeles < 'itv, was not less than one a day, for the mosl 
part Mexicans and Indians bul not unfrequently persona in 
the higher walks of life. During tliis year, be says a company 
of rougha from the frontier visited the city, and conducted 
themselves in such an outrageous manner toward respectabli 

native families, acting as though they considered their 1 sea 

bagnios, that the natives became enraged, and falling upon them, 
killed three, wounded two others very severely, and cha ed th< 
restoutof thecity. Anothei writer says, Uia.tnnir.Irr. were 
of almost nightly occurrence, and yet no police furcc exii ted in 
the city. Under date November L6th, the Southern CaUfor- 
ii'oin complains of the past, dull week- -only four murders. 
Set even in those red-handed days, some few people managed 
to die peaceably In their beds of old age. Thus we read in tin; 
paperjust quoted (September,: "DrED. In this city, on 
the "'ili instant, Dona Maria Francisca Villalobos de Tavia, in 
the one hundred and twelfth year of her age." 

Under date of August 11th, the following order appears on 
the Supervisors' minutes; — 

"Ordered, that the mini of one thousand dollars be appropriated from 
the county treasury, out of fund for current expenses, for the opening of a 
wagon road over the San Fernando mountain, from the mission of Ban 
Fernando to the San Francisco Ranch; provided, that the sun.- shall 
ii..i be paid until tins board is satisfied that a good road, passable for 
loaded wagons is made over said mountain in the direction of the Teion 

September 21st, the market report of Los Angeles has the 
following quotations: — 

Beef cattle $25@$30.00 

* Sows and calves 30.00 

Stock cattle 20.00 

Sheep 4.50 

Flour, per cwt 7.00 

Hay. per ton] LO.OO 

Butter, per pound LOO 

Eggs per dozen .75 


There were but few events of importance chronicled during 
thi veai 1855; but from the Los Angeles Star of March 10th 
opy the following: — 


On Sunday evening, March 4th, an affray occurred at a Mexican 

danoi -liuuse in this city. A Bonoranian was stabbed by another and 

mortally wounded bo that he died almost instantly. Constable Hale 

promptly arretted the murderer, and was conveying bun to jail 

by Mr. pancho Johnson, when four men overtook them on 

horseback and commenced firing, probably with the intent of rescuing 

mer. Mr. Johnson and thfl prisoner were severely, but not 

wounded. Mr. Hale promptly returned the fire of these 

desperadoe*, wounding one of them so severely that lie died the next 

On the same evening, a short time after this affair, Dr. YV. 

B Osbarn was attacked by several of the same gang of desperadoes, 

but escaped unhurt, although some half dozen shots were fired at him. 

It is probable that Dr. Osburn shot one of the gang, as one of ihem 
m» found dead about three mile, from town. The man that Mr. Bale 

Garcia, who killed the Sheriff at Mon- 
terey county hist Bummer. 

i year throughout was marked bj considerable activity 
in business, and a larg. increase in the exports of the 

We copy the foil. .win- fV the Star of November:— 

Abstract of shi] mis coastwise of domestic producefrom 

fcne port of Sao Pedro, for the four months, ending October 
31, 1855. 

Grapes, boxes 31,095 Value, $155 *75 

' "lnr fruits, boxes.. . . 1,036 " 8,288 

Salt, lbs 330,000 " 5,775 

Beans, " 139,316 " 6 966 

Wool, " 38,000 " 1,750 

Other productions, tons 258 " 21,000 

Aggregate No of tons, mdse. .2,395. 

Lggreg tte value $202,254 00 

V. of vessels entering the port of I ., 
San Pedro, July 1st, toOct, 1st f 

Enrolled and licensed tonnage of I , , . , 

same , -■'■ ,, - i H-90 


The season of 1855 6 was very dry, only 5.8 G7 inches of 
ruin being registered from November to April, inclusive; ass 
natural consequence there was considerable loss of stock. 

The chief incident of this year is best Bet forth in the fol- 
lowing extracts from the Los Angeles Newts, of July 26th, et 

set j,: — 


i hi Sa urday morning, July L9rh, an attachment was issued f the 

Justice's Courl of Alex. Gibson and placed in the hands of Wm. Jen- 
kins, a deputy constable, for execution on the pro] ■ Mexican 
named Antonio Etuis. Thi8circumstance,simpleinitself, led to events 
which kept the town in a state of alarm and excitement during an 
entire week. On that morning Junk ins proceeded to execute the writ, 
and meeting with some little obstruction in the discharge of his duty, 
rashly drew his pistol and fired, the ball taking effect in the breast ol 
Antonio Ruis, causing his death on the evening of the following day. 
Immediately after committingthe rash deed Jenkins surrendered himself 
to justice, and was admitted to bail. On the death of Ruis, a warrant 
was issued for his apprehension, on application by the District Attor- 
ney to Judge Hayes, and lie was c mitted to the custody of the 

Under Sheriff to await examination. That officer did not think proper 
to place bim in confinement, but let him go at large, and to this cir- 
cumstance is mainly attributable the excitement that followed, the 
Bpanish population taking offense that one who had, in their estima- 
tion, committed a murder, should be at large and armed. Great excite- 
menl prevailed amongst them from the time of the shooting till the 
funeral. The deceased was a quiet, inoffensive man, and was highly 
esteemed by his acquaintances The feelings of his friends were not 
expressed in public until after the funeral, when they held a public 
meeting at the graveyard. During the proceedings at the graveyard, 
reports were brought to town of the nature of the speeches, anil alarm 
began to spread among the citizens. At last it was understood that 
the crowd intended to attack the jail i where Jenkins had been confined 
by order of Judge Hayes), and in a short time a strong guard was in 
readiness to give them a warm reception should they attempt to carry 

out their threats. The guard remained on duty all night, and no dis- 
turbance occurred. 

J uetday— About sundown, rumors began to prevail ol meeting* 
ndone . - and Mexicans, and 

that they were to attack the town at night. These reports wer< ■ 

Immediately the City Marshal and three deputies inted 

their horses and patroled the outskirts of the city. Crowds were 
d in several suspicious places, andabout nine o'clock all had 
iwn to their rendezvous, a hill behind the church, from « bich ll 
■ aded to march in and sack the town. Warning to that efleel 
ens, whom they did not wish to over- 
whelm in the general destruction, The leaders bold!) avowed then 
srcesl maledictions againsi the Amer- 
icans, stating their determination to wipe oul and lack the town. The 
citizens were not idle. Even man th i! could procure a gun or pistol 

i the aid of the Sheriff (D. w. Alexander), win, had his rende 
vous at the jail, the point of the anticipated an ark. 


Bi tween nine and ten o'clock a party ol banditti called at the resi- 
dence of the Roman ( atholic priest, and while oneor two engaged him 
in conversation, the others ransacked the house, and carried ofl about 
a dozen stand of arms, and a small brass cannon. 

ALARM OF I A M i j_i i:s. 

Families living in the outskirts of the town lefl their houses and 
came into the city; others congregati d togethei for mutual protei tion. 


Several gentlemen rode up, from I ■ to time, to the bill where the 

tnsui ents were drawn up, to remonstrate with them on the mad 

1 heir efforts were immediately counteracted by the cap- 
tain, a Frenchman, who ordered these pe] ons to leave. 


About twelve o'clock, the moon being up, W. C. Getman, the Mar- 
shal, and his deputy, Wm. Peterson, rode towards the hill where the 
■ nts were drawn up, accompanied by Ave or -i -. armed citizens, 
for the purpose of ascertaining the position and force of the mob. 
There were then supposed to be from two to three hundred per ons, a]] 
armed; a large number were mounted. While the party were recon- 
coitering, the mob were put in motion toward* thi town. Qi tman 
direi ed his party to retire, the footmen first, Peterson and himself 
protecting them from attack bj the crowd, it appeal In topped too 
fur behind, as the scouts from the insurgent* came in light of him, 
■ ed It i m and fired. He returned toe fire, di charging two shots, 
when the horsemen came up with Nun and he bad to retreat. The 
party on foot discharged their arms and also retreated, Qetmarj and 
Peterson itill keeping behind to protect them. From thi 

1 " it i fell behind bi party, when four mounted Vh ican 

rode up and fired, i ball taking effect in bin head, which caused 

him to fall from his horse. While on the ground, these ruffiai te 

post bim, each firing at him (none of the Bhots resulted fatally, how- 
ever), and then fled towards the crowd, which by this time had n ached 
the plaza. 


The alarm being given, the military companj on duty at the jail, 
baving tirst removed the prisoner, marched to the plaza, but too 
much time had been lost, and when they arrived the other party 
had marched off to the shrill notes oi s fife. The militai ■ remain* d 
on duty until daylight, patroling the city and suburbs, but no trace 
of the insurgents could be found. 

Wednesday — It was resolved when the firing first began to si ad to 
the Monte for e and Mr. ' ». w. Chi Ids volunteered for the 

service. Mounting his bone, he started off alone about one o'clock in 
the morning, and well and faithfully executed bis mission. About 
ten o'clock a party of citizens from the Monte, mounted and 
armed, numbering thirty-six muskets, arrived in town and were 
received with loud cheers. At an early hour in the morning hand- 
bills were circulated calling a public meeting of the citizens in front 
of the Montgomery House. Military compel n oi 

addition to the Bangers and City Guards. Judge Norton took i 
of the l tuards, J. Q. A. Stanley led the Rangers and Itr. Griffin the 



citizens company. Strict watch was kept throughout the night. 

Don Andret Pico, at the head of a party of twenty Califoraiana, well 

d, itarted out toacour the hills and ravin---, and 

i mi Thursday evening, bringing in a prisoner, a Frenchman, 

one ol thosi in command of 1 1 1 «- insurgents. Don Andres and party 

bad ' bars inc duty, having ridden fully seventy miles during 

iVedni 'i.'. mi . ■ j j i passed over without any occurrence 
tending to distui b i be peace ol the town. 

I in i oay During the day lln- country for miles around was 

scoured bj :i party of rangers. At night the military were again on 

<1ni v. Inii nothing of Empoj tai :cui red. 

Friday The town assumed it-, usual pea- eful character. The 
Rangei iven out on duty and citizens relieved from their alarm; 

n in hi the usual guard were set, hut no further alarm. 

*♦*■ + ** 

Ai tin' trial "i Jenkins, on Tuesday, he was held i" answer to the 
chargi of manslaughter. The hail was fixed at three thousand dollars. 

I' i were given and the prisoner released. 


i i rnando ' tarlerga, the Frenchman, arretted bv Don Andrea Pico's 

company, waa, at the trial, proven to he the leader of the Mexicans 

who took the arms from the Padre; him! that he was designated as 

' :i|>i;uii." He was held (<• answer on a charge of assault with intent 

to commit murder, and was released on hail, the amount being fixed at 

I wo thousand dollars. 

We have failed to discover thai either of bhese men were ever 
punished, or even hud, on account of their action in this affair 
r.. guard against such occurrences in the future, a meeting of 
citizens was called and the following report of proceedings is 
copied Erom the Star of July 26, LS56; — 


< >n Wednesday, tin- 23d of July, a public meeting was held for the 
purpose of taking steps to prevent crime, and to organize in defense of 
i he Uvea and properties or citizens. 

On motion, lion. Myron Norton was called to the chair and H.N. 
Alexander elected Secretary. On taking the chair Judge Norton 
explained the purpose for which the meeting was convened, and 
called upon all good citizens n. come forward and unite together 
h.r the promotion of the object in view. Dim Andres Pico was then 
called for, and on taking his position on the stand was loudly cheered, 
lie addressed the assemblage, and explained to the Spanish-speaking 
population the objects of the meeting. On motion ol < '. Sims, Esq., 
.1 committee was appointed to draft resolutions, expressive of the 
meeting. On motion the committee was composed of the following 
gentlemen: Dr, J. B. < rriffin, C. Sims. Captain K. S. bummer, JohnW. 
Shore, Don Andres Too, Dr. VVm. Jones, Captain E ward Hunter, 
Francisco Melius, im Thompson Don Tomas Sanchez, Abel Stearns, 

I \'i?o I , Coronal, Don Juan l'adilla, Don Luis Sansevaine, 

Jacob Klias, II, Penelone, llou. Mvron Norton. 

' 'n motion the meeting adjourned lor one hour to give time for prep- 

arjiti i resolutions. About one o'clock the meeting was called to 

order in pursuance of adjournment, when the committee submitted 
the follow in- preamble and resolutions, which were unanimously 
adopted: — 

W ii i HE \s. This meeting is well convinced by severe experience that 

we have a ttgst us :i great number of thieves, robbers and murderers, 

who have Btolen our property, murdered our citizens, and from whom 

we are in hourly danger of our lives; therefore 

Kexofotd, That a committee of twenty citizens be appointed to 
inquire into and hear of any and all persons making complaint or 
accusation into the character, conduct and occupation of all disorderly 
and suspicious prisons, and that upon the order of such committee 
the said persons may he released, or sent out of the country, and that 
the military formed from the people for the purpose of preventing and 
restraining the disgraceful violations of the law and order in this 
community, hold themselves in readiness under the order of the com- 
mittee to carry out its directions. 

I, That we, the people, are adverse to the shedding of blood, 
and desire to avoid Buch necessity; and we pledge our lives and 

honors (hat we will not take away the life of any man unless lie Is 
found resisting the proper authority, which we have found it nec- 
essary to confide to the committee, or in some other way disturbing 
or threatening the public peace by demonstrations with arms. 

/. That all person-, found assembled in the county of Los 
Angeles, or on the roads or highways, with arms, unless they belong 
io some mil tary company shall lie arrested and disarmed. unlei-s they 
give satisfactory account of themselves: and that the military com- 

panies formed fit the citizens shall be under the general control of 

the Sheriff of the county. 

Unsolved, that the following gentlemen compose said committee: 
Hon. W. <;. Dryden, Francis Melius, Don Augustine 01 vera, Abel 
Stearns, Don Tomas Sanchez. Dr. J. 8. Griffin, Dr. J. B. Winston, 
Captain Edward Hunter, Don Cristoval Aguilar, Don Antonio I 
Coronel, John Foster, 1 >r. Stephen C. Foster, Don Luis Sansevaine, 
J. G. Downey. Jacob Klias, D. Marshessault, J. S. Milliard, J. G. 
No hois. Collins Wadbams, Hon. B. D. Wilson. 

Resolved, That it shall require a majority of the committee to sen- 
tence a man to be expelled from the country; it was further 

Ttetolved, That one thousand copies of the proceedings and resolu- 
tions be printed id hand-bill form, for distribution— five hundred in 
Spanish and five hundred English. 

Rewlved, That a committee of five be appointed by the meeting 
to collect voluntary subscriptions for the purpose of aiding our cit- 
izens in carrying out and enforcing the foregoing resolutions. 

Upon motion the following gentlemen were nominated said committee: 
Don Juan Padilla, Ignacio Coronel. Abel Stearns, Dr. J. B. Winston. 
H. Penelone. It was then moved that all parties who had not 
enrolled their Dames in Major Harvey's company be requested to 
come forward and enroll themselves ready for duty. On motion the 
meeting adjourned. Myron Norton, Chainna?i. 

H. N. Alexander, (Secretary. 

A short time before this a Vigilance Committee was forme. Vat 
San Gabrnl, and a number of dangerous persons expelled from 
the community. 

The following statistics for the year 1856, are gleaned from 
the Star columns: — 

CtfLos Angeles County Assessor to the Surveyor-General for the year 



Wbeat 442 acres. 

Oats _ _ 59 ,. 

Barley .""_"_" " 3.532 " 

Corn _ 4Q24 .< 

Broom-corn ... _ 45 ., 

BeaDS - - - -V "-V " "'.'.'.'. 70 » 


Saddle-horses and marea 2760 

35™ ■; " " - — ... ::: sUm 

Work mules 9 ao 

Wild " .......". "28 

Asses "_"_" 2g 

Tame cows Oiao 

S™ 09,438 

\\ oik- oxen ss ., 

fc":::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Jg 



Carts - - "J 

Buggies ™ 

Carriages _ ^* 

Stage-coaches 2 ^ 

Threshing-machines J? 


Corn mill 1 

1 34,0( w 




Vines bearing .592,400; do. young 

Apple* " 460; " " 

Apricots*' 700; *' " 

A foes 0; Almonds 

Citron 12; Cherry 

Currants 1,000; Fig, old 

Fig, young 100; do. Cochineal.. 

Lemon, bearing .10; " young .50 

Nectarines '.>- 

( (ranges, hearing 151; do. young 4^00 

• Hives " 517: - " ""-'.'.""."..' 60 

Plums, young Ml 

1'omegranates, bearing.. 340; do. young Yoi4 

Pine-apples _ _ ' gy 

Pears, old 1,304; do. young .1,000 

Bermagot ' 19 

Poaches, bearing 3,378; do. young ' 49 658 

Quince. " 146; " " ' gg 

Raspberry, young i^ooo 

\\ a 1 nuts, hearing 806; do. young \; t \ 

There are three grist-mills in the county, all of wkiehan 
worked by "motive power." 

The number of acres assessed in the county (the lands for 
which the occupants have no government title as yet being 
omitted) isone million three thousand nine hundred and thirty. 


Value of land s 402 219 00 

" " improvements 230,336 00 

' city property 187,582 00 

" improvements 457,535 00 

" personal property 1,213 07:1 00 

Total value of real estate and per- 
sonal property 82,490,750 00 


Showing the amount and value of domestic produce, shipped coastwise 
from the port of San Pedro, from July 1, 1856, to March 31, 1857; also 
imports for the same term. 

Beans lbs 136,345 Value 

Barley Iba _ . 36,700 

Corn Tits _. . 643,300 

Corn meal ths . . 34,000 

Grapestba __ 1,427,710 

Oranges, other fta Iba 56,373 

Hides No. of 12,517 

Salt, bushels 11,016 

Wine, gallons 25.655 " 

Wool. Iba 73,859 

8 5,353 

l.on 1 
] 1.274 

Miscellaneous produce b\7l8 

Aggregate exports tons 2,226 Value $233,636 


General merchandise, tons _ 

Lumber thousands- 

Shingles, thousands. ....... . . 




Duringthe same period there were entered eighty-two vessels, tid- 
ing an aggregate tonnage of twenty-six thousand nine hundred and 
fifty-two and fifty-one eighty-fifths, employing one thousand on* 
hundred and sixty. -even men: cleared. Beventy-niue vessels having an 
aggregate tonnage of twenty-six thousand nine hundred and fortv-hV 
and eighty eighty-fifths, employing one thousand one hundred and 
thirty-one men. 

Residence fts Ranch of THOMAS CAREY, Vernon District. 
Los Angeles C° Cal . 

m£l2£id*A*--kV^P$MPS t 2h + ^ f J^" 



1 857. 

Thia year was marked by the murder of Sheriff Barton and 
party by Floras and Ilia band, a lull account of which appears 
in our chapter on crimes; by considerable uneasiness among 
the good people til Los Angtli-M county, owing to the hostile 
attitude of the Mormons at Salt Lake. Almost with fche begin- 
ning of the year, troops began to move through the citj going 
tu various points upon fche frontier. The excitement culmi- 
nated when news of the " Mountain Meadow Massacre 
arrived. Thus we read under date — 

October 17th— A mass meeting of the citizens of Los Angeles 
convened at tin- pavilion, on the plaza. October L2, 1857, to in veal igate 
the facta in the recent massacre on the Salt Lake road, of more than 
one hundred Americans. The meeting was organized by the election 
of Mr. George N. Whitman, chairman. The meeting was addressed by 
l>r. Andrews, Messrs. Sparks, Margradge, Chapman nnd others. Atan 
adjourned meeting held the following day, it was resolved that the 
atrocious act WSB perpetrated by the Mormons, and their allies, the 
Indians; and that the President of the United States should take 
prompt measures lor the punishment of the murderers. 

And again : — 

December C— A large number of citizens of Los Angeles, assembled 
at the Montgomery House for the purpose of pre venting the sale of arms 
In the Mormons. The proclamation of Hrigham Ynurig, declaring 
Utah Territory under martial law, was read by the Chairman. The 
meeting wa-t addressed by J. It. Scott, Esq., who staled that there had 
been and still are, large quantities of arms and ammunition constantly 
di-|i.Hed of to the Mormon* by merchants of Los Angri.-, and i hat con- 
siderable quantities were received on the steamer yesterday, for imme- 
diate transportation to Utah, by Mormon wagons, now waiting for the 
same. The following petition, presented by M. Keller, was aeeepted, 
and signed by the officers of the meeting: — 

"To lien. \V. IS. Clark, < 'nimnaiidiiig I Jeneral ut' Pari fir. Department: 
—Recent and reliable information seems to be established, that it is 
the intention of the Mormons to oppose the United States by force of 
arms. They need horses, cattle, provisions, and clothing, all of which 
they see in our possession. If they were determined upon making the 
foray, they could pour one thousand live hundred of their men, assisted 
by a large number of Indians, through the Cujon Pass into our unpro- 
tected valley, inside of thirty days. We, therefore/invite your atten- 
tion to these facts, and earnestly request you to take such steps as you 
think proper." 

The following editorial appeared in the Los Angeles Star 
under .late December 20th: — 


The exposed position of this district, lying on the confines of the 
State, and open to irruption by the Mormon forces, has attracted the 
attention of the Commander of the Pacific Department, General Clark, 
who has issued certain orders to the troops ju this district. Wears 
enabled to state, on authority, the following movements: Major Blake, 
Commanding at San Diego, is ordered to take pi st at Martins Ranch, 
at the mouth of the Cajon Pas*, with the Staff, band, and all the mounted 
men of bis command. Lieutenant Mercer of Fort Tejon, is also under 
orders, with his company for the same place. Dr. Ten Broeck is to 
accompany Lieutenant Mercer's command. Lieuetiant W, T. Magru- 
der. Regimental l^mir lerniuster, First Dragoons, is authorized to furnish 
stores and transportation* fur his euminand. The united force, it is 
(apposed, will amount to about eighty men, and are to hold themselves 
in readiness for a march to the Colorado. 

In tins year Anaheim was founded by a colony of Ger- 
mans See chapter on Anaheim 


During 1858 there was a marked and stead) rise in Los 
real estate, and general prosperity throughout the 
county was the rule. 

There were many Indian depredations, and some murders 
were also committed bj neighboring tribe ;a com ponding 
activity in military circles was visible, in January two hun- 
dred soldiers arrived from \-w fork •■-» route for San 
Bernardino twenty-six days from Vu York), and in Jul} 
one hundred and fifty dragoons under < Japtain 1 >ai id on, bound 

ft" Fort Buchanan to Fort Tejon The novel spectacle of 

camels, as pack animals was now frequently seen in the 


January 8th— a drove of fourteen camels under the management 
of Lieutenant Beale, arrived in Loa Angeles. They were on their way 
fro.n Fort 'l ejon to < tolorado river and the Mormon country, and each 
animal was parked with one thousand pounds of provisions and mili- 
tary stores. With this load they made from thirty to forty miles per 
day, finding their own subsistence in even the most barren country, 

and going without water from six to ten days at a time. 

.hi v 21. 1858.— The enmels, eight in number, came into town from 
Fort Tejon, after provisions for that camp. The largest ones pack a 
ton, and can travel i light i sixteen miles tin hour. 

In this year the "Pacific and Atlantic Telegraph Com- 
pany," organized under Act of the Legislature, to construct a 
Hue of telegraphic communication from San Francisco to San 
Antonio, Texas, via Los Angeles, and the line of the < treat Over- 
land Mail Route from San Francisco to Memphis, Tenn. 

Regular terms of the United States District Cuurt, were 
held, Commencing on the first Monday of March, September, 
and December, in each year. 

Theix- was considerable trade with the frontier during thi 
year. Thus we read under date — 

March 14. — Captain Banning, with a wagon train of seven ten- 
mule teams, passed through Los Angeles, running from Han Pedro to 
Fort Yuma. Each team was loaded with fifty cwt., and made Fort Yuma 
from Li s Angeles in thirteen days — two hundred and eighty miles. 
No accident and good success. 

Early in June, all public records of Loa Angeles county, per- 
taining to the history thereof under Spanish and Mexican 
rule, were demanded by the Surveyor-General of California 
from the Recorder of the county. The ba.sis of the demand 
was an Act recently passed by the Legislature. The Recorder 
at first refused, but subsequently was obliged by his sureties 
to grwe in, and the records were removed to San Francisco. 
The local papers denounced the proceeding a.s an outrage. 

In the Los Angeles Soutkern Vineyard, of September 18, 
1858, was published the following list of 


From the Assessor's returns as corrected by the Board of Equaliza- 
tion, we copy the following list of tax-payers, whose property L- assessed 
at ten thousand dollars or more : — 

Abila, Juan 


Beaudry. P 


Maehade. Andres 


Bishop A Beale 


Melius, Francis (agen 




Mascarel, Jose (agent). 
Palomares, Xgnacio 


Bachman A Co 



* or me), Antonio 


Pico, Vndrea 8 Pio 


A Barker 


Pico & Celis 

i i 

CorbitI .\ Dibblt e 


Roland, Juhn 


ater, Samuel 

. 12,650 

Ml Mitliliel 

i ■ .. 

0. W 


Sepulveda, Jom Dolores 


1 tominguez, Manuel 

10, 142 

Sepulveda, Jose 


d a . Naaario 


Bainsi i line, Bros 


Doniin ■ 


i r, Jon 


Del V;ill.'. 'i gnacic 

■ Oi . 

Stearns, Lbel 


Dal ton, I [enrj 

[ 1,018 

Temple, John 


l 'n. ommun, i ftarles 


reraph . Francis 

Foi iter, Juan 


Vi in. Ricnrdo 



Wilson. B D 

\\ .'i kni:iii. William 


Keller. Matthew 

Lugo, Vincente 


Wolftklll, William 


Li \ ii _■■ -i - Vine 

1 M.I IOO 

Vorba, Bernadn 


Lazard <v Wolfckill .. . 


ITorba, Teodooio 


Blacbado, Augartin 

. L0,692 

1 N.V.I. 

January 9th About fifty ladies and gentlemen of Loa 
Lngeles, by invitation of Phineas Banning, Esq., enjoyed an 
excursion by stage to San Pedro, thence in I', s, Surveying 
Steamship Active to Santa t 'atalina Island, and return. 

Trade with Utah was good this year. 

February 1 ith we read: — 

The trade through and from Loa Angeles to Utah la rapidly on the 
increase. '1'his is caused partially by the growing ability of the inlet hit 
ant- ni (tab to purchase h greater amount of goods. The principal cause 
of the greal trade through our city blowing to the Fact that it fa becom- 
ing known by men engaged in Introducing goods Into Utah, thai the 
goods can be taken over this mute with less expense and less risk, and 
in less time, than by any other route. Since the first oi January there 
has left ihi-t city a hunt sixty wagons loaded with goods for that market, 
the value From Bixtj thousand to seventy thousand dollars. There is 

now "ii the waj hi re nol [< than one hundred tons of j Is in 

to Utah. The transportation will take about one hundred Is ^i^r- 

SI akch l-t -Since the first nit., including those that will leave 
to-day, there bas left this city not less than one hundred and fifty 

wagons loaded with goods for Utah, The gross value of th I 

here must be about one hundred and eighty thousand dollars 

March Lita— Goller & Tomlinsoii sent forty teams to Salt Lake 
loaded with merchandise. 

In April, Bachman <t Co.'s agent returned from a three months 
trip to Salt Lake with six loaded teams of g Is. Hi own -Late of 

the profits amounted to two thousand dollars per month. 

April 19th — The contract was let for erection of telegraph 
line from San Jose* to Los Angeles. 

April 23d— A company of dragoon from Fort Tejon pa ed 
through Los Angeles, escorting a treasure wagon bearing five 

hundred thousand dollars to 'Salt Lake to pay otf troop 

In August, a dispute occurred between Jose* Rubio, a Cali 
fornian, and Doctor Downey about a debt, resulting in a chal- 
lenge from Rubio to Downey. Gen. Andres Pico wa bearer 
of the hostile message. Dr. Downey refused to fight, upon the 
ground that Rubio was not his equal, whereupon Gen. Pico, as 
per rode, adopted the quarrel as his own, and challi □ 



Downej A meeting eemed 
-ii led i»\ inl 

Tl,, folio* ing dome tic produa ■ ipcd rrom San Pedro 

during thi ■ ■ - August :il 185! 

Grapi 1,350,0001b Value % 07.000 

Hides, fl,O00 " ::; '-'" " 

Corn, 500,000 lbs, " '"■ IHMI 

Wine, 200,( ;alt " ISA 

Wool, 200, b " 13,000 

i. , , llaneoufl produce, L,000 pacl age " 20,000 

Total, " WW 

I : h1 |, i date Octobei 29th, wc find the following: 

On the 29th the trl-colored flagof I raoce was unfurled to the breeze 

for the Brat time in out city, bj e r< idonl re] native ol thai I (oi ■ 

.■I lit. Mr. Moerenhaut, who baa been appointed consul by the 

French Emperor to reside in this city, raised tin- consular Bag, amidst 
,i,,. cheers of a large number of French citizens, accompanied by a 
numbei of \ moi ii i 

a i. i j . p. a, al I seventy five gentle i it at the Potre I 

Pon Luis Bainsevalne, and after electing Dr. Glbelin du Poy President 

of the meeting, n procession was then i< id which proceeded to the 

ulnr residence, where an oration was prnn ced by M. Bouza. 

V naluto of eleven guns was fired by the city artillery from the emi- 
nence in the real oi the city, during which the Hag of France was 

di played The a lembl i, preceded by the Consul, supported by 

the Mayoi of the city, D. Marshewault, and the President, M. G. du 
p j tool up the line uf march on its return to the beautiful ^ruve >•( 
M, Bninsevaine; a band ol music marched in advance of the procession. 
r,, ,,,.. i b rough I h< principal streets of the city and around the plaza, 
ii H company arrived on the grounds, where a collation was spread. 

\ i i eic lit j pei ions Bal dow d al I be tables. 

\ ii*-, partakin ■ ol wine and refreshments, the "sparkling California " 
of Mi • Bninsevaine made its appearance, when the President proposi d 
iIm benltli of the Consul, to winch Mr. Moerenhaut briefly but pprti- 
nently responded, and in conclusion proposed the health of the Em- 

i r Napoleon III., which was received with great acclamation. 

1 1. klarshessault, Mayor ol Los Angeles, then gave— The health of the 
President ol the United States, which was drank amidst prolonged 
vivas, \\. Delangre gave a toast America and her citizens. Col. 

J. J. Waruei gave a toast To eternal friendship and perpetual bar ny 

between France and America and their citizens. M. Mulct drank— To 
Fruuce and the prosperity of the French in America. M. Delangre 

.i\, The health oi the Mayor and Mr. Warner, member elect of the 
i e ■ i lature, Mr. Sainaevaine gave— To tl" 1 union of the French resi- 

dents of Los Angeles, their good Bpirit and c luct. M. Delangre 

rli mi, i,, the President and M. Bainsevaine. 

After a good time generally, aud the spontaneous outbursts of fraternal 
roeling, the compaoy, preceded by music, escorted the Consul to his 
residence, where three cheers were given to the French Hag, and three 
more for the Consul, when the compnny dispersed, highly gratified 

ivith the occasiou and with one another. 

In December, 1859, "hard times" was the tune throughout 
Los Angeles count} . and money was hard to raise. 


In the spring of L860 there waa considerable emigration to 
Texas from Lbs Angeles county. This was attributed to the 
difficulty experienced by white laborers in procuring work, 
mosl ol ili' vineyards employing Indians and Chinamen. 

The event of the year was the completion of the telegraph 

line from San Francisco to Los Angeles. The first intelligible 

. message was received in the latter cityfrom the former about 

/ .s o'clock i'. M, of i October Sth. A grand ball was -hen in Los 

thai night in honor of the event During theevening 
made by E. J. C. Cewen, Esq.,and V McOelliah, 
Esq. The followii - were also sent and received: 

Log avoeles, Monday Evening, October 8th, 10 o'clock p.m. 

II. F. I. ■ I.. I,..,. I, er. K>-\., I' I'^-anl of Supervisors, Sail 

Francisco: Allow me, on behali of the eitisena of Los Angeles, to send 

■ ting oi fellowship and p 1 feeling on the completion of the 

line of telegraph which now binds the two cities together. 

Hem:y Mm i.i b, Mayor Los Angeles. 

Sax Fkav rs< 0, ' Ictober 9, L860. 
Henrv Melius, Esq., Mayor Los Angeles: Sour dispatch has just 
been received, On behalf of the citizens of San Francisco I congrat- 
ulate Los Angeles, trusting that the benefit may be mutual. 

II. F. Teschbhachbb, Pres. Board Supervisors. 

Thenexl morning, Senator Latham, assisted by a vast con- 
course of citizens, planted thefirst telegraph polefor the line 
extending east from Los Angeles. Toward this line aboui 
eighteen thousand dollars in stock was subsequently subscribed 
by the citizens of Los Angeles county. 

The yen: L86] was an anxious period for the whole Union, 
and Los Angeles county bore her full share of the current trib- 
ulation. There were "wars and rumors of wars." and every 
man distrusted his neighbor. They who had formerly met as 
friends, met qow as enemies; and a man's foes were they of 

his own I sehold. Political differences lie not within the 

province of this work; suffice it only to say that throughout 
that mighty struggle, while the life of the Union pulsed feebly 
and painfully, as though a breath might overturn the balance, 
Los Angeles county ever polled an overwhelming Democratic 
majority, and no Republican could hope for office. 

MAY 21st— Hon. Isaac S. K. Ogier, United States District 
Judge of the Southern District of California, died of apoplexy 
at Bear valley. His funeral took place on the 23d, and was 
attended by all officers of the United States then in town, 
Judges, members of the Bar, and a large concourse of citizens. 
Company lv of the First United States Dragoons, escorted 
the remains. 

May 25th— There was a grand Union demonstration in Los 
Angeles. A national banner was presented by Major P. 
Manning on behalf of the citizens to the Union Club, and was 
accepted by C. Sims, Esq., President of the Club, in an appro- 
priate speech. The following account of the procession is from 
the New:— 

The procession formed in the following order: Manual and two 
aids; Band of First Dragoons; L09 Angeles Greys, thirty men; Cali- 
fornia Pioneers; clergy; Union Club, one hundred and fifty member.*; 
Company K First Dragoons, fifty men : Mayor; Common Council and 
Municipal officers; French Benevolent Society ; Los Angeles Band; 
citizens on foot : citizens on horse. 

The procession marched around the plaza to Main street, down Main 
to Spring, up Spring to First, down First to Main, up Main to the 
Court House, where the procession halted, preparatory to hoisting the 
flag. A prayer was then given by Rev. Mr. Boardman. At a signal 

from the Marshal, the National Flag was alowly unfurled to the breeze, 
the band struck up the "Star Spangled Banner," and thirty-four guns 
were tired — one for every State in the Union. Speeches were then 
made by the following gentlemen : Ceneral Drown. Major Carlton, and 
Captain Hancock. 

AUGUST 16th— Was marked by the funeral, with miltarj 
honors, of James Battey, oldest enlisted soldier in the First 
1 lagoons 

Skptembeb 13th — A company of volunteers were being 
raised in Los Angeles, to form a part of the five thousand 
ordered from this State. 

During this month the volunteer forces were encamped on the 
Ballona Ranch. While there one of the companies from above 
had their coffee doctored with croton-oil by some malicious 
persun, which came very near being fatal to several of the men. 

In Mr. H. 1*. Harrows correspondence of the San Francisco 
Bulleivn under date September 26th, appears the following:— 

The United States Hotel here, which was tabooed by Captain 
Davidson on account of Secession influence, and an order issued that 
no soldier at this point should enter it, nor the Bella Union either. I 
believe, under penalty of court-martial, has changed hands, and is now 
kept by a good Union German ; and the stars and stripes raised over 
it, and the order withdrawn. 

And again under date — 

OOTOBEB 26th— The regular troops stationed in the southern country 

are rapidly concentrating at San Pedro to lake passage on the Panama 
bound steamers en route for the East. Major Ketch um'd command, 
from San Bernardino, are already nearly all here ; Captain Davidwn'n 
and the dragoons leave here to-morrow. 

A subscription of one hundred dollars per month has been raised by 
our citizens for which we ar* 1 to receive daily dispatches from the Eoafc 

OcTOBEB 30th— Companies B and K First Dragoons, left Lob Ang- 
eles the L'7tb for New San iVdro, whence they will probably sail lor 
the Atlantic States November 4th, on board the Pacific Company'* 
steamer Golden Qate. 

November 11th— The telegraph line between LosAngeles 
and New San Pedro was completed. 


Tiiis year opened up with heavy rain-storms, but these were 
but the precursor to the exceeding drought of L8G2-3, which 
destroyed many cattle. From this out the exports of hides 
and tallow fell off rapidly. 

The county still maintained her now habitual military 
appearance, and in January we find three steamers at one 
time, unloading troops at San Pedro. On the 17th of that 
month there were one thousand men there encamped. There 
were also a large number of soldiers encamped at Fort Latham 
on the Ballona Ranch under Colonel Forman. The following 
account of the Fourth of July celebration at this latter camp, 
is from the A GW8 of July 9th : — 

In pursuance of custom, at morning reveille a salute of thirteen gum 
was fired. About 10 o'clock a large number of ladies and gentlemen 

from LOB Angeles and vicinity had arrived to attend the c\ervi-e- : fl 

grand review and aress parade of the troops under command ofOolonel 
Forman, which lasted about on- hour. Washington's farewell address 


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"SAN MARINO'' Residence or J.DE BARTH SHORB, San Gabriel T.f LosAngelesC? 



ns then read by Adjutant William Forrey. The Declaration of 
Independence was read by Lieutenant Matthew Sherman, which pro- 
jncea many outbursts of enthusiasm. \i one o'clock all were invited 
to partake of a most generous and wholesome collation prepared and 

spread for the occasion by the gallant commander of the Fourth Regi- 
ment California Volunteers. The dinner-hour being interwoven with 
patriotic sentiments, sweet music, etc., etc. Everything passed oil 
very pleasantly, and nothing occurred to mar the festivities of the day. 

The i\\frei-e> <-f the day were closed with a salute of thirty-four gun's. 

In October following, Camp Latham was broken up, and 
the troops there stationed, removed to San Pedro. Cinder 

date October 'M, we read in the N~ewa: — 

Sanitary Fund— A subscription paper is being circulated in Los 

Angeles fur the alleviation of the sufferings Of our sick and wounded 

soldiers. One hundred dollars has already been paid in, and between 
three or four hundred dollars subscribed. One hundred dollars were 
lubscribed at Old San Pedro, and four hundred and fifty dollars raised 
at New Ban Pedro. 

And again : — 

NOVEMBER 14, 1862.—Colonel Bown and stall' arrived at New San 
Pedro on the 90) inst. with two companies, J and K, of Fifth Infantry. 
Tin- troops erosfled the desert from Fort Yuma to New San Pedro in 

fifteen days. 

In the latter part of November small-pox broke out among 
the Indians of Los Angeles City and spread rapidly. A pest- 
house was established on the outskirts of the city 


The small-pox which bad broken out in November preced- 
ing spread rapidly with the new year, principally among the 
Mexican and [ndian population. Nearly every house in 
Sonora town had out a yellow flag, and as many as fourteen 
were known to die in one day. When at last it iii<l subside, 
about March following, it was only for want of material to 
work on, The majority of the Los Angeles City Indians were 
dead, hes'iilc* many throughout other portions of the county, 
especially at San Juan Capistrano, where it broke out and 
raged early in the year. 

Daring the early months large numbers of troops left 'the 
county for Fort Yuma. Major Henry Hancock remained in 
Command at Fort Drum (San Pedro). 

The notable event of this year was the explosion in San 
Pedro Harbor of the strainer Adu hancock, on April 27th, 
and a large consequent loss of life, The following account of 
this sad affair is abstracted from the columns of the News: — 

" aha HANCOCK " and LOSS OF life. 
On Monday evening, April 27, 18G3, one of the most terrible 
casualties that lias probably ever occurred in this State took place 
io the harbor of Ban Pedro, in the destruction of P. Banning'* 
•teamer, the J </" Hancock, and the loss of nearly all on hoard. The 
•teamer had made one trip out to the Senator, which was to sail tbiit 
evening foi San Francisco, and had started out for the second, with all 
the passengers on hoard ; when about half a mile from shore the explo* 
■on of her boiler took place, rending the unfortunate boat to fragments 
and scattering her human freight in all directions, either billing them 
outright or teriounly wounding many. It seems to be pretty generally 
understood that there were on board at the time of the disaster about 

fifty p< rsons, and ol that number fifteen or sixteen were saved, many 
of them burnt, .,r wounded by particles of the wreck striking them. 
Un reception of the intelligence in Li - Angelesof this terrible 
which was received about eight o'clock in tl 

-"' :il,M •■■'"'■"" i I and conaten whohad relative- or 

friends whom they supposed were on board the ill-fated b teamer were 
oearlj beside themselves with anxiety and fear for the won 
quences. Immediately a large number of tl.. procured 

■ : "" 1 pro.-.-ed«.d i„ ihe -. . ,,. ,,f the calamity. Dra. Hayes and 
Griffin also repaired to the spot and, to ■ ■ k Dr. Todd 6 a 

mitigated as far as possible the sufferiigs of the anfortunafc 
soldiers at Camp Drum were also on band to render assistance, and 
many of them acted nobly. Boats wen- dispatched immediately after 
the explosion, to pick up every one that could be discov. n d de id i ■ 

alive. Shenfl M s, from 8an Bernardino, had just arrived al the 

beach as the Ada Hone**.-/, left tin- landing and was a iVu 
too late to get on hoard. He saw the explosion and says the -■ ■ 

awful in the extreme; the boiler and wheel-house he saw precipitated 
into the air probably a distance of twenty feet, and he also distin- 
gui bed the persons of four mm m the air at the same time, Hie 
vessel was shattered to fragments, with the exception of the portion 
bdow the water line, which, by tin .■ . , ol I be explosion, was plunged 
dCi p in the sand. A Citizen named Fred KYiJin, [i is said, ! 
thirty thousand dollars (mostly in greenbacks) on Ins person when be 
left Los Angeles, and when his body was recovered not a dollai could 
be found, and it was afterwards charged that many otbei bodies bad 
been robbed of money and jewelry. 

The number of killed was twenty-sis. among whom were the 

following: Thomas W. Seely, Captain of the steamer Senator; Wm. 
Ritchie, express messenger of Wells, Fargo & Co Joseph Bryant, 
Captain of the steamer Ada Hancock; Wm. T. D. Ban ford, Los 
Angeles: Thos. H. Workman, chief clerk of Mr. Banning; Albeit 
Sidney Johnson, dr., Los Angeles; Dr. II. l;. Myles, Los ( . 
Louis Schlesinger, LosAngelei. The bodies ol Captain T. W. Seely, 
Win. Ritchie, and F. E. K'erlin were taken on board the Senator and 
conveyed to San Francisco for interment. The funeral of Thos. II. 
Workman look place from the residence of bis mother in Los Angeles, 
on Wednesday, April 29th. .Mr. Workman was an upright, high-minded 
and honorable man and his untimely death was mourned by a large 
circle of friends. 

Dr. H. R. Myles, also a resident of Los Angeles, was interred by Los 

Angeles Lodge, No. 35, 1.0. O.F., of? which society he was ait este< med 
officer and member. He had for many years been a resident 
Angeles county, and possessed a large circle of warm friend Che 
body of Albert Sidney Johnson, Jr., was recovered the SOth, and was 
taken to Los Angeles. 1 1 is funeral took place from the residi nee of 
Dr. J. S. ( irillin the following day. The body of Mr. Louis Schlesinger 
was recovered .May 1st. His funeral took place on the 3d. He was 
interred in the Jewish cemetery. The remains were followed to the 
grave by a large number of citizens, The body of Mr. Levy, of San 
Bernardino, was not found until May 5th, when it was brought to Los 
Angeles the day foil. .win- and also interred in the Jewish cemetery. 

•■ At a meeting of the Los Angeles Lodge, No. 35, I. 0. 0. F.. held 
Wednesday-, April 29, 1863, the following resolution was offered and 
unanimously adopted: — 

"Resolved, That from an unfeigned respect to our iate Brother, Dr. 
Henry R. .Myles. the chairs of the Past, Noble and Vice < - rand i espi c- 
tively, as also the Charter of our Lodge, be shrouded in black during 
the remainder of the present term; and as a further testimony of 
respect the members of Los Angeles Lodge. Xo. 35, I. O. 0. F., will go 
into mourning and wear the usual badge thereof fur thirty days." 

.Tri.v 4tlt was passed without notice, the fate of the Union 
being about an even question at this time* 

JULY 8fch— Colonel Curtis arrived, ami assumed command 
of the Los Angeles Military District. 

Under date August 3d, H. D. Barrows writes: — 

On July 31st a detachment of troops belonging to the Fourth Infantry, 
0. V., arrived in Los Angeles from Camp Drum. New San Pedro, and 
camped on the left bank of the Los Angeles river. The detachment 
numbered about one hundred men. They will be stationed in thia 

vicinity for some time, and it will be well for ■'unruly persons" to be 
a little quiet, especially when Union lake place. 

August 17th- General Ezra Drown, District Attorney of 
county, breathed his last at San Juan Capistrano, 
whither he had gone for the benefit of his health. H had 
been ill for some time, suffering from hoarl disease The bodj 
was brought to Log Ingvli - A long procession foil. -wed the 
remains t > their last home The Rags in the city were lowered 
to half-masl 

Under date of lugust :ilst we read in the .V. we: 

Died In] , August 30th, alter a brief illness .lames i;. 

Col. Vineyard was i native of Christian 

county, Kentucky; entered upon public life In earl} years, which be 

been his lot to pursue nlmosl constantly up to the time ol his death, at 

which time be was Plate Senator from Los Angeles county, rlis 

: took place at C p. «., august 31st, with Mosonij honors, The 

ouj bout the city were dropped to half mast, Id token of respect. 

He leaves i large circle ol relatives) an affei tionate wife, and innu 

mi rable friends to mourn bis loss. 

Si ptembeb 21st The troops quartered across the rii er 

returned to Camp Drum, not being able to | ;uro suitable 

winter quartern in Los Angeles. 

September 26th— There was a Union mass meeting in 
frontofthe Lafayette Hotel. Addresses were made 03 u. re 

Perkins, Monda) and others During this ami the succeed 

month there was a greal exodus of miners to the Colorado 
river and later to the mines of La Paz Great numbers of 
miners from the upper country passed daily through Los 

The following notes are copied from Mr H, It, Barrow .' 
correspondence of the Bulletin: — 

November 9, inc.:;- Today the enrollment, preparatory to the 

draft, was inaugurated in Los logeles. J. .1. Warner fas been 

ed Di putj Provost Marshal fur Los Angeled countj u m, L 

Ids has been appointed Enrolling Officer for each of the sub- 

. which he hoe divided into three lub dii 1 the .1- 

district ol Los Vngeles, He baa appointed a deputy enrolling officer 
for each 1 »t the Bub-di visions. The following are the mb-dlvi ion* 
with the name of the respective enrolling officer of each; 

1 Los Nietos, Santa Ana, San Juan, and San Pedro. Geo l» 
1- isber, enrolling officer. 

2. San Gabriel. El Monte. .San Jose. T. Jl. Burdlck enrolling 

3. City and township of Los Angeles and Tehachepe. John Kvert 
sen. enrolling officer. 

NovEMBEE 25, 1863— A company of cavalry arrived in Low Angeles 
Iron, 1 amp Drum, also Company E, Fourth Infantry, under command 
of Capt. Hillyer. They are quartered on the outskirtsof the town. 
lbi-y were ordered here to preserve peace. 

NOVEMEEB 27, 1868— The companies of troops from * 'ami. Drum 
which arrived in this city on the 25th, are camped on the plaza! 
Capt. Gorham is in command of the cavalry, and ("apt. Hillyer ol the 
infantry. The town bears unite a military appearance. 

NOVEMBEE 27. 1863— By an order of Col. Curtis, Camp Drum will 
be called Drum Barracks after December lot, 

Decembeb 16, 1868— Col. James F. Curtis. Commander of the 
Military District, and Major Hancock, have been ordered to San I i in 
Cisco. They left per steamer the flth inst. 

The following we copy from the News; — 

Pecemheb 16, 1863 — Among the recent payments made into the 



State treaiturj by county treasurers we notice that Los '■■ 

paid it. i bi i boj n im oi is teen do I ■ 

this, perhaps, may be accounted f<»r from the fact that the taxes for 

thi pre enl year are not jret collected and paid in. At the least calcu- 

tbirt) thousand 01 forty thousand dollars are annually i ol 

in this < nty, and expended in lome manner, without reducing the 

eoormous debt saddled upon the property owners of the county one 
cent. Hut instead the debl i* Increasing day by day. Countj scrip 
i ...iii, comparatively nothing. It Is a drug In the market. 

Almiit tin time ii wb determined by the military authori- 
bit to take entire possession of Santa Catalina Island, and 
many mini r being at this time i ogagcd thereon the following 
ordi i '■. a i ued:- — 

Headqcabteiuj, Dai u Babbacks, December 25, 1863. 
in compliance with instructions from Headquarters, Department <»f 
the Pacific, received this day, 1 hereby notifyaU pa oni on Catalina 
Island to '""■-■ ik> .i'tnK be/or* '/<< ftrstoj February next. 

B. R. West, 
Captain Fourth California Infantry, Commanding Poat, 


Jani ux\ With the ne^i year small-pox again made its 
appearance in Los Angelas, but does not appear to have been 
irerj Berioim. Enrollmenl of the county progressed Toward 
the end oil Hie month a full company of calvary arrived at 
I )i inn Barracks. 

I' i mil \iiv During February there was considerable excite- 
ment in mining circles over reports of fresh strikes at the 
Colorado river mines. Imperative orders arrived from Wash- 

ingl lirecting the military authorities to assume a1 once 

exclusive possession of Santa Catalina [sland. Much to the 
ehagrin of miners and sheep-owners thereon, the following 
order was accordingly issued: — 

Headquarters, Santa Catalina Island,/ 
Special Order No. 7. Februsiry .">. 1864. \ 

No person or persons other tlimi owners of stuck, incorporated com- 

I es employes, will be allowed to remain on the Island on or after 

this dote; nor will any person be allowed to land until further instruc- 
i n- are reo ived from Washington. I herein- notify miners prospect- 
ing, or other persons, to leave immediately. By order 

B. K. Wbst, 
Captain Fourth California Infantry, Commanding Post. 

M\i;i'ii Early in March o srous bands of Cahuilla 

and other Indians, began to arrive from Toros in a starving 
condition, seeking for the means wherewith to sustain life, 
Company H. First Cavalry, arrived at Drum Barracks with 
their horses and accoutrements. 

\ikii. 26th— This Company left for the Rio Grande, under 
command Major Gorman. 

Ma^ "'tli -Mr. II D. Barrows writes to the San Francisco 
" :— 

Business is dull and times are exceedingly hard. Much suffering 
and destitution among the poorer classes of the population in this 
pari oi tin- suite are anticipated before another ra in v season comes 
round. Hitherto the lowej class of Mexicans, when 'worst came to 

Ould Steal beef rather than starve ; but most of the cattle have 

or have been driven away, and there are very few left for 
them to lt« d. Ordinarily they might make a shift to live on atoh fn- 

., but many poor families have not even their 
left them with which to plow >o as to put in cropland besides, 
here, within the city limits where lands are susceptible of irrigation, 
IS about the only place that anything can be made to grow. 

\\ ••have a new ordinance this spring which requires the water to be 

paid for in advance, instead of after the crops are made as heretofore. 

fears an entertained that many pobret will have to starve 

on oi be di pendent on charity for the wherewithal to sustain 


May 10th— The following appears in the New:— 

On May Btn a detachment of native California cavalry, under com- 
mand Lieutenant Cox, arrived in Los Angeles from Drum Barracks, 
aroi arrested Mr. .f. l\ Bilderbeck, of Los Angeles, and immediately 
conveyed him to the barracks. The arrest was made by order of 
_oonel J. F.Curtis, military commander oi the Southern District of 
California. Mr. Bilderbeck was arrested on the charge of disloyalty; 
hi i. :■ mg public!} Bald, when conversing in regard to the Fori Pillow 
mawacre, - II, a in- hoped the Confederates would kill every negro who 
might he taken with arms in his hands, and every white man who 
might be in command of them or with them." 

May 28th— Company B of the Second Cavalry, undercom- 
mandoi Captain John C. Cremong, reached Drum Barracks 
from the Rio Grande, having been absent from California two 

July— The Fourth was passed without notice 

AUGUST — The native company of cavalry, organized at 
Santa Barbara, under command of Captain De la Guerra, were 
encamped on the outskirts of the city. < laptain W. O. Morris, 
acting assistant quartermaster at Drum Barracks, was 
exchanged with Captain W. F. Swasey, of Benicia. 

Si in mber— On the Loth the troops wen- withdrawn from 
Santa Catalina Island; and about the same time Fort Tejon 
was abandoned. 

0< roBEK 14th— A mammoth mass-meeting and Union rally, 
in front of the Lafayette Hotel, was addressed by Hon. T. g! 
Phelps, Hon. Ramon J. Hill, and Mr. Ybarra. 

November 1st— Another grand Union rally and torchlight 
procession at Los Angeles, which the people of Wilmington 
attended en masse. During this month many soldiers, whose 
period of service had expired, were mustered out. A large 
proportion of them settled in the county. 


During this year many large Mexican grants of land were 
Bub-divided ; crime only was active, apparently, and we have 
but little to relate of general interest. 

February— Soldiers' aid .societies were organized by Rev- 
J. H. Chapin, United States agent for the sanitary commission, 
in Los Angeles, Wilmington, and El Monte. 

APRIL 19th— A public funeral to the late murdered Presi- 
dent Abraham Lincoln, was held in Los Angeles. The town 
was draped in mourning, all business suspended, and the 
various societies marched in regalia. The procession was 
escorted by Captain Ledyard's Military Company. The relig- 
ious services were conducted by Rev. Elias Birdsall. Three 

nun were arrested by the military commander on the previou 
day for glorifying in the assassination, and were confined in 
Drum Barracks on a charge of treason. 

May 7th — Two more arrests were made on a similar charge 
JULY— We copy the following from the News' columns"— 

The celehration of the Fourth of July in Los Angeles, was rendered 
most unfavorable by the rain of the day and night previous and the 
rain which fell on that day, and continued until long after the hour at 
which the ceremonies of the day were to have commenced Uum 
deranging the entire programme of the dav. At one o'clock \> 
citizens repaired to the City Hall, where" the Hon. W E LoVett 
delivered an able address; music by the Los Angeles German Gin 
(.lull. 1 lie Declaration of Independence was read by Rev F Birdasll ■ 
also read by Mr. P. Ybarra, President of the Junta I'atriotica in 'the 
Spanish language. At the close the crowd of citizens repaired to the 
Los Angele-s (Jar.len. where a sumptuous dinner had been prepared hv 
the proprietors of the Lafayette Hotel. l J 

The exercises of the day "closed by the usual National salute at sun- 
set. Los Angeles was thronged the entire day with people from all 
parts ot the county. ^ 


This year was distinguished by a large increase of population to 
the count} , grreat business activity, and marked financial pros- 
perity. In the " Historical Sketch" before referred to (pa-es 
67, 68;, Dr. J. P. Widney, says:— 

The third period, or age, in the history of Los Angeles may be said 
to have commenced with the tide of immigration, which set in for 
southern California about the year 1866. 

to the new spirit and began to cast off their lethargy. Nail vessels and 

fhe'nMeP^. 1 ^ F" l "„ fref l uent «* P°rts. Steamer day usurped 
the place of poco tiempo' in the reckoning, of trade. Men of bU 

Sfift e ht y MT^ qufetyt °, 8ecUre '"'^tracts of land, and real 
n u «, , „ i I. T' ioreBee,n S the ^pid enhancement of values which 
must soon take place. 

Plp!?p e nu , I7 ig ™ t l 0n *K S not aIwa ^ made up of the more peaceable 
arte M If -m Me " « f 'l^^ionable character, men of no char- 
teui LV fi -Id ru 7 WM | P ,cntifuI - and th * gamblers found a con- 

nf dknntl u* reV0 ' Ver Shar , ed With the Courts in the settlement 
oi disputes. It is even reported that during a session of one of the 

of The 13 e8ty ° f thL * laW tWIed t0 re P^ the instinctive rehan 
and the ^S? XT! Up0D his wea P ons - Pist(,ls we " d ™ 
ud the stsi™ ?£♦ f' ™ y commandin £ the peace, rushed half way 
up the Btaira out of harm a way, and peeping cautiously over the rail- 

intr it tho on,,-,. At . . J ,' t"-<--t"»& vauuuusiv over me ran- 

be g d-d I to you r P 3 ° W ' teStily CaUed 0Ut : " ;W 9h00t ' and 

tolU'nVrv^nr • t °°' of P M ? t ? cal Joting; jokes oftentimes sadly trying 
upon a tii L innocet \ t V S \ tors from abroad - ^ is related that once 
par tvof vs^ f r! T' " f - tbe 1 I ? adin « citizens ^re entertaining a 
were^-onttn™' '; e ^'r arrived, in one of the saloons where the to» 
"iblv n tiannS h. ' -W* , h " nora of thfi dty to the strangers, pos- 

aHhe don u!? , ev ">:th,ng was lovely and serene, when a noi'e 
e R i,„TvioT « heir atEenli0 »- "3 their horrified gaze met 

sighted? l } !Lt 4 T. a \ g i 0< i mily g |aDCiQ ? at *•« «W ^e 

while a de e nfnfr v ,! lo ° ke d Uke a double-barreled colnmbiad. 

^AS^^^SSf^i '* r " sll00t - ^enifl don't kill 

to San Franeisco the next d^v aid Ui ?5 7^ *? "^ **** 
' u ua y- antJ . J t is said, forgot to return. 

The distance from Los Angeles to Salt Lake by road is o.,lv 
eight hundred miles or thereabouts, and at that fcU U 




Residence of MR? PHINEAS BANNING.wilmington, 
Los Angeles C° Cal. 



i Mr. Lusk 
ing bimael 

Uwoiuy practicable route for freight for at least four months 
in the year. The traffic between California and Utah was 
enormous, and all carried on by the Lm A,,,,], aill | r ajon 
Ote. Thus we read under date January 20th in Mr- 
Barrow's correspondence of the BuUetim before referrSfl to - 

One Los Angeles merchant is loading twenty-eix wagons. Another 
i! going to load^awhole train withhoney-bee^wfiich are scarce in Stan. 

Last winter they commenced coining down from Bannock, Idaho 
borbuM and [fifty miles beyond Salt Lake, after gowSaid fi£ 
rtock Considerable number, of both h,„>o, and sheep were driven 
tn.m here to Bannock and Boise. This winter there are parties here 

»*" (I Jb i' 11 I 1 ", W fto™ Helena, Montana, five or B l"h«ndred 

miles beyond Salt Lake, away up near the head-waters of the Missouri 
snd Columbia nrers. One thousand three hundred or one thousand 
four hundred mi ea of land transportation for heavy freight by mule 

trams seems appalling, but there is DO help from it fo'r a ,„„■( '„,- thl . 

year In the summer theyget supplies up the Missouri river to within 

one hundred and seventy-hve miles of Helena. One of these parties 
i is loading te n teams and offers thirty cents per pound fur 
le additional freight that he has not facilities for transport- 
If. He expects to be two and a half to three months on the 

road, arriving in Montana in early spring, when, for a well-assorted 

Itock he can get his own prices. 

Under date Jan-aiy 19th the tfsws says, editorially :— 


At do time for the past ten years of our history has the city or county 
ol I-- logclcs shown such unmistakable signs of permanent prosperity 
our merchants have larger stocks of goods on hand than at any time' 
since the settlement of this county by the Americans. Wholesale 
establishments superior to any in the State outside of San Francisco 
"I noi equal to any m that city, have sprung up in this city durine the 
past i«-u yeare; the amount of goods drawn from this city for the pur- 
pose ot supplying the extensive markets of Great Salt Lake and 
surrounding country, as well as Montana Territory, during the winter 
months, contribute very materially to swell the extensive business 
already transacted by our mercantile community; Montana and other 
rerntones are drawing very largely on this county for horses and cat- 
tle lo supply their markets, the sale of which, at liberal prices are 

compensating our rancberos for the losses sustained by the , account 

of the drought in former years, while the increasing demand for agri- 
cultural lands show that the farmers appreciate our salubrious climate 
and productive soil. ] n every part of the country new farmsare being 
laid out and substantial farm houses and other buildings are being 
erected, that give to the country an appearance of permanency that 
■peaks volumes for the confidence of our citi/ens in the permanent 
prosperity of the county. In one township alone, that of Los Nietos, 
more than thirty comfortable frame buildings hove been erected in the 
past year and the voting population increased from fifty to more than 
"lie hundred. 

The appended talde gives some idea of the condition of the 
county at this time:— 



Land enclosed, acres 

cultivated " 

Wheat, " 650; bushels 

Barley, •• 5,000; 

Corn, " 4,500; 

Bean*. •• 500; " 

" '250; 

sweet, " 20; " 

H »/. " 200: tons 

Alfalfa. " 50; 

CoWon, " 200; lbs \V....V.',V. 

Broom-corn. •• r.v 









1 51 1 

Butter, tlig 

Cheese, tba"" "" 1 ""- ,Mh ' 

Egga, doz__ -• 1 "-""° 

Wool, ii.s.... -■- l0 °.°0" 

Grapes— vines, ■■■ , - tons' ""s'C! 

Wine, gallons """ a,ow 

Brand v • «< 

Apple tree 9 ;;;;; 'S-ss? 

Peach « 

Pear " > -" ,: 

Plum ■• ,; --" ;; 

Cherry » '//_"[ W0 

Nectarine •■ . ."'" 

* Quince " \'- 

Apricot " '■'" 

rig -. .;;;;;; — tfi« 

Lemon " 1.4..*' 

Orange « " 

Olive '■ " 

Pomegranate " V- 1 

Almond *' ''" 

Walnut » i -- 

Horses, American **25 

.Spanish . . „ r!. H 

" Wild... 2,576 

Mules. *iSS 

Asses.... '"" 

Cows "J 

Calyes » «g 

Stock cattle.., , V ,'" 

Work oxen. ' " i ' 

Sheen "' ' 

!' 1,c t kens . 200000 

Curkeya ' 

Ducks .. .'" 

Geese.. 2,500 

Bee hives Wg 

Cattle slaughtered, 4,032; value.... """ 840320 

Hogs slaughtered. 2,000; •■ s-'imiuo 

Sheep slaughtered, 5,400; - ..'.[[[ S10 000 

Grist-mills, water-power. :{,■ run of atone, 5; value' 810000 

'"■'in ground, bushels _ , . ■■ ■ , ■■ 

Irrigating ditches 7 miles in length. 123^ value 8128000 

lurnpike roads 1 mile in length, 3; cost... . 820*000 

Weekly papers " ' ., 

leased value of real estate .. ............. -..$1,149,267 05 

personal property "liMUlo ::;, 

Tutal 82.353.3:12 40 

On which State tax is ... 27770 nq 

Coun ty " -.- 59,305 49 

Tutal tas 887,075 52 

'According to the News: — 

The amount of merchandise landed at San Pedro and Wilmington -n 
180b was one thousand tons per month, and the same vear there was 
exported from Los Angeles county, in grain, fruits, wine, brandy wool 
hides and other merchandise, five hundred tons per month. 


Throughout this year the business of exporting freight to 
Montana, Utah and Arizona, was continued with considerable 
vigor. There were heavy rain-storms in the spring and road- 
were washed out to such an extent that — 

MARCH 1 2th— No mail had been received from San Francisco 
for over two week-. 

Juni 7th— John J, l : resident of the county since 

ad member of the forwarding and commission house of 
TomlinsonA Co died at the Warm Springs, Sao Bernardino 

Juxr 4th— Was not celebrated in Los Angeles, but an old 
1 barbecue was held nl Los Nietoe; Wilmington also 
ted At the latter places fracas resulted in the death 
n i a Poi bugw se 
S> ' ' ' mbeb 13th There were about one thousand troops at 
Drum Barracks, and complaints of their disorderly conduct 
were very common. Thej were accused of drunkenness, and 
manj serious outrages upon citizens Desertions were frequent, 
: "" 1 ,1 """ officers seemed to have no control over them 
Skptembbb L6th The anniversary of Mexican rndependence 

was celebrated by a pr sssion Speeches were made U Don 

Ouerro, Dod Oilia Lobos, Don Antonio Capura and Dona 

In the year 1867 Los Angeles was Aral lighted with gas Durinc 

thwyear, also, Docto. Griffin and Hon. B. D. Wil i, v means oi ! 

ditch, costing some fifteen thousand dollar*, brouahl the water of 
he Arroyo Seco out upon ,i,, lands of the Ban Pnequal Ranch o 
(Historical Sketch, page ' 



This year was marked by the incorporation of the Los 
Angeles and San Pedro Railroad Company. The effecf of this 
gpon real eetafa iva al onci apparent CJnder date March 8th 
tin Yews bs ys : 

Since the incorporation of the Los Angeles and San Pedro Railroad 
Company a lively business has been carried on in posse ton claims to 
the south and east of the city Los Angeles]. Large numWof peo- 

I'" ha , v « ,ettle ^ "l"" 1 ^e pacanl lands in the loci ■ mentioned 

Lhe advance oJ real estate is a noticeable feature Durina the m-t' 
land wmated twomilea from th< plazn old foi efshti dofiari 

per i acre, that could have I n bought one year ago for fourteen 

dollar* per acre. Nearer the business center/lots one hundred and 
twenty feel fronl are now Belling for one thousand dollars, which could 
be purchased three months ago tot three hundred dollars. 

During March the City Hall waa fitted up with'officea for 
use of the county officials 

September 1st -The News editorially claims an increase of 
eight hundred tax-payera since last year, and con tin u 

The population of the county i* now about tw.nty-tiv.- thousand one. 
third of whom are engaged in agricultural pursuit*, and produc. d and 
sold ,„ im, over one million rfollars' worth of produce, or about four 

hundred dollars for every man. woman ami child, in the countv 


Los Angeles supplies the greater portion of Arizona, southern Utah 

Kern county, I IwenB river, SagelanJ, and other rich and populous rain' 

lag districts, making it, with a population of ten thousand, the most 

important commercial city south of Ban Francisco 

Many of the largest grants of land in the county have been sub-di- 
vided and hrown into market, at prices and upon terms within the 
rtMcn or iiii, 

SEPTEMBER 10th— The anniversary of Mexican Independence 
waa duly celebrated with procession, speeches, etc. 



The following Lb from the News of January 1, I860: — 


I ),- ih v. hall erected in this city (>>r the Masonic fraternity was ded- 
icated on Thursday, December 29, 1868, at three o'clock p. if. Past 

Prager having been specially c missioned by the M. \\ . 

'. ,.,,,. i \\ ., tei ")" the State of California, to act as '.rami Master, 
officiated, assisted by the following named officers, appointed by him 
for (In- occasion; — 

Acting Grand Pursuivant, 0. F. Bwitzer. 

*■ " Stewards, Bigby and 1 1 ick^. 

" ■• Secretary, 1 1. 1 1 ami I ton. 

•' " Treasurer, J. Golli r, 

" " ,Ir. Warden, \V. Wood worth, 

■• Br. '■ .1. F. Burns. 

" " Architect, J. Q. \. Stanley. 

" " Deputy G. M.,C. II. Larrabee. 

" " ( ihaplain, A. \V. Edelman. 

** ■• < trganist, II. I ». Barrows. 

" " < traior. ( '. E. Thorn. 

" ■■ Sr. Deacon, W. Kalisher. 

" " .Ir. " A. Henderson. 

" " Marshal, Wm. Buffum. 

\ large number of members of the sister lodges and ladies and gen- 
tlemen of tin' city were present. At the close of the ceremonies, the 
Acting Grand Master, S. Prager, made a few appropriate remarks, and 
was followed bj Rev. A W . bdelmAn, who delivered an able and inter- 
i ting dedicatory address, after which there was music by the choir, 
and l i"ii C. E. Thorn, orator of the day. was introduced, and delivered 
an address that fur historic truth and eloquence deserves the Bret place 
in tin gems of Mosonio literature. The entire ceremony was con- 
ducted in a manner highly creditable to the various officers and frater- 
nity Acting Grand Ittaster Prager acquitted himself with more than 
ordinary ability, and the whole ceremony was both imposing and 
instructive. At half past eight o'clock, P. m . the members of the fra- 
ternity and a number of invited guests partook of a splendid collation 
at the Lafayette Hotel, at which the most happy feeling prevailed. 
The hall itself is an imposing building, two stories high, and thirty- 
five by eighty feet deep, and erected under the supervision of E. J. 
V7e ton, Architect. The lodge -rooms are well ventilated, and fur- 

uished throughout in the -t elegant manner, handsome carpets on 

the floor, and ail the usual furniture of a lodge-room of the finest qual- 
ity; is lighted by three elegant chandeliers and a number of jets, mak- 
ing twenty-five lights in all. and is a credit to the taste and liberality 
of the officers and members of Los Angeles Lodge, No. 42. 

The following irsumr (.if events is from Doctor J. P. Wid- 

in-v's pen, in the " Historical Sketch :" — 

Railroads were then a thing of the future. The writer vividly rec- 
oil, ru standing in front of the United States Hotel, in 1808, one night 
of a steamer's arrival, and hearing the rival stages of Banning and 
Tomlinson come up DIain street, racing to get in first, horses on the 

gallop, and in the darkness a man on each stage blowing a horn to 
warn people ill the Street to clear the track. 

#*** * #** 

In the yeai 1868 work was commenced by the "Canal and Reservoir 

C pauj " upon the canal and reservoir which now supply the woolen 

mill. This was the first turning of attention to the hill lauds west of 
the city, which before were considered practically valueless. This 
year marked an era in the business of the southern portion of the 
county, in that, for the first time. Anaheim Landing was made a regu- 
lar stopping place by steamers. This was the year, too, in which 
the first successful artesian well was bored in the county. A fair 

Bow ot water was obtained U] the mesa lands about six miles back of 

Wilmington. The well was sunk upon the property of Messrs. Downey 
and llcllmari. Bo great a curiosity was il considered that the stage's 
turned aside from the road to give passengers a sight of it. One other 
event, and most important of all, renders this year memorable in the 
bJatorj of the industrial development of Los Angeles. This was the 
carrying of the vote to issue county bonds for one hundred and fifty 
thou! md dollars, and city bonds for seventy-five thousand dollars, to 

assist in the building of a railroad from the city of Los Angeles to 
Wan Pedro harbor.' This was the first step in the development ot 

the railroad system which is now so rapidly opening up the resources 
uthern California. And yet this road, only twenty-two miles in 
length, was looked upou by many a- a foolish undertaking which would 
never pay expends. One old resident, a man of wealth, contemptu- 
,,,i-l, declared that two trains a mouth would accommodate all the 
wants of trad.- for years to come. 'Six years later the number of cars 
arriving daily at the Los Angeles depot with freight from Wilmington 
averaged, for weeks at a time, from fifty to sixty.) This year settlers 
began to come in rapidly upon the lands about Comptou, the town 
receiving its name from one of the first and most prominent of the 
new comers, The lands thrown upon the market by Governor Downey 
at Los Nietos were also quickly settled by an industrious farming pop- 
ulation. In July of this year the " Los Angeles City Water Company," 
represented by Dr. John 8. Griffin, Mr. 1'. lieaudry and Mr. S. Lazard, 
received a franchise for supplying the city with water tor domestic 
purposes for a period of thirty years, and by agreement, and purchase 
of existing works, became possessed of a sole right. 
*#** * ***** 

During the autumn of this year there was an unusual prevalence of 
a severe form of typho-malarial fever, many cases terminating fatally. 
In this year, 1868, the first bank was organized in Los Angeles by 
Alvinza llayward and John G. Downey, under the firm name of 
■ llayward & Co.," capital, one hundred thousand dollars. Later in 
the same year the banking house of " Hellnian, Temple & Co." was 
organized; capital, one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars. 
By the reorganization and consolidation of these two houses, in Feb- 
ruary, 1871, was established the " Farmer' and Merchants' Bank 
of Los Angeles," with a capital at present of live hundred thousand 


The years 1869 ami 1870 were years of no marked~events. Dur- 
ing the year 1869 an epidemic of sinall-pox lingered for many 
months about the city. The winters of 186!>-70 and 1870-71 were 
remarkable for a very light rain-fall, the first having Jess than nine 
ami tin' second less than eight inches, with much dry northerly and 
westerly wind and frequent sand-storms. Despite these drawbacks a 
steady development went on, though the drought prevented the in- 
auguration or prosecution of enterprises involving any heavy expendi- 
ture of money. (Historical Sketch, page 70.) 

Tinier date January 7th, we read in the News: — 

The floating debt of the county has at last been paid off', with the 
exception of only five thousand dollars standing against the cash fund, 
which the Board of Supervisors are now making arrangements to pay, 
thus placing the whole machinery of the county government upon a 
cash basis in the future. There is also a surplus in the Treasury of 
fifteen thousand dollars, which will be used for the redemption of the 
county bonds of 1861. 

It was estimated that fully sixty thousand acres were this year 
brought under cultivation in the county. During the spring 
of 18G9 there was an abundance of rain. Crops were good, 
but in anticipation of a possible tightness in the money market, 
which usually succeeds a period of prosperity, the banks were 
gradually drawing in their capital. 

In this year, the San Pedro and Los Angeles Railroad was 
completed, and the following account of an excursion thereon is 
from the News of October 2Sth : — 

Excursion ami Bali.. -On Tuesday. October 26th, a large number of 
citizens availed themselves of the railroad company'* invitation to 
enjoy a free excursion to Wilmington. Two trains each were run for 
Xl bf T °f hG T urs,onis,s - ™ d both were crowded to their utmos 
capacity, not less than one thousand five hundred people made the 
round trip. 1 he heat and dust detracted somewhat from the enjoyment 
o the occasion; but in the main it was heartily enioved ( \Z el 
Chipley, the Secretary of the company, who engineered the affair waa 

indefatigable in his efforts to contribute to the comfort and enio- 
ment of all. The last train, consisting of ten cars, all crowded with 
their living freight, came to the depot about !f;30 o'clock, bringing the 
musicians who were to play at the promised ball. Large numben 
were waiting to join in the dance. After something of a delay 
occasioned by difficulty experienced in clearing the spacious hall rf 
the closely packed crowd of citizens of the male persuasion, who oceu- 
pied every inch of available space, the music struck up and the danc* 
ing commenced. Those present enjoyed themselves in the highest and" 
retired satisfied that the new depot had been successfully dedicated 

That the financial depression Looked for by the banks earlier 
in the year, came at last is evident from the following editorial 
in the News of — 

I H:i umber 10, 186!). A petition was presented to the State Legisla- 
ture by the resident voters and tax-payers of Los Angeles county 
protesting against the repeal of the law known as the Law Regnlatinfl 
Fees and Salaries, passed by the Legislature of 1867-8. The reasons 
are, that at the present time. Los Angeles county is about two hundred 
and seventy-five thousand dollars in debt, and taxes exceedingly high 
produce and live-stock worth comparatively nothing. Also protest 
against the increase of salary of the District Judge, believing four 
thousand dollars per annum ample compensation. There are other 
offices that are yet too high, the reform bill gives the Sheriff a salary 
of four thousand dollars per annum, payable from the county Treasury. 
Upon investigation, it will be found that outside of and independent 
of the salary, the perquisites amount to about eight thousand seven 
hundred dollars, making a total of twelve thousand seven hundred 
dollars. The County Clerk will find it hard to discharge the duties of 
the various offices, such as County and District Clerk, Clerk of the 
Board of Supervisors, County Recorder and County Auditor for the sum 
of three thousand five hundred dollars per annum. This shows that 
the fee bill works a great hardship on some officials. 


During the spring of 1870, large amounts of freight and 
also many passengers passed through Los Angeles on their way 
to Owens river. 

In February a petition was circulated asking the Legislature for a 
division of Los Angeles county, on the line of the San Gabriel river, 
and to create the new county of Anaheim. A remonstrance was also 
circulated against the proposed division. 

February 22d— Washington's birthday was ushered in at Los Angeles 
by the booming of cannon, ringing of bells, etc. The college hand 
during the morning, from the plaza and other points through the city, 
played the National airs. The courts and offices were closed and the 
transaction of business suspended. 

In the Netrs of April 9th, we read 

LOCAL Bills — Among the bills signed by the Governor, are t 
vying: Funding Act for Los Angeles; Authorizing Loa Ang( 

the fol- 
lowing: Funding Act for Los Angeles; Authorizing Lo> Angeles to 
mild or buy a Court House and fire-proof vault: Concerning water 
course* in Los Angeles; Legalizing Los Ange'es assessment roll; Legal- 
izing certain Loa Angeles City ordinances; Re-districting Loa Angles 
into Supervisor districts: A bill creating Water Commissioners in Us 

And again: — 

Court House— The Legislature passed a law authorizing the Board 
of Supervisors of this county to issue bonds to the amount <}f twenty- 
live thousand dollars, for the purpose of building or purchasing a Court 
Souse, which will enable the Board of Supervisors to purchase the 
building now occupied as a Court House, under a contract made sem<j 
years ago, and during a time of great depression in the value of real 
estate, for twenty-five thousand dollars, which could to-day be sold for 
forty-live thousand or fifty thousand dollars. Thereby, it insured to 
the county a good and substantial building, and to the taxpayers the 
benefit of the rise of property, that has taken place since the contract 
to purchase was entered into. 

Residence and partial view of Dairy Farm of 

Compton, Las Angeles G°-Cal. 3 A Miles from R.R Station 


r r»nM*BOH a VY*3T. 





Tuesday, April 26th, was a gala day among - 

The members of Independent Order of Odd Fellows of Los Angeles 
,,,itniy, the occasion being the celebration of the fifty-first aniveraary 
of the introduction of tbe order into the United States. Grand Mr. 
i;. i>. Faroaworth of the Grand Lodge of the United States, was present 
and delivered an oration. 

All the lodges in the county weru present, and took part in the grand 
procession which was led by the Wilmington military brass-hand of 
nveiity-lwo pieces. The procession marched through ihe principal 
streets to the Episcopal church to listen to the (.ration of Grand Sire 
Farns worth; the oration finished, the procession again moved through 
the principal streets, returning to the Odd FelloWB' Hall where il WE 
disbanded. A ball was held in the evening at the Teutonia and 
Armory Halle, upwards of one hundred couples were present. At L2 
o'clock the dancera proceeded to the dining-room of the Bella Union 
Hotel, where the finest Buppar overspread in Los Angeles, was prepared 
fur the assemblage. Toasts were then read and the party retired. 

The following dispatch to the editor of the baity .\.„s w:i * m-eived 
on Monday, August 22d, and a congratulatory dispatch returned to 
San Diego. 

New Sad Diego, August 22, 1870. 

We rejoice at the event of telegraphic communication between Los 
Vngeles and Ban Diego, may the railroad speedily follow. 


D. E. Felsebtheld, 
Ben. Truman. 

In Way, 1871, tri-weekly mails were established betweeD 
Los Angeles ami San Bernardino. In October, the Los 
Ingeles City post-office was created by the Postmaster-Gen- 
eral, a foreign money-order office for the issuance of raoney- 
ovdeiu payable in Great Britain ami Ireland. 

■Ii HE — The K.u Klnx were abroad, and a certain citizen of 
Los Angeles received the following suggestive notice with the 
usual skull and cross-bones accompaniments: — 

Los Angeles, June 17, 1871. 
Notice is hearbv given by the undersigned personse that you have to 
leave and u,uit this place of order of Goverment Laws ! within 48 ours 
Peacibly, we will hold and protecte this section No. 2fi unter all cir- 

file efibrt necessary to evolve this gem of composition 
probably proved fatal to the authors, as nothing further 
• to have come of it. 

•Ili.y 4th was celebrated in grand style. Public and private 
buildings vied with each other in gorgeousness of decoration. 
All the societies paraded to the music of both civil and military 
hands. Never in the history of the city, did this day call 
forth so much noisy patriotism and gun-powder enthusiasm. 

1 lirouglxmt tin- summer and fall, trade with Owens riveri 
ami other portions of the interior was good. " Prairie Schoon- 
ieft the Los Angeles depot, daily, with heavy loads of 
This was a good summer for the few settlers at Santa 
Monica, that watering-place being thronged every Sunday. 
Land sales were reported good. The Los Angeles and San 
Bernardino Land Company sold some thirty thousand acres 
ntar Anaheim, during August and September. 

Octobeb 3ls1 was tbe opening day of the Southern District 

Agricultural Soeietj 8 Kaii The city wascrowded with peo- 
ple and much noone} ■, it. -I About two thousand 
dollars were given in premiums for fast horses The races and 
stock show took place in Agricultural Park; the exhibition of 
goods, and the industrial department in Steam's Hail 
the whole, i' was pronoutfeed a greal success 

Decembeh Lsth, Hon. Murray Morrison, District Ju 
the Seventeenth Judicial Distri t, died in Los \o. . 
he had resided nince L858 Two days later his remains were 
followed to their last resting-place in the Catholic cemetery bj 

a large concourse of citizens, the members of the Par wj 

in procession 


A correspondent of the New Fork Tribwu 
1872, in a tetter to that journal, thus tat 
concerning a portion of the inhabitants of southern Cali 
fornia : — 

in the spring of 
his impressions 

The "Pike" baa, I find, a tolerably larg< representation in L-. s 

Angeles county, us well as in it- neighbor San Hie-... The Pike 

ought to Ik- a Missourian, but there are al o Cexas Pikes, and in fact 
the name lots been applied in this State to the wandering gipsy-like 
southern "poor white." Your true Pike is a squatter, an invader of 
other peoples rights. "He owns a rifle, a lot of children and dogs, 

a wife, and. if he can read, a law 1 k." said a lawyer, de 

this creature to me; "he moves from place to place, as the humor 
seizes him. and is generally an injury to his neighbor*. Be Will not 
work, but he has great tenacity of life, and is always ready for a law 
suit.'" ■' 1 found a Pike the other da) killing and Baiting bogs, and 
actually hauling the pork off to sell it"!" said a gentleman, in whose 
company we were discussing these people. "Surely that was an 
industrious Pike," said 1. "Yes, hut. confound it,' thev win ne. 
hogs," he replied, with a natural wrath at the recollection. Near 
San Diego a Pike family were pointed out to me who had removed 
from Texas to California and back to Texas four times, Thej were 
novi going hack home again— "to please the old woman."' They 
traveled in au old wagon drawn by a pair of broncho or native 
horses, and would probably be six or eight months on the road 

Jul? 4, 1872, was celebrated in Los Angeles in grand style. 
Most of the societies of the city were represented in the pro- 
cession, also most of the business houses. A company of 
Forty-niners formed the principal feature in the procession. 
One carried a transparency bearing thereon several in-i-rip- 
tions, such as "We are going to Hangtown" " What is flour 
worth at Hangtown? $3 per pound," all being truly character- 
istic of those early times, Hon. B. D. Wilson was President of 
the day and General Banning Grand Marshal. A grand ball 
and tire-works closed the evening. 

The following account of a bull-fight in Sonora town is from 
the Los Angeles Ifews of October 27th: — 


Yesterday afternoon that portion of our city known as Sonora was 
entertained' by a genuine bull-fight, one of those relics of the barbarous 
ages that have uot yet been thoroughly obliterated by civilization. A 
large number of persons, principally native Californians. of all ages and 

■ mi-led and occupied elevated seats in the circular 

arena wherein the bull -fight was to take place. At the hour of com- 
mencement three r . tressed u clowns stepped Into the pit. 

me bearing in his hand a red flag Attached tO a smi.mIL SUCK 

1 adores, Oi f them was well advanced in years 

rtly after the Brst animal had been tinned into the an 
had become sufficiently enraged to make il somewhat warm fbi his 
tormentors, the old fellow, nol bavin- the elasticity of youth, was 
I by the infuriated brute against the fence and finally tossed 
over it. Besides being badl) gored it transpired afterward that some 
of his ribs were broken. He del ool appear again, however, In the 
l ,,r - which s a lonrce of much disappointment to the 

ors, not o iequ of bis misfortune, but because he was 

■i i" be the best of the thra picadores. 1 1 hi i two con« 

tinned to worry the poor bull, and succeeded for Dome time to avoid all 
hisplun ■ of thorn, taking the wrong direction, was 

slightly elevated on the horns of the bull, the i rinta of which bad been 

sawed off Nothing daunted, be continued to torment the ] i beast 

with Increased ardor. S ! to which were afllxed vav n 

appendages in the way of ribbons, leaves of colored paper, etc., were 

then passed to the matadores, With a brad i ■ band ami a banner 

lh the other they await il set of the bull, and as he came within 

reach proded bun in the neck and at the same time darted aside. 

The poor bull tore the gri 1 with rage, the brad meanwhile sticking 

in his neck and a dozen various colored ribbons streaming in the wind 
as he rushed blindly, foaming a1 the mouth, al the agile picador 
who would then stand aside to receive tbe plaudits of the fairsenoritos 

that w< >■<■ in attend; ■. The bull was then taker t ami the band 

struck ap a lively air. The clown who bad heretofore kepi at c if 
and respectful distance from the bull, being perched on the fence, thon 

danced n polka and aanjj a song full ol Mexico and " Lib i ' 

Another bull was then driven into i he ring and the same performance 

was passed through us before, the bull in the preeonl case I i 

more successful 'ban bis predecessor, inasmuch as he succeeded in 
tossiug the picadores several times. What, was considered the be I 
sporl oi all, however, was the "Grand Ride" perform.'. I on the econd 
hull. The animal being lassoed and thrown to the ground and a riata 
tied around bis body— to this the picador was to hold to ride the hull— a 
novel crown, ornamented with fire-crackers and an tmmen e ba< b geai 

made of wires, covered also with lire-cracker-, were theu placed uj 

the bull, being connected together by means of a fuse. Hie picadoi 
then addressed the assemblage and asked them to contribute theii would probably be hie last ride. M ting and grs ping 

the riata the a ill was relieved of its bond-, and cue fire-crackers 

attached to it-* tail ignited. Plunging around the ring al o bn al ne< ' 

speed both bull and rider seeme I i DVeloped in Maine and jnioke, which 

continued until the poor creature fell from sheer exhaustion. The 
■ in butfiastic delight of the spectators beggars description. Cries were 

then raised for a third animal, whieh, being fresh and m., r . |mmmh 

than the others, soon compelled the weary picadores to abandon the 
field. The clown Mien extended an invitation to anyone from among 
the audience to take their places, but no one felt disposed ho to do, and 
the performance was declared at an end. 

November— The opening day of the Agricultural Fair and the fall 
the Southern District Association took place Wednesday, No- 
vember l.'ith, and continued five days. The trotting races we: 

eme. I by tbe rules of National Congress, and tin- running races by the 
rules of the Sacramento State Agricultural Society. Most ol the horse 
entered belonged to the county. The running race free for all— Cal* 
fornia and half-breed horses, five mile dash, was a very interesting race 
—several San J liego horses were in this race. The show of cattle was 

very small and inferior, exhibiting much neglect. Stock men claim 
that there is not attention enough paid to this department, but too 
much to races and raising stock. The industrial exhibit was held at 
the Skating Rink, and was very line. The display of fruit was also 


This year was almost destitute of events of general intere I 
In November was held the Third Annual Exhibition of the 
Southern District Agricultural Society. This fair lasted five 




days and was largelj attended The firsl trotting race was 
won l*\ "Pilot," owned by II. T. Hazard, Esq. There was an 
(lent display in all departments, and the whole affair was 
pronounced a grand sua i 


Writing in the year [874, Major B C Truman, in his Semir 
Tropical CaUforv/ia, Bays: — 

In what'may be termed the agricultural zone of Loa Angeles county, 
there are aboul three thousand square miles ; land under cultivation 
and Irrigation, about 8fty square miles; land under cultivation with- 
out irrigation, fifty square miles; the balance, two thousand nine hun- 
dred milis, being devoted to purpose of grassing, and used for atook- 
rai ing -it. present. 

We find further that the total of property assessed in the 
county this year was twelve million three hundred and twen- 
ty-three thousand five hundred and twenty-two dollars. The 

exports for the yeai i untedto forty-eight million two thou- 

sand one hundred and sixty-nine pounds, and tin* imports to une 
hundred and twenty-four million five hundred and twenty-two 
thousand four hundred and eighty-two pounds. There were 
threq hundred and fifty-two steamers and ninety-four sailing 
vessels arrived during the year. 

Little occurred worthy of record beyond the usual celebra- 
tion on July 4th; and the fourth agricultural fair, which was 
held this year in October, lasted five days, and was quite as 
successful as those which had preceded it. 


This was a year of horse-races. Several took place in May, 
and when the time came for holding the regular agricultural 
fair in November, six days were devoted instead to horse-rac- 
ing, and the exhibition was not held. The "Fourth of July" 
was duly honored with a parade, pronounced by the Los An- 
weles Star. " the finest ever witnessed in this city." 

DECEMBER 9, L875— A petition was circulated in Los Angeles, and 
universal!} signed by leading merchants and others, requesting Good- 
all, Nelson A: Perkins, of San Francisco, to order all their steamers, hoth 
up and down, to Btop at Santa Monica. Hitherto only certain steam- 
ers of the line stopped there, causing inconvenience and delay to owners 
of freight. 

Upon the evening of December 27, L875, the district courtroom of Los 
\ u , i,., was crowded with citizens, to take into consideration the 
prospect oi connecting this city with Salt Lake by rail. Col. J. J. 
VVaruei was called to the chair, 'and W. 11. Brooks acted as secretary. 
l,ii, i . from the Citizens' Committee t-i Senator J. P. Jones and his 
reply thereto were read. The meeting was addressed by Col. J. G. 
Howard, Henry 1>. Harrows. Col. Crawford, and J. J. Ayers. Resolu- 
tion- were adopted, calling for an immediate resumption of work on 
the railroad, via Cajou Pass, and recommending the Los Angeles and 
,. pendence Kailroad to levy an assessment on the subscribed stock 
,nce. Mi. Barrows notified those present that two hundred and 
i renty-five thousand dollars had been subscribed. 

The following statement of exports and imports for the year 
is from the " Herald Pamphlet" for I876i page 38: — 


I'.. iiniI-. '' 

Los Angeles 9.825,436 71,650,111 

Wilmington 1,287,017 L.423,903 

Comptoo 1,564,661 1 10,935 

Downey - 6,734428 6,829,240 

Norwalk 118,390 3,916 

Anaheim 2.228,991 1,037,107 

^an Fernando 1*641,255 L, 34 1,629 

San Gabriel 1,175,812 433,699 

El Monte 543,229 265, 172 

Spadra 861,149 3,262,079 

Colton . . .. 348,974 2,125,895 

other Stations " 64,107 

Grand Totals 20,383,349 87,513,883 


The Centennial year of American Independence will long be 
remembered in every portion of the Union, and Los Angelea 
county gives way to none in her pleasant memories of that 
gratifying epoch in our country's history. "Though having 
nothing in common with the popular celebration of dis.-iitlirall- 
meiit from a foreign yoke — save in a spiritual sense — the 
festivities of the year were here commenced by the native 
population at San Juan Capistrano. Upon the evening of 
Good Friday, the people there proceeded to commemorate the 
day by bwMwng the traitor Judas vn effigy. This it would 
seem is an ancient, Spanish custom, and did it stop at the 
simple immolation of the archtraitor. none could find fault. 
But not content, with this harmless vengeance upon the 
memory of him whose name is a synonym for perfidy through- 
out Christendom, they tied the blazing figure upon the back 
of a wild bull, and turned the animal loose. What wonder 
that the poor brute in his agony of fright ..stampeded the 
crowd, destroyed their gardens, and " raised Judas generally " 
throughout that sleepy, indolent, Mexican settlement. 

In her celebration of the Centennial, Los Angeles spared 
neither trouble nor expense, and fairly covered herself with 
glory. Preparations began in April, when a committee was 
appointed to prepare a plan for the celebration, and from that 
time out, all was action ! In the parade which took place on 
July 4th, not only the citizens of Los Angeles officiated, but 
virtually those of the whole county, and had the great roll 
been then and there called, probably but few names would 
have been left unanswered. Gen. P. Banning acted as presi- 
dent of the day. Mr. James J. Ayers recited an original poem, 
and Hon. James G. Eastman delivered an oration. There was 
more than the usual amount of powder burned, some whisky 
(but no blood) split, and everybody was sublimely happy, and 
noisily patriotic. With gunpowder, whisky, a chance to 
parade, and an opportunity to speak, what more could any 
reasonable American citizen require to make a successful 
holiday ' 

The fall of the year was marked by a visit from General 
Sherman, who was duly serenaded at his hotel, and responded 
in a brief speech. But yel more interesting to record wasthe 
visit of the great actress, Madam Modjeska. Sin- was aecum- 
panied by her husband. M. Bozenta, and h\ a friend, B£ 
Paproski, and in the seclusion of a small vineyard which she 
purchased near Anaheim sought rest and relaxation from the 
exertions of a trying profession. M. Paproski established a 
bee ranch near by, and even after the artiste had returned to 
active life the two gentleman remained for some time, When, 
finally, all left, they took with them the hearty friendship and 
good wishes of all with whom they had come in contact. The 
usual races under management of the agricultural association 
took place in November. 

In this year General Andres Pico and Don Manuel Etequena 


August 4th the county sustained a severe loss in the death 
of Hon. Benjamin Hayes, formerly District Judge of the 
Southern District of California. He had been a resident of 
the county for twenty-seven years. The several courts 
adjourned, and his funeral was attended by the citizens S71 

The October exposition was held under tin' united auspices 
of the Horticultural and Agricultural Societies. The Opening 
address was made by J. De Bath Shorb, Esq., President. 

During this fall a petition to the Legislature was quite 
extensively signed throughout the country, praying: — 

1. For the collection of taxes semi-annually or quarterly, 

2. For authorising tax-collectors (both count v and ti cipal) 

to receive some proportionate amount (say ten per centum] of 
the taxes in silver coin. 

3. For making county officials salaried officers, and requiring 
all fees of office to be paid into the county treasury. 


The torch of Hymen hath ever burned brightly in Loa 
Angeles. Thus in sixteen years from the time the marriage 
law went into effect, we find two thousand seven hundred and 
twenty couples taking upon themselves the pleasures and pains 
of matrimony, while only one hundred and twenty-two couples 
became weary and sought severance by divorce. 

Early in January a collision between squatters and natives 
at the Ranchita resulted in the shooting of two of the latter. 

January 20th was marked by the dedication of < >dd Fellows' 
Hall in Los Angeles, and delegations from all the other lodges 
in the county were present. The order of procession was as 
follows: — 


Orange' Grove # Residence of WILSON& BUTTOLPH, Duarte, San Gabriel Valley. Elmonte TT y Los Angeles CSCal. 




Guard of Mounted Police. 

I Ian. J. 

Olive I.oilire. K nights of 1'ythiu*. Kluard of Honor.) 

Los ADgelea Stam, Ked .Men. (Guard of Honor.) 

Marshal and Aides. 

I rliardian, with drawn sword. 

Scene Supporters, with wands. 

hi embers of the Initiatory Degree. 

Members of the White Degree. 

Members of the Pink Degree. 

Members of the Hlue Degree. 

Members of the ( i reen 1 >egree. 

Members of the Scarlet Degree. 


i ruardian, with sword. 

Officers of the several lodges. 

Representatives of the (iraml Lodge. 

Most Worthy Grand Master of the .State, District Deputy 

and Officers of the day, in carriages. 

The dedicatory ceremonies won- imposing bo a degree, and 
the day closed with a grand ball ami supper at Turn- Verein 

On Saturday, June 8th, the oldest woman in America died 
at Sun Gabriel Mission. She was reputedly one hundred and 
forty-three years of age at the time of her death. 

Col. John J. Warner furnishes the following obituary: — 

Eulalia Perez de Guilen was born at Loreto, Baja California, where 
slie married and resided until she became the mother of two children. 
With her two children, one an infant at the breast, she accompanied 
her husband, who was a soldier and who was a member of a small 
detachment of troops sent by laud from Loreto to San Diego, not long 
Biter the founding of missions in Alta California by the Franciscan 

She remained in San Diego where her husband was stationed some 
jears, and until Mr. Guilen was transferred to the mission of San 
iethricl, then ei.uipani lively a new mission, to which place she accom- 
pauied him. She was the mother of a large family of children. While 
living in San Diego she acted as midwife, and after coming to San 
Gabriel -In followed that calling, both at the mission and iu this city. 
Many of those at whose birth she assisted as midwife in Los Angeles 
died years since, after having lived the biblical period of man's 
life -three score years and ten. Her age has not been known for some 
yean past, which fact has caused some discussion. It is claimed by 
Bomeof her descendants and others connected with her family, that 
her age exceeds one hundred and forty years. Some of her family or 
connections attempted, about two years ago, to take the old lady to the 
Centennial, but as other members of her family were unwilling to have 
their ancestor carried oh" to be shown as a curiosity, proceedings were 
instituted in the courts here to restrain the commission of what they 
looked upon as almost a sacriligious act. Since then the old lady has 
lived with her daughter at the mission of San Gabriel. 

In June a grand musical jubilee under direction of Mr. J. 
Lite .•,:: held in Los Angeles for the benefit of the Good 
Templars' organization. Theexercisea were held in a mammoth 
tent, erected near the Methodist Church South. There were 
three entertainments given, all by local talent, and all well 
attended, netting a very neat sum to the beneficiary. The 
I this effort gave rise to the project for a grand musi- 
cal festival under the auspices of the Philharmonic Society, 
to be a general gathering of all the musical people in southern 
ifornia. It was finally Bet for December, tolast five days. 
The State Legislature bavin- made an appropriation of 

two thousand five hundred dollars to the Southern California 

Horticultural Society , this was utilized in bl i of the 

pavilion on Temple street on a lot donated by Hon 1' Beaudry. 

The first fair in the new pavilion was held in October, and 
lasted one week. Dr. J C Shorb, of San Francisco I 
of the president, J. De B. Shorb, Esq , made the opening ad- 
dress. The races at Agricultural Park ander the auspices of 
the Southern Distrid Agricultural Societj also continued om 
week. The attendance reached as high as two thousand five 
hundred persons in a single day. 

September 14, 1878, mountain fires were raging in the 
San Fernando valley. The 6re had burned over an area of 
about eighteen thousand acres, mostly brush, doing bui little 
damage. A fire in tin- Siena Madiv, burned considerable 
brush, which ignited the bee ranch of Mr. Benner, burning bis 
house and contents, two hundred stands of bees and about two 
and a quarter tons of honey. The loss to Mr. Benner was esti- 
mated at two thousand dollars. 

In June then were extensive mountain fires raging around 
the valley, and bee ranches suffered considerable loss, [n July 
M. Jacob Bloerenhaut, the French V'ice-Consu] to Los Angeles, 
died; and in November Col. E. J. 0. Kewen, a prominent 
lawyer ami old resident, also departed this life. 


Has so far but few events worthy of record, which have no< 
already been noticed in previous chapters. There is one, how- 
ever, which we must not overlook— a visit from " Modest Ben 

At this point we drop the country history as a whole, and 
will briefly review the several townships separately. 

The following is a complete list of the Post-offices in Los 
Angeles county at this time duly 1, 1880): — 

Ainargo, Garden Grove, San Fernando, 

Anaheim, Gorman's Station, Sau Gabriel, 

Azusa, Los Angeles, Santa Ana, 

Capistrano, Machado, Santa Monica, 

Citrus Newhall, Savannah, 

Compton, Norwalk, Silverado, 

Downey, Orange, Spadra, 

Elizabeth Lake, Pasadena, Tustin City, 

El Monte. Pomona, Westminster, 

Florence, Ranchito, Wilmington. 

Fulton Wells, 

< II LPTEB \\\ 

The Mi ■! kpo« udTopagmphj Water Railroad and 

-. Q Ftm Ranoli B urlj Dimea ESnti i pi too ol II- M- 

wu. il \.u^ rpriM on a Lara; & ill 
. liltur..! Bxperimi ati Stock Minerali The To« a of Newhall. 

This Lb the most northerly of the townships, being — " AH 

ol i... Angeles county, lying north of the summit 

B ■ I the Sierra Madre or Main i loasl Range," which range 

here inclines suddenly inland surrounding and inclosing the 

great Los Angeles valley , 

The area of S rfedad township is about million two hun- 
dred tl and jquare acres, or say something mure than one 

third the entire area of the whole county. The north eastern 
half or triangle, is covered by a corner of the Mojave Desert; 
the south-western half or triangle, by rugged and precipitous 
mountains, Interspersed by occasional small fertile valleys and 

This township is watered by the Rio del Lla/no, a stream of 
but small importance, and by the Santa Clara river, which 
here takes its rise Numerous small streams drain into a 
considerable body of water (about six hundred square acres) 
known as Elizabeth take, lying near the eastern edge of the 
mountain range, and about one-third of the distance horn tin* 
thorn to the southern boundary of the township. There is 

a small settlement near this point. 

[ntothe north « estern portion of the township extends a por- 
tion of the great ° LaLiebre" Rancho, owned l-\ E. F. Beale, 
Esq., and used by him as a sheep | ■ ■ iturage. 

The Southern Pacific Railroad, in its course from San Fran- 
cisco divides the township into al si equal parts, until it 

si rikes the ea itern edge of the ntain range, when it 

diverges westerly through La Sol.. lad Pass; then loutherly, 

through the San Fernando i mtains and San Fernando valley 

to Los Angeles City. There are on this railroad within the 
limits of the township even stations located, viz. : — 


Ravenna (Soledad ( Sty), 
None of these are of any importance — save as small mining 
centers — except the last named, being also the most southerly. 


The San Francisco Ranch (upon a part of which the embryo 
town of Newhall is situated,, contains in round figures, lOme 
forty-nine thousand acres. It wa- formerly the property of 



i|,. Di 1 Vn.ll.- family, and later.of Colonel Thomas A. Scott, but 
,-;, purcha led Borne seven years ago, and is still owned by 
II M Newhall, Esq., of San FrancUco. Only some thirty-six 
lou and acre of this ranch li<- within the limits of Los 
Le county ; the remaining thirteen thousand acres forming 
; , pii.rt. of Centura county. 

In early times, this was one of the principal stock ranges of 
southern California. Presenting as it does, an endless diver- 
itj of landscape, hill and dell constantly succeeding each other, 
the whole dotted With of venerable live-oak trees — 
a beauteous in foliage, and as stately in growth as the leafy 
patriarchs of many an English park -it needs but little imag- 
ination to enliven the scene once more with myriads of cattle 
and hoi e guarded by their ever-watchful vaqueros. 

But it- is to the now proprietor, that the San Francisco Ranch 
owes its present condition of development; and to him alone. 
the tiny settlement of Newhall owes both existence andcontin- 

u ■ i, In October, L878, when he appeared on the scene, this 

VB ,. bodj of land believed by all, save himself, to be abso- 
lutely valueless in an agricultural sense — lay inert, and wholly 
ueglected. The Southern Pacific Railroad passed through it, 
and o little south of where the village now stands, a short side- 
track extended. These, with a small oil refinery erected some 
^ ear , before, constituted the only improvements upon the ranch. 
He came Erom the upper country with workmen, tools and 
materials, and took the desert by storm At first, he and his 
mei ] Lived in touts, the only available means of shelter. As 
upon .i battle-field, under canvas, his plans were formed, and 
| 1Mln under canvas his men sallied forth to execute them. It 
was a battle-field— he was warring with the powers of Nature. 
Ln this enterprise, the elder Mr. Newhall was ably assisted 
throughoul by his son, H. G. Newhall, Esq., and by his present 
superintendent, Mr. D. W. Fields. 

Thai year they wore too busy erecting the hotel and out- 
buildings, fencing land and grading roads, to do more than 
make a trial of the capabilities of the soil. As a test, they 
sowed five hundred acres with wheat and barley, and though 
late in planting, the result far exceeded their fondest anticipa- 
tions' theaverage yield being one thousand one hundred and 
twenty-four pounds to the acre. 

Encouraged by this Buccess, Mr. Newhall broke up nearly 
eight thousand acres for the next crop. (About three thousand 
Lcresof tins land luul first fairly to be made, being covered 
with a dens.- growth of chaparral and sage-brush, which had 
bo be cut, grubbed and burned.) 

in this operation, he used six gang-plows, and plowed to an 
l vera je di pth of lour and a half inches, the six plows covering 
in all about sixty acres each day. The land was then seeded 
wit.i ■ Propo" wheat, by means of seed-sowers, two of which, 
together averaged about one hundred and forty acres per day. 

At the commencement, forty pounds of sued to the acre was 
used, but as the season advanced, this amount was increased to j 
sixty pounds. Mr. Newhall now thinks, that it was a mistake 
to use 80 much seed, and that thirty-three pounds increased to 
forty-five pounds, would have given better results. 

So soon as the young grain appeared, a twenty -foot roller, 
drawn by six horses, was made and put to work, and in two 
months covered some two thousand acres. Mr. Newhall con- 
siders that by this means, the air vessels are broken in the 
ground, the moisture retained therein, and the yield of grain 
largely increased. 

When the writer visited these wheat-fields — about .July 1, 1880, 
harvesting was in full progress, and after a careful review of 
every other portion of this county, and of many other parts of 
the State, he knows of none that will excel them in luxuriant 
growth. In places, the stalks stood so rank ami thick that 
even a squirrel would find difficulty in forcing his way 
through; the heads were uniformly full, and the grain well- 
formed. Mr. Newhall's superintendent, D. \V. Fields, Esq., 
estimated this year's yield at from eight hundred pounds per 
acre in the"poorest spots to two thousand two hundred pounds 
per acre in the best portions; with a general average on the 
whole land under grain, of one thousand five hundred pounds to 
the acre; or a grand total for the crop of six thousand tons. 
This immense harvest they intend storing for the present. 
The other principal wheat-fields on the ranch (within the 
limits of Los Angeles county), are those of H. G. Newhall, Esq., 
two thousand acres; and Lyon &) Howe, two hundred acres. 

The Santa Clara river runs fifteen miles through the middle 
of the San Francisco Ranch, carrying a fine stream of pure 
water the year round, this being supplied by living springs at 
the source. At the lower end of the ranch (in Ventura county) 
Mr. Newhall has made a series of ditches, by which he can 
irrigate some four thousand acres. Here he grows alfalfa and 
corn in abundance; while he amuses himself with experiments 
in sugar-cane, flax, Japanese bamboo, and a large variety of 
tropical and semi-tropical fruits, all of which are doing well. 

In a small orchard near the station, he has planted out about 
one thousand five hundred assorted fruit trees, including apples, 
walnuts, peaches, pears, nectarines, plums, etc., etc., together 
with a few oranges. All but the oranges are doing well, but 
for these the weather is too cold. 


Mr. Newhall has about seven hundred head of cattle on the 
ranch, and about as many more, belonging to other parties, are 
said to be scattered throughout the township. Of sheep, there 
are probably ten thousand in Soledad township. Bee-ranch- 
ing is here quite an important industry; there beino- probablv 

one thousand two hundred colonies in all, scattered throughout 
the township. The principal owners are 

Mitchell 000 colonies 

Stewart 250 " 

Dunton 170 


This was one of the earliest scenes of gold discovery in Cal- 
ifornia. Placer mines are still worked during the winter Beason 
by Chinamen and natives principally. The yield amounts to 
several hundred dollars per week, while water lasts. Quartz 
lead-, are not now worked. 

Coal is. known to exist in the mountains, but none of tin- 
ledges have been yet developed. 

This township is the scene of the extensive oil operations, 
and here are situated the oil wells and refining works, which 
we have fully described in our chapter on minerals. 


The town of Newhall, at present, consists of an exceedingly 
handsome hotel — with store attached, out-buildings, barns, 
warehouses., several dwellings, a depot, blacksmith shop, lum- 
ber-yard, school-house, and the inevitable following of small 

The hotel ami store, are owned and conducted by D. W. 
fields & < 'ii, This hotel is one of the finest and best appointed 
in the State, outside of San Francisco, and were it not for the 
almost certainty of a large increase of population within the 
near future, would seem to be strangely out of place. A pretty 
littfe park, with small fountain, ornaments the front, and the 
trees therein are growing rapidly. 

Newhall is a regular stopping place for the Los Angeles and 
Ventura stage line; also for all trains— north and south— on 
the Southern Pacific Railroad. 



The Old Mission— Early History— The First .Marriage— The First Birth- 
Extensive Buildings— Present Condition— An Old Church— The i ihost »i 
a Friar— Mission Gardens— San Fernando Ranch— E.irly History— El 
Encino Ranch— El Escorpion Ranch— Pico Reservation— Whtat— Sheep 
—Bees— Minerals— Water— Town of San Fernando. 


The mission of San Fernando Rey was founded at the joint 
expense of Charles IV, of Spain, and the Marquis of Br&nci- 
forte, Viceroy of Mexico, in honor of Ferdinand V, King d 
Castile and Aragon. The church was dedicated bj PSydrt 
Fermin Francisco Lasnen on September S, 1797, and unmedl 



¥*U?Hf Q a, TfrVM*;,liK ft lr/£L,T. 



at.-K succeeding the consecration, Padre Francisco Dumetz 
,! control as resident minister, which position he r< tained 
for several years. On the 8th day of the following month 
October, 1797), the first marriage was celebrated by Padre 
Dutnete, between two [ndian neophytes nam..! respectively 
Laureano and Marcela, and the first male child born in wed- 
lock was the ofispring of this pair on .Inly 29, 1 71>s Dp to 
ls+7 there bad been nine hundred and twenty-three marriages, 
two thousand one hundred and forty deaths, and three thousand 
onehundred and forty-nine baptisms. 

At one period of ita history there were uearly one and ahalf 
miles of buildings connected with this mission, these including 
residences, work-shops, schools and store-houses, all of which 
are now in ruins, The edifice erected especially as an abode 
for the padres ami reputed to be the finest of its kind in Alta 
California, is, however, still standing and in a fair state of 
presi rvation. It is principally interesting as having been the 
nUAr (it tin- Mexican General, Andres Pico, and was his hoail- 
quarters during the war of occupation. It is two-story, 
pearly three hundred feet in length, by eighty feet in width,' 
inside measurements; and the walls— of brick and adobe— are 
four feet thick. The rafters, after being cut in the mountain 
forests many miles away, were dragged here by Indians and 
oxen, each log being occasionally turned upon the way. " that 
all aides might be planed alike." They are as smooth as though 
really planed. The long corridor of this building is paved with 
brick, and the heavy tile roof is supported by arches and col- 
«min- of masonry. Many of the windowsare protected by iron 
bars, giving it a somewhat prison-like appearance. 

The church building— in all the tottering decrepitude of 
penerable decay— measures forty-five by one hundred and fifty 
feet within walls. It is entirely dismantled, and no service 
■' R been held therein for over a year. A huge owl, sole sur- 
vivor ot the many wise heads who have here held forth, was 
perched upon the ruined altar as we entered, He scolded at 
08 as once the worthy friars scolded their trembling converts; 
then -piead his wingsand, like them, departed. Was he the 
ghosl oi some early pad/re, reviewing the scenes of his earthly 
trials and triumphs — fasts and feasts < Qvden 8abe 1 

Hie mission gardens still contain some two hundred old olive 
trees, and about one thousand seven hundred ancientvinos; also 
a lew pear and peach trees, all bearing well — at least promising 
well this year. For the past two years the lessee says they 
have proved almost an utter failure. Small zanjas furnish a 
precarious supply of water for irrigation. 


Hie San Fernando Ranch contains one hundred and twenty- 
wand five hundred and forty-two acres. In 1845, this 
Property still belonged to the Mexican Government, but was 

."' ' ';:""'" f the Governor of California, and General 

^wR^o held a ten-year lease the t to expire h 

in 1846 Genera! Kcosoldthe ranch to Enlogio de Celis for 
fo«^en thousand dollan This he Hid in order to raise funds 
to prosecute the war. and the sale was subsequently approved 
by his Government. He retained hi- ,..;,,, , lV the 

terms of the sale, and in 1853 this was renewed for three 
V : " U P0" condition (which he .ft., ward fulfilled of pur- 
chasing om.-half of the ranch, including one of the mission 

gardens and half of the buildings, for fifteen tfa and dollar. 

I bus the property came to be owned equally bj And,, Pico 

and the heirs of de Celu deces ed 4.1 1871 a uuml t 

1 «s under the corporate name of the San Fernando Farm 

Homestead Association purchased the major portion of Pico 
undivided half— fifty-nine thousand five hundred and fifty 
;,r, "~ for one hundred and fifteen thousand dollara Thiswas 
aIlofcte d to them h. tin fchern half of the ranch. Prom this 

sale were excluded the vineyard and one thousand aC2%8 

adjoining, water for the Bame, the mission buildings, etc., etc. 


The Rancho "El Encino" was formerly a par* of San Fer- 
nando. It contains four thousand four hundred and sixty 
and seventy-three one-hundredths ems, three thousand three 
hundred of which were owned, in 1874, by Eugene Gamier, 
Esq., and used by him for sheep pasturage. There is afine 
spring on this ranch, flowing main fchoussnds of gallons daily. 
It is stocked at present with about ten thousand sheep. 

Is owned by McGill Leoniae, There are about one thousand 
acres under wheat. The remainderis usedforsheep pasturage. 
There are fine sulphur springs on this ranch. 


This trad is all under wheat, owned by Pico and Porter. 

The principal wheat hitherto grown in the San Fernando 
valley, lias been of the Australian and Sonora varieties. 
Odessa wheat seems, however, to do the best, ami will be 
planted hereafter in preference. There are about thirty-eight 
thousand acres under wheat, and two thousand acres under 
barley this year, throughout the valley, and a yield of ten 
centals to the acre is expected. The principal wheat-growers 
here this year are — 

McClay & Slaughter, 
Hubbard & Wright, 
Ah Workman. 
Beckett >.V Wright 
I Iroaa & May, 
Lopez it Cummiiigs, 
Van&yse & JLankensheini, 

Porter Brothers, 
John Jennifer. 
Pattoti & Smith, 
McClellan & Haskell, 
J. Parsons, 
— Smith, 
T. M. Loup. 


Has only jus! been started in the valley, but nearly all varie- 
ties promise remarkably well. 

sun p. 

re are great numbers of sheep in the San Fernando val- 
ley and on the neighboring foot-hills. Their numbei an 
estimated by Hon Charles WcClay at our hundred thousand, 
dh ided as follows: — 

Laokenaheim 30,000 Encino Ranch 10.000 

Donaletch .... \Sfi00 Derons 

gcCtaa 2,000 Portei i.'mm.i 

"cGlll iti.tHHi Biirhank LO00 

other owneia .|' n(lll 

Bl i.s 

There is a very large bee interest In bhe mountains adjaeent 
fcoSan Fernando, The strength of the principal ranches is esti- 
mated as follows; — 


Schaiaer Brothers .. JfiO 

Allen 160 

Wood so 

Kichline . I2fi 

Harps so 

Praater i;;u 

Wilson. ;,n 

Lundy .. "". 70 









Felipe .. 




. . 200 







There are extensive brea deposits, and good indications for 
ml, about four miles north of the town. 

WAT] 1: 

There are no artesian wells in the vallej as pet, bui one 

1 ' in tilc ' foot-hills some years ago still How and ,, , 

believed by the inhabitants that artesian wate] can be bad 
for the boring. .Most of the ranches have surface wells but 

somi ot them are obliged to draw water, in box wagon Pi 

a larg,- spring about half a mile north of the tow,, whieh 
With can-, supplies an abundance. The Pocaima creek runs to 
the edge of the valley all the year round, but needs reservoirs 
and piping to make the water available. The Paloma creel 
(called locally San Fernando creek) run B Ears the reserva 
tion. Natural springs are quite numerous. 

TOWN OF BAN Fi;H\A.\no. 
In 1874 Hon. Charles McCIay laid out the present town of 
*ai. Krnando. Jn April of that year, a free excui ion train 

was run from Los and a large numb,-.- of , pie 

attended. Dr. John S. Griffin named the town. An am-tion 
oi the lots was held in Los Angeles on July 3d, and * era! 
hundred were disposed of, varying in price from six to twenty 
dollars, for town lots twenty-five by one hundred feci 



A po ■■■! office was established in L874. The present post- 
master is Mr. A. B Moffitt. 

The town has at present quite a Dumber of residences, also 
one hotel, one billiard hall, depot building, two stores, three 
saloons, one school-hou e 

The school-1 Be was erected in L876, at a cost of six hun- 
dred dollars. The school has an average attendance of about 

There is no church, but the Methodists hold Bervice in the 
school-house. Rev, Mr, Wenk. is the present minister, The 
such'i v wb s established about two years ago. 

The Southern Pacific Railroad Company is bow erecting a 
iiru station about three miles south of San Fernando, to 
accommodate the wheat and bee interests of that section. It 
is bo be known as McClay Station. 



i: i in in Loa Angeles Township, 

Lo a -ill Cm Imperfoot Records Earliest Records hi Existence — The 

I'm ill., in [835 Ereotod into d City Capital oi California — Conditi I 

thoCity ■>! ■ 1 1 ■ « ■ American Occupal -List of City Archives in 1847 — Act 

"i tncorporation The Firs! American Child— Current Events by Years, 
L85D to L880. 
Cm ni.i i, i ,;s from I860 to 1880. 

FniEa I80S 1807 1870 1871 1874 -1875—1876—1877—1870. 
Finn Companies Thirty-Eights Confidence -Park Hose— Vigilance. 
Crn \V \n\i Bistoryof, 1850 bo 1880. 

OnuRCHap Catholic Churoli Fort St. M. E. Church— First Baptist Church 
African M, E. Church- First Presbyterian Church— St. Athanasiua 

Episcopal ■ l ill Firsl Protestant Society— Congregation Bni Brith — 

I'm - 1 Congregal a! Church ' lerman Mission "i the M. K. i.'hurch — 

Church of Christ Chinese Mission Unitarian Church — Trinity M. E 
Church s,,utli. 

Soi v |,. A. Lodge No. 42, P. & A. M.— L. A. Chapter No. 83, R. A. M. 

Pentalpha Lodge No. 202, IMA. M. Coeur de Lion Commandery No. 
9, Knights Templai kcaeia Chapter No. 21, Order of the Eastern Star — L. 
A. LodgeNo 85, [.O.O, F. Golden Rule Lodge No, 160, I. O. O. F.— 
South Star, Degree Lodge, No. 7,1. 0, 0. F.— Hebrew Benevolent Society 
Meohauics' [ustitub ^ M Social Assembly— Harmony Club— Ger- 
mauin Turn \ Breiu French Boui vrolent Society — B. C 85, Union League 

"i America I. < >. G \ Templars— Mechanics' Eight- Hour League- 

Southom Pacific Cluh 81 Patrick's B* uevolent Society— L. A. Council 
No, II. R, A S.M.- I. A. i '.. Medi< J Association — St. Andrew's Society 
Aneienl Jewish Ordei K S, B I. A. SoeialClub— L. A. Musical Assn- 

oiation S <' Formers'! d I. A. Chamber of Commerce— Irish L. & 

s. Cluh Knights ol Pythias Spanish Aid. Benevolent Society- — Ancient 

"ill ol Hibernians S. C. Horticultural Society — L. A. Phialetica — 

Ladies Benevolent Society- Italian Mutual Benevolent Society — L. A 

Free Dispensary Frank Bartlett Post G, A. R. — L A. Box Association 

Ancient Ordei United Workmen Ivj Social Cluh — Owl Dramatic I'luh 

Red Men A etcrans <a Mexican War— Catholic Ab. Society — Grangers. 

Mujtaiu Organizations -1,. V Rangers- -L A. Guards— French Zouaves — 

Guardia Zaragiss A\ ishington I luarda — City Guards —Ringgold's Light 

i list's Rifle Co, French Enfantry Corps Southern Ritlea — 

I. \ Grave Moore's Co Native California Co. 

Pi i.i [i 

Lie [wsrm nous— County Hospital and Alms House — Public Library As 
Bociation— County -Tail— City Schools— Cemeteries— Banks and Banking— 

The following is a list of the ranches in Loa Angeles town- 
ship, with their respective acreage and the name of the person 
to whom each was confirmed by tin.- United Status Courts, 
after the American occupation: — 



Pueblo, Cityol I ioa IngeL - . 

Rancho, Tnjungs 

Son Rafael 

1 Pkh ii Li ncia 

Lfl I '.Ui:nl.l 

Loa Felis, . 

17,172 33-100 
6,060 78-100 

36,403 37-100 
4,064 33-100 

5,832 10-100 

0,047 16-100 

I >;i\ id W. Alexander et al. 
i alio Berdugo, ej al. 
David W. Alexander, ot al. 
Fonathan R. Scotl 

and Benjamin Hayes. 

M.ui;i Y^ii^t'ia Honlu^n. 


In a former chapter (VI) we have reviewed the early history 
of Los Angeles < lity to some extent, and the total absence of all 
records for the first half century preclude the possibility of our 
carrying the inquiry further during that time. The most 
ancient record extant among the city archives is a manuscript 
pamphlet, containing the debit ami credit account of Guillermo 
Cota, (then alcalde) of all the city revenues and disbursements 
for the year 1827. This book shows that the payments for that 
year amounted to 8478.25. The fines imposed during the same 
year amounted to $119.25. 

A small manuscript pamphlet of about a dozen leaves, con- 
tains the account of licenses issued in L835. During the month 
ni' April that year, there were seven bar-rooms, thirteen stores, 
and one billiard table in Los Angeles. In May there were 
eight bar-rooms ; in August six bar-rooms, eleven stores, and 
one billiard room. The license for maintaining a bar-room was 
50 cents per month, and for a store or billiard room, $1.00 per 

In 1835 Alexander Forbes wrote regarding the town (Forbes 1 
California, page 207) :— 

The principal pueblo is Nuestra Senora de los Angeles, situated 
about eight miles from the mission of San Gabriel, and about twenty 
miles from ;i roadstead on the Pacific culled San Pedro. The popula- 
tion of the town is ahout fifteen hundred. It has an alcalde or mayor 
three regulores and a ayrulico; this composes its Ayuntamv nto, or Town 
Council. The vicinity is occupied by vineyards and maize fields- and 
as the lands are level and highly fertile, it is capable of great agricul- 
tural improvement. This town has been proposed as the capital of the 
country; and as the Spaniards have in their colonies always chosen an 
inland situation for their capital towns, this scheme might have been 
adopted if the country had remained in their hands; but it is to he 
presumed that Monterey will, under the present circumstances be con 
sidered as the capital until a population shall arise on the Bay of Pan 
Francisco, when, from its superiority as a harbor, the capital town will 
ultimately, no doubt, be fixed there. 

In 1836 the pueblo (town) was erected into a emdad c\U 
and in this year the first written land -rants were mad-. In 
this year, also, it was created the capital" of California, and was 
tin- seat nf (hivcrnment thenceforth until lS-K!. 

A.t the time of the American occupation, the houses of the 
city were principally of adobe, with a very few frame om 
but none of brick. The population numbered about two thou 
sand, anil of these, not over one hundred wen- foreigners T] 
following is a list of the city archives which came into the 
hands of the American Government at thai time, as given hv 
the Newsoi May 20, 1871:— 


1. An inventory of the goods of I 'on 1 torlos Bario, deceased. 

2. Judgment of arbitration in the matter of Bafael Martinez 

3. Surrender of the goods of Augustiu Martin A: Co. 

4. Agreement of Don Leonardo Cota and Hon Luis Altamiran. 

5. Contract made between Dona Maria Vellaloboa and Don Luii 
Bauchette, concerning the goods of Tapia, deceased. 

*'.. A bundle of papers, petitions for land. 

7. License from the Bishop to Don J^-uacio del Valle lo erect n mon- 
ument to his wife. 
a. Surrender of the g Is of Don 1 lemetrio Villa. 

9. Copy of the inventory of Don Manuel Sepulveda. 

10. Inventory of the goods of Don Luis Bauchette, deceased. 


1. Inquiry concerning the death of Angel. 

2. Examination to inquire into the death of ('apt. Yerhariuna. 
:;. Criminal process against Antonio Valencia for adultery. 

4. Ecclesiastical against Francisco and Jnana. 

5. to inquire into the death of i'atalot. 

6. Report of the investigation of the wounds of Jacinto Garcia. 

7. Investigation of" the suicide of the merchant, Don Aueiutin 

8. Criminal, against YJario Ybarra. 

9. Investigation to inquire into the burning of the house ol Eta 
nardo Lopez. 

10. Against Joaquin Soto for homicide. 

11. Papers in the case pending of Manuel Chapo. 


Protests of this year, 1*47; one hook of arbitrations; three books 
of minutes; one book of records of brands; one book of the acts of 
the Aywntaiuientoi one book of criminal records; one volume of 
waste books; a box (without feet) of silver, belonging to sod on 
deposit from the mission of San Luis Key; two pamphlets of tdrifa 
ciones and arbitrations; accounts of the "syndic of the present year, 
with all the vouchers. 


One white WOOden table; two benches of same material; two bot- 
tles of ink; two inkstands and a ruler; an old box with papers; tin 
pairs of andirons in the jail; two pairs of handcuffs, with key; col- 
lections of papers of police, and other loose papers relating to pend- 
ing business. 

Among the records now being overhauled by the clerk i* a vol- 
uminous ordinance providing rules f,, r the government of the Ii 
Jamienio, and prescribing regulations for the transaction of business. 
There has also been found a list, dated 1852, of old papers at thai 
tune in the office of the Surveyor-General at the national capital 
Ihe list commences with a date of 1773, and comes down through 

fifty years. Among the papers menti d is " Instructions givenbj 

the government for the establishment of the Pueblo de 
Senora de los Angeles, on the river Porcinucula," August - 
Another document shows that our city was directed to he established 
in 1777. 

in the year L850, Los Angeles City was duly incorporal 
page 155, laws of L850 ; we append a copy of the Act: 



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Residence or P T. ADAMS, 

General Diagram of Ausn Orange Grove, property of SNOW a ADAMS, Tustin CiTr, Los Angeles C? California. 

ttlHjil* M. - 

"atriPBOn %v*ta\ 



( MAI-i i.j; 60. 

Aii Act to incorporate the city <>f Los Angeles. Panned Anril 4 
I860. l 

The people of the State of California, represented in Sen i 
:.M\ . do enact as follows:— 

m. noN l. All that tract of land included within the limit* ol 
the Pueblo de Los Angeles, as heretofore known and acknowled ed 
si,. ill henceforth be known as the city of Los Angelee and tin a d 
city ia hereby declared to be incorporated according to the provisions 
of the Act entitled "An Act to provide for the iticori.nfat.inr> of 
cities." approved March 18, L850 Provided, however, that if such 
limits include more than four Bquare miles, the Council shall, within 
three months alter they are elected and qualified, fix by ordinance 
the limits of the city, not to include more than said quantity of 
land, and the boundaries so determined .shall henceforth be the boun- 
daries of the city. 

Sec -■ The aumber of Councilmen -shall be seven; the first elec- 
tion « if city officers shall be held on the Becond Vlondnv of M-iv 
next 3 J 

BE) 8. The Corporation created by this Act, shall succeed to :ill the 

rights, claims and powers of the Pueblo de Los Angeles in regard to 
property, and shall be subject to all the liabilities incurred, and obli- 
gations created by the ayuntamiento of said pueblo. 

According to Benjamin Hayes (Historical Sketch), John 
Gregg Nichols was the first American boy born in the city 
April 15, 1851. At this time the resident population waa esti- 
mated at two thousand five hundred; but very few American 

In January, 1852, the house occupied by Benjamin Hayes, 
under lease from Felipe Garcia, was sub-let li\ him to the 
eountj for a Court House, for the balance of his terra, expir 
ing November Hi, 1858. The sum of six hundred and fifty 
dollars was appropriated by order of Court of Sessions to pay 
the rent fur the agreed term. 

In 1853 there were only three large dry goods stores, and 
aboul a dozen others that kept a general assortment ; say half 
a dozen grocery shops, and saloons in great variety. In this 
year the second 3urvej of the city was made by H. Hancock. 
Thiswasof thirty-five-acre donation lots, which were riven 
away to actual settlers. 


Under date January 4th, we read in the Star; — 

The Christmas and New Year's festivals arc passing away with 
the usual accompaniments; viz., bull-fights, bell-ringing, firing of 
crackers, festas, and fandangos. 


It does not appear that the Liquor Ordinance has done much pood 
bo far. It went into effect on the Lstof December, over one month 

ago, and still the Indians get their Hquor the same as ever. Negro 

■ ■ ipal resort ol those Indians, especially on the Sabbath, 
a the little money they have been aide to get the rest oi the week, 
i- spent for liquor. 

Again in March we read: — 

Wishingtace birthd :\ was celebrated in Lac Vngelsa by the City 
■ u tf !_: ij : . :;,, martial tppearance cf these titoasn soldiers jliiiUJ 
be warmest praise from the vast concourse of people who thronged 
witness their evolutions. 

* * * * # * * 

rot the past two weeks Los Angeles has presented an unusual 
nvely appearance, on account of the excitement existing relative to 
the Kern river mines. Every steamer brings down large numhersof 

I';'-" 1 Our merchant* have done a -good 

business in supplying the miners. 


rinsed wt~?S 'T"» ^" l \ l r: \ Uiot Meana ' Alexander A Ban- 
SHfi"! pi ' '■," Ipril 27th. for Great 

dbi, ,ty rhe train comprise* fifteen ten-mule teams with sixty 
... u-i.N. I pounds of assorted merchandise, purchased especially for the 
trade in the Great Interior Basin. 

We learn further thai the Fourth of July was celebrated it. 
social parties on some of the neighboring ranches Thi Citj 
Guards paraded the principal stre. I and I . mem 

bera of the Masonic I ratt rnity t-> the Lab \ in ■ 

The Sonsof T. mpi ranee oi Los Angeles, weni to the Monte, 
and joined with the ordei al thai place in celebrating the d y 
with an oration proci - ion, and dii 

The City Guards gave a ball in the evening at then 

About this time also, city improvomente began to look up 
We find the following editorial in the Star of September 29th: 

Cm Improvements.— In spiteofthe hard times, many valuable 
stores, dwellings, and improvements will be made during tin ... 
rne excellent quality of In irk that ia being manufactured within Lhe 
city limits, supply the place of adobes in a great measure, and are 
preferred by those who wish t.. make lasting improvements Hon 
Abel Stearns and J. i;. Scott, Esq., have nearly completed a brick 
flouring mill, which will far surpass anything of the kind in the outh 
em section of the State. Messrs, Foster & Wadhams have finished u 
block of three brick stores on the corner of .Main and Commercial 
streets, and Mr. J. Morris one adjoining. Mr. John Qoller ha com 
pleted a I. nek- carriage warehouse Don Juan Ramin i is building n 
lar-e brick block on Alameda street, designed for stores and a printing 
office.... There are also many dwellings being erected in difTercnl 
parts of the city. 


February 2d — Died in Los Angeles, George Thompson 
Burrill, formerly sheriff of the count} 

Washington's birthday and the Fourth of July were both 
duly celebrated. November 20th was appointed liy the Gov- 
ernor as a day of Thanksgiving, but the news not reaching 
Los Angeles in time, business went on a^ usual, to the chagrin 
of all, and some legal complications in the courts, regarding 
service of papers, etc. In December business was active and 

oey plenty. December 21st, Bishop Amat arrived amid 

great ringing of bells, to dedicate anew the church which had 
been undergoing repairs. 


In April, oysters and ice were chronicled as late innovations 

fcothecity. In May. a g 1 many people were afflicted with 

putrid sore -throat, which proved fatal to some children. June 
6th, the Star says : — 

The Star notes the following improvements to be made in the city : 
Don Juan Temple is about to erect a block of buildings on Main 
street, commencing at Pine's Hotel. Flashner .^ Bremermann, of the 
Bells Union Hotel, are about to erect a two-story brick building ; their 
premises at present not affording sufficient accommodations. Mr. 
Beaudry is preparing to erect a row ol brick buildings on Lee Angeles 

and Aliso streets. 

Beaudry'a block was finished in November 

In July the Fort Tejon Dramatic Association gave a repre- 
sentation in the city for the benefit of Mi W U>bott; the 
Fourth \\.i~ celebrated with considerable spirit ; and on the 
9th of that month, Dr. Obed SAacj died The anniversary of 
Mexican Independence was duly celebrated in September. 
Throughout the Fall, there was considerable trade with Kern 


During January the < California Minstrels visited Los Angelas, 
and played to crowded houses for some days 

1 i i date January :;m Mr. M |> Barrows writes to the 
San Francisco Bull tvn 

Thereisaverj general and growing desire for the abandonment of 

ourcitj oh It is of bul little, If any use. We need no mayor, and 

I be n bole RfFairs ol the county could be managed by the Supervisors. 
It seems absurd to bs n two ■■■< 1 1 of officers. 

Fedri \\-\ 22d Washington's birthda} was duly celebrated 
in Los Angeles. The Spaniards speak of him aa u Sam Wash 

i li'/fnn." 

In February, Colonel Kewen, of Walker filibustering fa , 

ettled in Los Angeles to practice law. 

On the evening of Juno 8th the citizen gave a grand jollifl 
cation and complimentary ball in honor of Captain Seeley, of 
bd in ihip Senator. 

July 5th a fete was given by the French eitizena of Los 
Angeles in the grove <<f the Sansevainea In the evening thei 
paraded the streets singing the Marsollaise. At night there 
u:i a ball, lasting until the following morning, 

About the middle of Jul} the workmen employed in i ca 
vating beneath tin building of Mr. Childs, lately burned 
discovered a quantity of gold coin, variou I;, i timated at 
from rive hundred to five thousand. This the) appropriated, 
notwithstanding the owner of the ground laid claim to il a 
having been probably hidden byadishonest clerk in hisemploy 
some years before. 

in August the following new buildings are noticed in Los 
bigeles, as being in process of erection: Furniture warehouse 

of l''in W [worth & Co : dry goods emporium of Lazard 

& Wolfskill ; store of Bach man & Co now building; paro 
ehial building of Catholic church, now building. 

September 27th cannon were fired during the 'lay. fi 

Fremont's redoubt overlooking the town, in honor of the suc- 
cessful lag ing of the first Atlantic cable 

October 7th the arrival of the pi >er em i -weekly overland 

stage, twenty-one days from the Mississippi river, was <■•■'■ 
brated in Los Angelea with the firing of cannon and genera] joy. 

November -*7tli we read: — 

The large block of stores which the Hon. A. Stearns ii building on 
!<"' '■■■■ et, are eight in number; each twenty-five feet front by 

1 ():-■'. 



eighty deep, two I bigb.«»a rrfth.rn.ithb-en.ent* They 

i 1.. ..I and Are i r. 

,.. , Los Angel, in December, and there 

I ' ityvotetW ix hundred and e^My. 


l„. lft ry arrange - «• *>' "2°!' 

mark0 , h0U9 ; and City Ball. The plaza was also enc! Iwift 

::: If ^ y*.-** — ^ 

1 TVnmle for Unity thousand dollars. I he * omiuon 

J,;,, , I, * to borrow tw6 hundred tl I 

,, l ih Irovements. The market-house wa «- 

nineed in Mfrch. 1 he ****-* *£%« ~ 

llis ,„ y and killed through his horse taking f right. 

h t„ IfLmber tl *■! se was nnished, aho Stearns 

hwlrfrtow The post-office was re, I to » building » 

££1 and over four tl I letters had passed 

1.1, t in the past quarter. Amusements wore abundant 
l°; v ting--the NCinsLls. Spanish theatre, Oreo, Trench 

th o";afmarked by the arrival of the French Vice-Con- 

jTLobA Moerenhaut, iu wl honor cannons^ were 

,,, etc Thecitj market was rented at four hundred and 

iy-five dollars pe tl I the stalls for one hundred 

and seventy-three dollars per month. 

^MBLaVth-The Court House being in bad order and 
' ' ,. ,,, v „„, 1 n provided by the county, Judge Hayes, of 

:l Stable b for court room, jury room and judge, 


,»,.,,, mDer 29feb we read:— 

- b- "'--'-riii^^ss^'^r^ 

- "f The ? W o "ory Arladla Mock belonging to Hon. Abel Bteam* 

atruotion. I he twoscori -y "' . . t , stores on the ground 

although counttngaaone bmld ;; ''; ,^- ' lion - „ e hundred and fifty 

",'""' TCcTTeiSetnew tw^tory block, fronting, on three 
thousand brick. 1 u " l l\„ l ,„„ ,,, ,..,„,„„, | fi„ ur ,.1 which is designed 

»l ts, b another large In, 1 1 ing. U> r . ,"» d b!ills . The numb er of 

„, r B tore, »nd *•. "PPM Jtory for offlc« mid d The mlirket 

Urick in tin- building b abou J « ' fc The Overland 

house ased two hundred and ^^SSSvlii building containing 

-7::;,:\ 1 :;::;.;.':; 1 ; : ;:;!;,:I,", , ;,ac k8 .nith house, stabies, etc. ^ 

There were eleven attorneys and seven doctors in the e.ty 
(Ms yea, and the city vote was one thousand and twenty. 
j v .„,,, Br6vet Major Edward Harold Rtegerald oT the 

as, died in Los Angeles, and was buried with mihta.j 


„ i i \,„il tl"- Mariquez theatrical troupe 
During March and April t « the beautiful 

played to good houses, and in the latter mon 

Pepit- api — " ' "- Prima D0nna ' 

, 8tnC ol Fremont visited Los Angeles, and was greeted 

red^tolTletetlti in-, I « - ' 

to Los Angles, and thence back to Manp^^ 

Dunne Juh Los Angeles was greatly edited .*. i 

JSSgiZX*** fThurcKandne - « 

fi -St d O:Er a band of desperadoes left thecUyfoi. 
L,,".;./ California with the avowed purpose of killing Gov 

The E po^on of the city was estimated th* year at four 

JuTandto five tl and; and the amoun ^^ of -ty Property 

retu med by the Assessor was one million five hundred thou 
sand. 1861 

In February the city market building was rented to the 
county for a Court House. April 5th we read :- 

brick block 

The Fourth of July was celebrated with becoming patriotic 
spirit. Addresses by J. R. Getchell and others 
1 September 11th Hon. Kimball H. died suddenly of 
heart disease, and was buried the following day. The follow- 
ing notice is from the iVew« of September 13th:— 

D mnVk ho wa* then in command of a Brigade of the New York 
& t " Miiit* i raised a company and, at its acceptance was elected 
btate ^intj.i, ra i / tield office, which he refused to 

accl pre" '; ng Tshsre the fate of the son, of his neighbors of the 
conn?v. P Hesanfd from New York in fept™ b8 %^»^otan 
""ompany K of Colonel J. D. Stevenson's regiment. New ^ ..rW_\ olun- 
teenon the ship loo Choo, and landed at Yerba Buena March ,, 1847, 
from whence he was ordered with his company to garrison he presidio. 
W?en peace was proclaimed he removed to San Jose w £™ ^JK 
elected Alcalde, an office at that time of more importance than that 
of Supreme Judge at present. At the election held m 1840, under the 
prodanXn of General Riley, military Governor otCahiorn.a. he was 
eTected Judge of the Supreme Court of the State. He waa elected to 
and attended the convention for framing a State Constitution ,f„r the 
| Itate of California, and several of the important articles of that inst.u- 

* 1 hv him and adopted without amendment. In 1851 
men t were report- h " • ^ , f worth a fortune> but by the 

he revisited the East and ■««?£» returue d here to find himself utterly 
t— h-yol pre end ed m nde he ^ heheldsucci 

penniless. He then "J"* Attorney, Justice of the Peace, Notary 
Svely the offices of ,; Att 3 ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^ 

PuhUc, Judge of the County, ana ^^ ^ important office of 

SS^fitoBStoS'Srt^ of the United State, for California. 
1„ November, Lady Franklin, wider* of the much lamented 
Sir John, with her niece, Mrs. I Jraycroft, viaited Los Angelea 

Small-pox, measles ami secession were rampant in Los 
Welee throughout this year. There were several fatal casea 
of^chdiaease, and desperate n,nedies h.U, I, ported to tn 
X to save other patients. Trade wxth Utah was very 
live ly fche Saints and Angels constantly exchanging v.s.ts. 

May 7th Capt. Winnie, of the IT, S. An,, mitt,. ls„u* le 

at the Bella Union Hotel. He was buried on the £>th mat. 

with military honors. 

July 4th passed off without notice, such celebration* being 
1 distasteful to the ruling powers. In October however one 
thousand dollars were raised in the city for the Sanitary fund. 
October 8th Dr. Charles Leonce Hoover died. A emus 
company exhibited during November. 

During the early portion of this year small-pox continued 
its ravages in Sonora town. Nearly every house had out a 
yellow nag. Gradually it was brought under control. Seces- 
sion remained about as formerly. 

April 29th the steamer Ada Hancoch exploded in the har- 
bor at Wilmington, and many residents of the city were killed 
or injured. (See preceding chapters for full account of tins 

catastrophe.) . 

In May the Mexican population held a grand celebration 
over the defeat of the French forces at Puebla, Mexico. July 
4th was again treated with silent contempt. The anmveraarj 
of the birth of Napoleon I. was celebrated by the trench 
citizens August loth. f 

September 15th a promenade ball was given by the ladies oi 
Los Angeles at Stearns Hall. About one hundred couples 
attended. In December, trade with Salt Lake waa good. 

There was little of local importance to record this year that 
has not already been treated of in preceding chapters. Union 
medicine was, however, beginning to work beneficially upon 
the body politic, if we can judge from the following: 

"The Mexican population of Los Angeles celebrated the annt 
versary of the Independence of Mexico on Friday, & 
Kith, in an appropriate manner. In the afternoon ata^ 
audience assembled at the Los Angeles I tardea* when 

Residence £5 Orange Orchard of P.J.SHAFFER, Orange, Los Angeles C° Cm 


'««wjwi wrgr. 


eltvered in the English and Spanish language and 
patriotic tunes discoursed by the fine band from Drum Bar- 
rack* In the evening a vast concourse assembled in fronl of 

ijette Hotel and were entertained by var - peak'ei 

until a late hour. Good Union senti nts were uttered and 

warmly responded to by the assemblage." 


January loth we read: — 

But a few months since Commercial street was looked upon an 
nearly abandoned; but few stores were occupied, and everyone looked 
upon that fact as a bad omen bo the future business of Los Angeles. 
Now it is different; business prospects arc brightening, every door on 

both sides oi Com rcial Btreet is now open, and business is again look 

ing up. 

Sore throat and typhoid fever carried off many children 
during the summer, [mprovements were added rapidly dur 
in- the year. Under date December we read : — 

Improvements Around Los Angeles. — Vineyards are being im- 
proved and enlarged, fine orchards planted in every direction, Farms 

have been and art* now being made fur miles around the city, where 
two years ago nothing grew but clover and wild mustard. 

Although the quantity of land under cultivation has been doubled 
in b I. u years and the city has been furnished with water for domestic 
purposes in pipes, and much more water is being used for irrigating 
ornamental gardens, etc., there is still such an abundance of water 
that a number of farms outside the limits of the city arc supplied from 
the city zanja. 

In many ])jtrts of the city handsome brick cottages are being built. 
Population of Los Angeles gradually increasing. 

During the winter of L 865-6 the Castillo Dramatic Troupe 
m; red in the city, and gave representations of Spanish 


The real estate market was quite active during this spring. 

March 30th we read:— 

1 Iver hundred thousand dollars' worth of real estate has changed 

bands in Los Angeles and vicinity within the last few days. 

May 1 lib Hun. J R. Getchell, United States District Attor- 
ney for the Southern District of California, died in Los Angeles. 

Many improvements were reported throughout this year, a 
great number of really substantial buildings being erected 
The population of the city was estimated at rive thousand. 

Mi B. C. Truman gives this not very flattering picture of 
Los Angeli g in 1867:— 

Crooked, ungraded, unpaved streets; land, lean; rickety, adobe 

isphaltum roofe; and here and there an indolent native 

hugging the inside of B blanket or burying bis head in a gigantic 

water-melon, were the then most notable features of this quondam 

Mexican town. 

January Uth an editorial in the Los Angelos New speaks 
ack of public spirit and enterprise of the citi/.ens of Los 
Mentions the bad condition of the plaza, streets, etc 
hat the town is asleep, and trade passing a\va\ . 



yet « MI1,1, ' "■ iary 22d, the Bame papei contii 

rMPBOVEMBKIB.— Los Angel* -wlv but. neverthe- 

">'' V" 1 ''" ' lion; Alameda 

no* thi icene of active operations. Several dwellin 

course of era 

^ In Ma) the subscriptions of citizens to the Southern Relief 
Fundare reported to haw been wry liberal. \i a La 
held for thu object, one thousand five hundred and nine dollars 
and five cents whs realized. 

in July :i brass band was organized. Many improvements 
wore made P. Beaudrj petitioned the Council to offer for 
sale the hill lands lying west f the city. 

August Mnli and 1 Lth the Mexican populatio brated the 

conclusion of the Mexican war and surrender of the city of 
Mexico into the bands of the Liberals by Bpcech-making ]-Yn.'r~ 
Biona with music, firing of cannon, etc The Mexican, Chilian 
and American Bags appeared in the procession, and the enthu- 
siasm was unbounded. 


January 20th D Marchesseault, Mayoi of the city , committed 
suicide by shooting himself in bis offii e 

The third survey of Los Angeles ('its was made by George 
Hansen in this year. This survey covered thai portion of the 
eit\ lying east of Los Angeles river, and was of thirty-five acre 
lots, for sale by the city. 

The veal growth of the city is said t<> date from L868. Men 
jam in Hayes writes: — 

At this time, the fall of 1868, there was no three-story building in 
the town, while the only two-story business houses were the old 
Lafayette, the older portion of 'lie Bella Onion, with the stores oi 
Barrows and Childs upon Los Angeles street, Btearns' Block, Bell's 
Block, a portion of the Lanfranco building, the older portion of the 
United States Hotel, Allen's corner, the Court House with the pari of 
Temple Block facing it, and a two-story adobe where Temple's Bank 
now stands. The portion of Downey block facing toward the Temple 
Bank had a few one-story adobe rooms, with a wide gateway in the 
middle opening into a corral. This gateway had connected with it 
somewhat of a tragic history, as, upon the cross-bar above, live despera- 
does were hanged at one time by the Vigilance Committee, the was then upon the outskirts of the town. Captain 
Clark's house was fairly in the country, but little of the property 
around being even fenced in. The hills above town and across the 
river, now dotted with houses, were then bleak and bare. East bos 
Angeles had not yet even been dreamed of. 


January 16th we read- 

A hundred houses could be rented in this city | Los Angi 
twenty-four hours; upon every street, in every hotel, in fact, wherever 
you go, the words greet you. Are there any houses to reut in this city? 
Houses lor residences, houses for business for hotels and boarding- 
bouses, in fact, houses of every description are in demand: where one 
is built a dozen are wanted. Strangers can neither buy nor rent, 
and a large number of the people who arrive here by every steamer 
and every stage, are forced to return for want of places in which to 
make themselves and families comfortable, until they can select and 
build bouses. Rents are high, and those requiring houses would 
gladly pay almost any rent. 
*" j.vni auy 23d — Some excitement was created yesterday by a 

party of men at work putting up houses and fences upon fjome 

cupied city lots near the Episcopal church in Los Angeles - 
It is the iutention of the parties who are building to becomi 

settler- thereon, and alter making a given amount of improvements, 
applj t.. the city authorities for a title, under the ordinances and cus- 
toms heretofore regulating the donating of city lands toactual -euler-. 

At the first session of the Common Council in February the 
porl and recommendation was made; 

Mi- committee bavin- under consideration the fenoing of streets, 
sqnattin property, and indemnification to owners ol prop- 

cupied by street*, recommend that an amicable adjustment he 
made ol the different rights of the parties. 

On motion, a special committee of three were appointed t<> 
■■'■ iih the in! ai ties and settle the different ques 

tions, and report their action to the < founcil foi their approval. 
F< bruary 12th we I 

i be anon cedonted advance of real estate in Los Angeles during the 

Even on impetus to enterprise that is fusl making El a 

re city. Che demand for lots is great and the prices paid are 

high, i entei prises have placed a largo ibei of lot.-*, I 

upon First, Aliso, Sausevs and other Btreets, on sale. Thai pro 

duel ive \ ines fifty years old or upwards should be taken up, wine eel 

lars re ved, and bearing orange trees in considerable numbers be 

uprooted for the purpose of making room for those who must have 

houses to live in. and lots noon which to build them, Is -in evidence 

that enterprise, so long slumbering in Los Angeles, Is no« awake, and 
determined to keep pace with the demand of the times, 

And again: — 

Marge 6th There are more than thirt) five bouses being built in 

Los Angeles at the present time, all Dear the husiness porn f the 

city. Prominent among the brick buildings Don joins rip is the 
i [< .'.mi two-etory residence of I Governoi Downej on uaft itreett 
which i- ol a chaste and yet imposing style of architecture. 

March 6th— Building lots are being sold in La I motion 

Lots lixtv feel front bj one hundred and I deep ell al 

ranging from thirty -three to six hundred dollars. Bui few lots 
are purchased for Bpei illation, the greatei portion of them being put 

chased by mechanics and others, with a view of improvta ■ ii foi 


Mm.'H 12th — The largo store on Los Angeles treofc, occupied by 
H. Heinsch as a saddle and barm depot i oon being demol! bed to 
make room for i be extension of I 'oi e rcial street in an easterly direc- 
tion to Alameda street. The extension isa valuable improvement to 

that portion of the city. 

May 32d -There are over thirty new houses in course of erection in 
the southern part of the city i bos Angeles , 

October 24th the corner tone of their propo ed hospital wa i 
laid by tin: French Benevolent Society, with appropriate cen 
monies. The following document was placed in the cavity of 

the stone: — 

This 24th day of October, 1869, the year the corner-atone of this 
building was laid by the President of the French Mutual Bene 
Society, who destine this building for a hospital for the benefit of their 
sick members. As we uri . this work Napoleon III. i^ 

Emperor of the French: t_\ 8. Grant is President of the United State* 
of North America; H. H. Haight is Governor of the State of California; 
Joel H. Turner is Mayor of the city "f l.o- Ingeles; and Augu t 
Bouelle is President of the above-named Society. Greeting to all who 
at some future day will read this document; let them follow ouj 
pie, let them unite to succor and relieve the distressed. 

It was accompanied by cuius of various com I copies 

of the News, Sta/r, Republican, and Chronik,oi Los Aj 




The •■•■i- nonie* al the ground closed with an address from 
\l. di Handrail 

In u pari of tbe 

town, and Bixtj d ath ?er< - I d bu dly died 

I owavd fa 1 1 


find 'In- following editorial in 

i ,,,1, i date January 12th, w 
the Lo \" -■' !i Da% 2V< w>s ;— 

Abresi "i MAYOR \ i i '■ The :"'•■-' of the Mayoi and 

mem | i i ),, ui.i Council " o '■•■-'■< rdaj the topic oi animated dig- 

i ,, on The thou and and one ru a afloat we do nol for obvious 

res on rim n plai air co in*. The disgrace consequent upon 

ii„. or. ■ i.i of affairs, Ik keenlj fell b) all those who care for 

onor or reputation of our city. I'hi g< Dtl n composing the 

,.,,. ..,, fern men t declare theraselvffl abli to show that nothing ol 

cri alit) attaches I - \ mt*. fhej insisl that this move- 

ni liatb n ignificol nol visible upon the outside l be popuiai 

mindise cited upon this topic, and nothing but the fullest and si 

complete invi ti \ ition will be accepted. This the arrested parties 
, Ulll to court, and it Is nol our province to condomn them unheard, 

and ,,, the al I anj tangible \ Is upon which to base our con- 


M would appeal thai these gentlemen had been arrested for 

unlawfully ' ui sity scrip. It. is to be presumed the charge 

W ;i iv i i ■ lal ion a thej were - 1 >n after disch irged- 

The indebte lm oi the city " on account of the cash fund." 
was stated al this time to be eighty thousand dollars 

l M February the buildings in the business portion were or- 
dered numbered, in order to facilitate the compilation of a city 
directory , 

March LOth wu read: — 

Mr. Temple owner of the block bearing his name is now building a 
new brick building in the rear of the present block, fronting on Mum 

St. Patrick's day was duly celebrated by the Irish citizens. 
In tliis month we find the question of street railways being 

During the summer month* drunkenness appears to have 

I nfairh rampant. Thenotices of arrests constantly recur. 

Under date of July 20, we read in the ^Tews;— 

Night after night, persons living in the vicinity of the plaza are 
annoyed bj n ganfi of drunken Indians, who make night hideous with 
their howling* The ringing of pistol shots may he heard at almost 

ever} aoui fi dark until daylight. This state of affairs has lasted 

for nionl ha 

\.,r,n, un August 24th, we find the following editorial in the 
same paper: — 


In all cities there are particular quarters where the vile, degraded. 
.,„,! criminal herd together. The "Barbary Coast" of San Francisco has, 
on -i sra al] scale, a rival in "Nigger alley," ol Loa Angeles. Located 
almost in the heart of the business portion of the city, leading from 
1,,., y treet to the corner of the plaza, thia street has become 

to Los i - what the Five Points was to New York*. It i- the 

cn , .,, the pariahs of society. The low. adobe buildings are 

;, \ hives to hold SOuial outcasts. Here the copper-colored Indian, 

the ebon v African, yellow Mongol, and dc ' ucasinn herd 

Lthe The ask* - I hit greet the resj * who 

topai through this quarter, cause him to fee 

e, th« very i I which whispers crime 

gelrSion oi a policeman (and it - 

.truck with U,r at what greets the eye Back-yard* .are chosen 

beaps ol filth and garbage, from which anj *apon 

ass pure, woufdb, ilnM. Within .the 

building, herd* d like beasts, men, women and children dwell to* ther, 

■ . ■ and filthy to a degree absolutel) 

. ,,,.,„- pervadi the air, creating a stench sick- 

id bj daily contact with these loathsome 

Here, c - horrible to name are undoubtedly inat- 

nap* daily or nightly occurrence. During 

the dn Si ■ i i ■ ia comparatively quiet. Here and there som< 

blear-eyed harridan -its at an ■•pen d -way. ready to beckon witnm 

the strai passer-by, who may be induced len. borne 

habitant ol Lhi -casionally stinks slung, casting sidelong 

Elancea and keeping within the Bhade of the walls, fta it the shadows 

ol bis crimes were purs g - Vftei nightfall the daj ale. p. n 

rouse themselves, the hum o( voices in heard, glasses clink, and the 
sound "i rode r< velry breaks forth to ve I b< air, and disturb all 
adjacent dwellers. One bv one the "nighl birds" who prey upon 
slink forth upon their missions ol crime, returning to then 
dem i efore day-break. The sharp i rai b ol tbi pistol is ofti a heard, 
and the gleam of the bowie knife is often seen in this locality 

The street is s disgrace to the city, and t ■ boasted civilization. 

Tbe police force, "small as it is, is powerless, "What shall wc do 
with it V" is becoming a serious question. The property along the 

street is owned by s e ol our most prominent as well as wealth; 

citizens. The community would be gratified if they could be per- 
suaded i" tear down the rookeries, which cover what mighl be val- 
uable property, and erect thereon substantial structures. Whether 
anything can be accomplished in the way of breaking up the nesl 
of 'outlaws and criminals who gather there, is a question. The fact 
remains— thai Negro alley is a disgrace to Los Itngeles. 

There were ai this bi ne hundred and ten houses, by 

actual count, within the city limits, where liquors were retailed. 
In August we learn that — 

The old frame house adjoining the Pico House is being removed to 
Aliso street. Thisia one of the oldest' wooden buildings in Los Ange 
les. The frame was made in Boston, Mass., and shipped around Cape 
Horn to San Francisco in 1849. It was first occupied (supposed tobe) 
by Hon. B. 1». Wilson, and was for some time occupied as h Methodist 

September 27th— < '< nercial -i reet, between Los Angeles and 

Alameda, is being rapidly improved. But a few nths since, nearly 

the entire space on both sides within the limits hidicated were vacant. 
Now huihliiiL's cover most of the lots. 

October 19th — The walls of the third story of the new theatre are 
being rapidly built up. 


Under date January 8th, we find the following notice of the 
Downey Block : — 

Downey's New Block— Corner Temple and Main streets. Tt is, 
two stories high, of composite style of architecture, with handsome as 
well as substantial iron front, and has a frontage of one hundred feet 
on Main street, by a depth of eighty feet. The entire building is con- 
structed with an eye to the convenience of the occupants. 

This year there were thirty-five practicing lawyers in the 
city, as shown by the rolls of the < lounty < 'ourt 

February 10th— Died, A. A. Boyle, aged fifty-five years 
He had long been a citizen of Los Angeles, and at various 
times held positions of honor and trust in the community. He 
was founder of the settlement known a- " Boyle Heights." 

In March an ice machine was put in operation Price, Foui 
cents per pound. 

In June, ";il estate showed an upward tendency. Bucking 
bronchos and drunken fndians were among the daily streel 

September l">tli -The Mexicans held a grand celebration of 
the independence of Mexico 

October loth The press of Los Angeles called upon the 
citizens generally to meet at a stated hour on the evening of 
October 14th, at tin' County court room, to do something 
towards alleviating the suffering of the destitute thousands in 
Chicago At the place of the meeting instead of a mul 
titude, there were but three persons, viz.: < rovernor Downey, 

M, John Jones, ■ of the principal merchants of Los Angelc 

and a gentleman from Riverside The Los Angeles News says: 
" Anything more disgraceful than this on the part of the 
inhabitants Los Angeles could not have been guilty of. 
I,,. t hi r bow her head in shame. ' At a meeting of the Hebrew 
Benevolent Society, on the same evening, two hundred and 
fifty dollars was raised ; aboul two thousand dollars more was 
afterwards subscribed l>_\ citizens. 

October 24th occurred the Chinese massacre, which we 

have f"ll\ d< ci ibed i ir chaptei on cri s. 

The following is from the Los Angeles Nem of November 


The work of erecting new buildings ia being carried on with unabated 
activity. 01 the buildings lately completed, Temple Block, fronting 

9 e eighty feel on Spring street, and about the same on Main street, 

having a frontage of about fifty-six feet on the j :tiun of these two 

streets. This building has been constructed ol' brick of J te manu- 
facture, and the castings supporting and adorning ita front bave been 
turned out of the Los Angeles foundry. The building consists ol three 
stories and basement. '1 biu building which stands in the most promi- 
nent place in the city, and is itself a model of beauty, has been erected 

al : stimated outlay of some twenty-five il sand dollars. Opposite 

this building, on the other side of "Main street, is tbe Bellman 4 
Dow ney Block. This building is now receiving it— i - of, the walla hav- 
ing been c pleted. Inm castings, east in San Francisco bave been 

used in this structure. The entire outlay will probably notexceed 

twenty tl sand dollars. Further south, but on tbe same Btreet ifl we 

Fluhr Block, con isting ol a couple of stores, and like other blocks, in 
built of home-made brick. This building will probably cost about tea 
thousand dollars. Shoemaker Block, on the south-west corner ol Los 
Angeles and New Commercial streets, fronting some ninety odd feel on 
the former avenue, and about eighty on the latter, is a fine two-stop 
brick building, and will cost about twenty-live thousand dollars. The 
Cohn Block on Commercial street, running lack of and around the Efeincn 
Block, and fronting again on Los Angeles street. This, with ad 
improvement**, will involve an outlay of about thirty thousand dollars. 
Downey Block has been receiving important improvements, an addi- 
tional story, etc., which will cost about ten thousand dolhus. Tm 
foregoing estimate of the cost of the improvements in the bt 
portion of the city, alone, givi - an aggregate ol ■ hundred ana 

1 twenty thousand dollars. Besides these business improvments, private 
residences are springing up in all directions. 

December 20th Mr. John King of the Bella l nion Hotel, 
expired at Tells Sea- coasi Retreat, wherein ■■ for lua 

health. Mr. King was a native of Dundrum, count) Down, 


Residence of the late JOHN ROWLAND, ^Puente, Los Angeles C° 


Ireland, from whence he i migrated bo Si Louia in L847. After 

Bring in New Orleans and San Franci co he ci ■ to La 

■ ; '~ m is:,,; Mr. Km- became proprici E the Bella 

UnionHotel in I860. II. was elected in L867 to i pi 

the second ward of Lo \n ., les in the Common Council and 

fort* - Presided n\' the Council. He was al o fch. 

founder, and up bo the tin f his death, the Presidenl of the 

In.}, Benevolent Society. He was buried in the Roman 
i Eatholic cemetery. 


Januarj L2th the new hall of the fnclependent Order of 

Fellows was thrown open (V public inspection The 

1 ■ owing Djraphic picture, is from the New* -.1' Februarj i:;il, : 


Sonora is inhabited chiefly by the lowesl classes of our native Cali 
fornian population. Main street, the principal avenue passing throueh 

it, is hnedoneach Bide by brothels, ga ling dens, and miserable 

billiard and drinking bells. !!„■ game "Keno" seems to be the most 

■ m A, a small table facing the open .1 --way, a fe« vigorous 

shakes of the cylinder are given, and the game ci mces \ ,,l of 

101 sixteen years of age, utters an exclamation in Spanish, and 
after comparing the dice with her card [a pronounced the winner oi the 
■'M- Indian women congregate in front of the saloon wherethei have 
obtained the iquor that bas intoxicated them, with disheveled hair 

"-' M ths, disordered and dilapidated garments, they present a 

disgusting sight, while their discordant voices j ina in some Indian 

song:, grates harshly upon the ear. In front oi a row oi en line 

:M| -- , :m ' :| aumbei ol ■■; ■ cocks picketed al a regular distance 

apart. Perchance a hand-to-hand fight with knives will close 

J a : •««?« tn Btriking contrast with these scenes of debauchen and 

degradation, is that of a couple of Sisters oi Charity, | ceding from 

on. !"•"-'' oi poverty to another on their blessed mission oi mercy. 

1" • , " 1 "'' ,1 "' work of indexing and arranging the r[i\ 
archives was completed. The manuscript and loose papers 
numbering sixteen thousand. 

August 5th was celebrated as a day of lamentation by 
the Chinese all over the world, fur tin- loss of their country- 
men who were lynched in Los Angeles, October 24, 1871. 
1 priests came down from San Francisco to conduct the 
- -in- J offer sacrifice, 


Hut few events occurred in tliis year of strictly local im- 

portanoi and all others have been narrated in former chapters. 

Maj 6th Judge Sackett, an old resident of Los Angeles, and 

rarer of wain- on the Colorado desert, died at the resi- 

ij i'. Gi [ich 

•July 4t1l was celebrated with considerable enthusiasm. In 
October, Madame Anna Bishop gave two concerts. The skat- 
ing rink wa^ in operation a part of the year 

■ ■ i population of the city was estimated at 

eleven thousand. Mr. P. Beaudry had completed bis improve- 

■ Fi race, laying a complete net-work of water- 


1 ' 1 '"^ , "' :in ' 1 Panting out many young fruit trees. Dunne 
fche »""■* ""- Spi ng and Sixth street horse railroad was 
completed. The Sunday law began ... I „„i 

'J'"" 1 I equ Ql In June Professor Fabbri 

" :i,]:,u "- ^bbri and I ( ,,,. t> ar TllrM _ 

V " ein Hal1 ulll " L *er< well H led. It was I 

''" [easi ,! ""' hundred thousand dollars werespenl in 
Hon of business houses tin-, veai 


The Population of the city this year was estim 

'""" ^ousand, and tl„ , lM vote f September was two tl 

sand five hundred and forty-nine. 

T1 "' ; M;,in : "" 1 Aliso street railroad was incorporated this 

• v " ; ""- T1 "' '"'■ An -" '■ Horn, tea I A o iation I .1 

and a tract of seventj acr. , : hased on Washin ■■ 

Thw was divided into lots and auctioned to the roerob. 

' ,l " Premium plan a much E ce So ort . lo 

thus located, to be paid for in monthly installments. 

The following notic E citj improvem. nts in thi j i i i 

from the " Ei raid Pamphlet ' of 1876 pages 22 23 


Owing lo the Immense influx of population tot] ! county. 

ll|r demand foi residences and business houses has been u 

dented. In 1..- Angeles a house is gem ralh re I bi rore the plans 

are in the hands of the contractor, and at tin- presi nt writing I Decern- 

J ei " Ktl l( H impossible to j- i :t vacant store! ite in tlv 

Most -.i these 'improvements are of a beautiful as well :i- suli 
style, an. I will compare favorably with like buildings in San ] n 

c ' SCu - A V,M| :i " K our architect* and contractors has ■ 

thai ili»- number of buildings erected in Los Angeles i- mucl 
than generally supposed, ami the aggregate amouol 
great a- tin' most sanguine citizen would estimate. 

Messrs. Kysor A Mathews, architects, corner of Los An li 
Commercial streets, have done considerable work, ami ng whi 
following, with their estimated cost:— 

Catholic cathedral $75,000 

Foi t-street M. E. church 2o|o00 

.Air. Laventhal*s residence i000 

G. Dalton's 

Mr. Hiller's 

Mr. Grant's 

Mr. Hellman's 

James Bel 's 

G. Lehman's brick building. 

Rowan A- Benner's Block. , 

Charles lirode's 

P. Kern's " ... 

Lafayette IT. itel extension , . 


2 000 




Downey & Child's warehouse 2,200 

Total liuished work ,<] , 

The following work is partially completed under Kys..r & Mathewi 

Win. If. Perry's residence ~ o., 

Cardona Block 36.000 

P. Beaudry i re-building) ] ,. 

Anaheim Hotel . . .* 4, . 

Total partially completed $91,300 

ing improvement: have been planned by Kyaoi a 

1 ■ * 


1 een commence 1 on part of them 

building, iron fronl . 


m . Join nig 


W. Woodworth 

'1 Mnlhillv's 
J. Mi Unci - 
Mr. Bul 
1. D. \\ 



■ I \\ Lin street, near] ■ j ' 



, 100 






''"'■' red 102 r00 

hi* on, firm 
nme thou 1 IM > 

■' , "'" !il I E J. Weston, irehiteel I'emple I Bock wo 

■ ' - -• 


Huff n idi qi c 
1 1 hou -■ Beaudi \ I ■ n n - 


Kequens Bloci 

J. J. Vlellu ' cotta m 
L. \.A 1. R : R. depol 


6, 1 



■:. I 


Ban Pedro trool 

S:ill,;1 ^1 sa ." 'i.200 

::::;: • 

1 j 

1 ■ ■■ ! ed 

si;.,, inn 

1 ■ b the work planned by Mr Weston and partiallj lol 

- for a well-known capital! 1 

PP. mdl rVoi 

I H11 ■■ ■ on, I ,, to 1 

■ I L&l 1; 1; dq 




. ... a, 


^■" • buildin s comn I oi contracfci d fi 

lo nol wish mi ntioned 

Tota . j~ 

atonofone hnndn d and leveuty 

trs. These buildings peak lor 

- Block, th. Loa Ang. lea 

'win residences itand at 

1 \f mark el house pio- 

Firat and Second, will 

orii high, we\ 
'• on Main and 

' f supply a want Ions* Mi" 

"■ I- Temple BlJcV baa ,,,,.|. 




' lii; ~ " foi Mr. Westonof. 

seven thousand four hundred dolli 

l! " 'v. -. The post-offi. 1 l: l <'■■' '"' 

ependenca Railroad depot ,,;,'"• An «f lea 

la to i>h buill on Main Btn el '■■ ■ 
have fifty-two stalls, will 1 bri. I twn *t. 

Greets. enl u> th* *it* *»A ..:.: , - i,r,n - 

mi, an hitect, 

no ipecial effort, ^ u- >* about 

Francisco contractor, and built Star 'King's church 

ly a 6an 
tlieJewixJi 8yna- 



on Kearny 

" HiW.reeidence.coBtiiig »xtj fthowmd ^J^SSgS We 

St. Charles Hoi I ■ Austins res ..1,,- -. . u ^ » J] 


T. A. Carey's residence 

Mr. Vall's " 

Mr. Slauaon'a " - 

\i, i '• Santa Momca 

Sewell Ajidrewa' " Banta Ana. 

p I lavto six houses at Anaheim ,' ■ "A' I" 

HiaownresW d Pearl at. beulg a Gothic, 2-etory 

Hotel, East Lm Uigeles ; - --•:,;: 

Ar , Lelingol Governor Downey's reeidence, on the 

Ej rench roof, villa plan. - 

plana for Bundry small houses 

Mr. Baker's residence, Santa Monica.- . --- - 

Pavillior, and refreshment booths at Washington Oar- 

dens - "_ 



The following arc the estimates of contractors* work, 
outside of architects' plans : 

35 buildings, valued at 

26 " " 


7. I 


.-,i h in 






Mi, Buchanan, 

Mr. Skinner, 

Mr. I hisbolm, 20 

Mr. Fickett, 10 " " 

Mr. Shannon, H " 

Mr. Hunt, " ^ 

Mr. Davis, " " 

Bell & Banger, LB 

Chas. McLaln, 11 " 

\j 'i Vril 7 " 

Thirty small dwellings in East Loa Ajigelea, not eeti- 



1 0.4 H Ml 


7.:.! i< i 

15,(11 Mt 




a question as to the constitationaUty of the Act being decided 
adversely in the courts, they never acted. 

In M»y the Fabbri opera tr enes of concerto a1 

Turn-Verein Hall ; and in the same month < tolone] W I »W 

opera house wa, opened. During -Tun., f"^?*^ 

J, lay. June ft), Charles W. Gould, County 

■ ,, liilir ,ii, ( |. His death was universally regretted. _ 

Jury tth was celebrated with ten times i « pomp and noise 

than usual. As every city and town throughout the United 
Stafcea strove, upon this occasion, to outdo all others, and ■» we 
haVl before given some notice of the pageant, suffice it here 
that .lay the Angel City displayed all her well-known 
all the colors of the rainbow; that the 
military pomp could make it, and 
noises was simply infernal. At 

that on 

charms, attired 
spectacle was aa imposing as 
that the babel of distracting 

■d the celebration. 



mated In the above. . - 
Fiftj buildtnga at Santa Monica, outside of above esti- 

Esdmatfl of farm houses', railroad station houses, and 
reaidences at now stations on the railroads, seventy- 
five huildinga in this vicinity, not n. above ... . *>.wu 

Trinity Churoh, M. E. South, built byaSan Francisco ^^ 


Total ® 260 ' 000 


uave Bathered all the building statistics possible to get, and it 
, short of the reality. Few places have bad the wonderful growth 
'f l 08 Angeles, and these figures Bhow that fact. 1 be grand total 
" k rSapectable showing oJ nine hundred and hfty thousand 

mn hundred dollars as the value of buildings erected or improve- 
mente under contract in Loa Angeles and immediate vicinity lor 
1876 Suob an exhibit ahowa the wonderful growth ot our city, and 
inua ; be flattering to every citizen. Next year will show 'more won- 
derful oroirresa and we confidently believe that the- building opera- 
' | the Centennial year will be between one million live hun- 
dred thousand and two million dollars. 


least so say those who witnesse 

In the autumn some cases of small-pox ami diphtheria were 

F 1877. 

In May Frank Leslie and party visited the city. December 
8th C. A. Longstreet, a well-known wealthy resident, died. 
There were no other events of importance not heretofore 



January 23d the lease between the Post-office Department 
at Washington, D. Q, and the Odd Fellows' Building Associa- 
tion of Los Angeles for the new post-office, was placed on 
record in the County Recorder's office. 

February 1st the I. O. O. F. Hall was duly 
ball was given in the evening. 

August 24th the death of Captain Charles E 
iuent citizen, and formerly editor of the X' W8 
August '28th, we find the following statement ot 
throughout the city, published in the Express:— 

Baker Block _ _ _*X30,000 

County Hospital 

dedicated. A 

Bean (a prom- 
is announced. 


In this Centennial year we find six street railroads either in 
operation, or process of construction, and many public improve- 
ments mrier waj During the year, a bill was passed by the 
I ,,„-, authorizing the formation of a Board of Public- 

Works, bo consistof three members, appointed by the Governor. 
Messrs. Johnson, WoodVorth and Boeder were appointed, but 

East Los Angeles School-house 
Itivara & Sanguinetti Block.. 

Hellmau & Mascarel 

Naud's warehouse 

D. Bcheick's building. 

W. M. Workman's residence. 








Horticultural Pavilion . . ...... '»°00 

Samuel Hellman's residence --- 7,500 

Downey's building 14.000 

Residence (name withheld) 4,000 

Good Templar Hall - - - 12,000 

Addition to St. Charles Hotel - 2,500 

Other buildings (estimated) 7,500 

Total value of buildings in progress or soon to he com- 
menced -. _S'_'K.;,.>t)ii 

Under date of August 30th, we find the following amusing 
account of a Chinese funeral, in the Express : — 

l.EE PAI— THE IM1 ' '"- IKTEBM1 


i »,i the authority of Tom Mow we yesterday informed our readers of 
bhe extensive funeral demonstrations, which they might lookfor this 
nfternoon It came. All Chinatown waaout to witness the absorbing 
event and a pretty full representation of the white population of thecity 
wfla on hand as well. A tent cover had been pitched in the open 
court iust below the plaza for the better accommodation of the cruwd 
in attendance, and also to protect the extend ve paraphernalia employed 

in the cere a Li om extremity of the canopy the coffin of the 

deceased Lee Pai was placed, the head of which was overshadowed by 
a large banner of gauzy brown cambric. At the other side of the tent 
a capacious table was spread and literally loaded down with edible*; 
the menu including a pig roasted, another pig spitted, hul 
uncooked, and a kid neatly dressed, with head and horns intact, except 
as to hair resting on its haunches in a wooden tray, rhere were 
Chinese confections of all known kinds, cakes, candies, nuts, some 
plates of apples, and some dishes which would defy the unsophisticated 
Caucasian to make out. Tea. served in infinitesimal cups, also figured 
in the bill of fare. There were tapers on the table burning with a 
i vile fume, and a Josh, securely covered up with red and white papi i 
cambric to shield it from the vulgar gaze. But despite the tempting 
array of substantial and dainties spread out before the assembled 
company, nobody ate. A master of ceremonies, or priest, arrayed in B 
lon^ gown of slate-colored cambric, went through some cabalistic cere- 
monies, a part of which was the chanting of a tune, which sounded 
like a camp-meeting hymn run mad. Then the laymen came in by 
ones and twos. They made obeisance three times, then knelt upon a 
mat facing the table and performed three distinct salams, bowing 
their foreheads nearly to the ground each time. Then the mourn- 
ers—for such we suppose they were— each took one ol the little oupi 
of tea, scattered its contents on the ground, and held the Cup upto 
be refilled by an attendant and again placed upon the table. Alter 
this the mourners were given one of the burning taper, each, Which 
they held between the palms of their two open hands compressed 
together; then more salams, and the tapers were passed up to t&a 
head of the table by attendants and implanted in a bed ol wntt, 
when they gradually smoldered away. With a rising to the Bet 
and the execution of another obeisance or two this ceremony was 
completed, and the performers retired to give place toothers. Alter 
this rite had been going on for sometime, the Chinese orchestra 
near at hand, struck up a lively tune (save the mark! ), MddiniW 
the general attention for a time to themselves. \\ e will not endeav 
to describe the excruciating medlev of discords— the clangjngoi uu 
cymbals, the thundering of the gongs, the falsetto piping ol the ffma 
instruments, and the clatter of the tom-tom— they are beyond descrip- 
tion. But presently this tumult was stilled, and the prelnmua 
ceremonies being over, the line of march was made up. Him » 
order was Dobs' brass-band, heading the procession; next a hearse 
drawn by four horses, ami escorted by six pall-bearer, arrayed m 
long white robes; then a company of ten or twelve women, some « 
whom (the mourner,, were also dresssd in white. iOWfr 

ing these marched a long line of Mongols wearing aprons ol ww» 
cambric, tied with strips of red. each man bearing a banner ol glazed 
Btuff. Every variety of color as well as every outlandisn enape war 
ceivable for each purpose was represented in the banners. via 
these came more Chinamen wearing aprons, and the ' u ' lLU ' u '";'' 
brought up in the rear with the master of ceremonies, bearing iu 
veiled Josh. This column, no doubt, comprised the Chinese Order _ 
Free Masons. The attempt at aprons would at least sugpt bubu 
an idea. The succeeding marchers wore knots of red and white u< » 
pinned to their sacks, and no other decoration. They in turn wen 
followed by a carriage bearing the Chinese orchestra in tun " |J ■ 
another carriage tilled with women, another with men, 
a "boss" Celestial with his wife and friend in bis own hired uvwj 

The procession moved around bhe plaza; down Main to ■• 

Arcadia to I,-,. An, el,-.; Los Angeles to Requena; to Main, to lempj 

and thence to the cemetery. At the cemeiei ■> SOine more heatm"'^ 
ceremonies were performed, which we have not time and 
recount to-day. 

/K COf^lE^ \\i Yi\\\L V^DtTof t^o^eise^. 

Residence of THEODORE REISER,Anaheim,Los Angeles Co.,Cal. 

*•*»•.. mio ir 'rm'jUr-z H <t Wt\ 


In September over five hundred dollars were raised in the 

citv for tin* yellow fever sufferers of Memphis. 


January 25fcb a mass-meeting of citizens was held in the 
Court Bouse, and a committee of five persons— H. I). Barrows, 
H r iir\ Campbell] John G, Downey, Isaac Kinley, and D. F. 
OXeary — were appointed fco confer with the Supervisors, and 

examine into tliu financial affairs of the city and county, and 
the sufficiency of official bonds. The impetus of this action 
appears to have been the successive defalcations of Treasurer 
Melius. Treasurer Butler, and Tax < lollector ( larrillo. 

February 1st Mr. H. H. Spencer, who had been employed 
as an expert to investigate the books and accounts for 1877—78, 
of J. J. Oarrillo, late city tax collector, furnishes an exhibit 
showing a deficiency for the two years of seventeen thousand 
one hundred and twenty-nine dollars and forty-eight cents. 

Under the same date we find in the Express, an account of a 
large public meeting, called to take action on these defalcations 
and to provide against their recurrence. 

The following were among other resolutions adopted : — 

Whereas, We, the people of Los Angeles, havingbeen long surler- 
[gg and patient, have seen our hard earned money paid as taxes to 
irresponsible city officials, to be by them squandered and lost: 

Whereas, Up to the present time, civil law has been insufficient 
to give us protection from genteel thieves and plunderers ; therefore, 
be it 

Hetolwd. That we, the citizens of Los Angeles, spare no means or 
expense to thoroughly investigate the financial affairs of Los Angeles, 
including moneys collected as taxes or in any way belonging to the 
city of Los Angeles, as well as the various public contracts, and dis- 
posal of city lauds and property; and that we solemnly pledge our- 
selves that all parties found guilty of public robbery, plunder, default- 
ing, or public swindling, or cheating Los Angeles out of her real 
wealth, shall be punished: first, by civil law if possible; hut in the 
event of the failure of civil proceedings, then we stand pledged as 
men and citizens to use that higher law of self-protection, and bring 
all such public plunderers to speedy and condign punishment. 

February 20th the following schedule was adopted by the 

' lommon Council: — 


Banks, capital stock over 8300,000, per month $30 00 

Bank*, capital stuck :?-JOO,oou to #300.000 2o 00 

Banks, capital stock less than 8200,000 20 00 

Monev brokers J J 

Butcher -hops, sales to exceed $400 per month J OU 

Butcher Bbops, Bales under $400 J 00 

Peddling meat without stall or shop .5 55 

Dndertakera J« S2 

Cheap John stands J° JJJ 

Prize picture lottery -j? }J[ 

ufacturing or selling gas * no 

- Iling water, Bales not exceeding 8600 -•-• & ** 

Belling water, sales exceeding $500 and not exceeding 

•woo . J; Jg 

Bellin ales exceeding 81.000. J ° 

Manufacture of ice. sales exceeding $100 £ ^ 

loot peddlers, including vegetables in 00 

Hon* and wagon peddlers . ,. 

Traveling retouchers of pictures 5 rJJ 

Book agents 2 00 

Stands in street*, merchandise 

Steam railroads 60 00 

Street car, per annum SO 00 

Bottling and selling beer. 2 00 

Hack and for carrying passengers. . . 2 IMI 

1 >n us and menagerie, per diem 50 00 

Side-show to circus, per diem L0 00 

Billiards, each table 

Pin alley .". 00 

Restaurants, 60-cent meals 6 00 

" lew than 50-cent meals 2 00 

Drays, wagons, etc l 00 

Insurance agent 3 00 

Hotel, $2 per day am] upward S 00 

" less than 82 :t 00 

Pawnbroker |<; 00 

Distiller 10 no 

Livery stable, eight buggies and over 7 60 

" " four to eight buggies 5 00 

" " less than four buggies 2 60 

Wagon feed stable 2 50 

Laundrv i; no 

Skating rink 10 00 

Photograph gallery ;{ 60 

Planing mill 3 00 

Flouring mill, each run of stones 1 00 

Merchandise, including lumber, wood and coal yards: 

Firstelass LI 

Second clas" 12 00 

Third class 10 00 

Fourth class 7 50 

Fifth class 5 00 

Sixth class 2 00 

Seventh class 1 00 

Wholesale liquor dealers: 

$2,500 or more per month 

$2,000 and less than 82.500 

$750 and less than $2,000 

Less than $750 

Brewers, sales $500 or over 

" under $500 

Saloon or bar. sales $500 or more 

" under $500 

Commission business, selling produce 

Common carriers 

Music, rope, wire, dancing, magic, theatricals, etc., each 


Dance houses, per night 

Carrying passengers for hire on fair days, etc., withont 

other license, per day 


Sales exceeding $300 per day. each day of sale 
Sales exceeding $300 per day and not exceeding 81,000 
gales exceeding $1,000 per day and not exceeding 


Sales exceeding $2,000 per day 

Ileal estate agents 

gelling from stands or wagon on street 

Vegetable peddlers 

Store-houses, 500 tons and over 

« under 500 tons 

Soda-water factory 

Milkmen, per wagon 

About this time the following report was presented :— 


To the Honorable, the Council of the City of Los Angeles— 

GENTLEMEN: We, your committee appointed to investigate China- 

20 00 

L6 00 

10 00 

6 no 

10 00 

5 00 


10 00 

2 00 

5 00 

3 00 

in mi 

1 oo 

2 mi 

10 oo 

25 00 

20 00 

3 00 

1 00 

12 00 

5 00 

2 00 

2 50 

2 00 

town and report on mean- tw patting it in good sanitary condition, 
beg leave to report is foil* 

we made a thorough examination of thai section and found il In n 

uracil vrorae condition than we anticipated, rhe content* of pnvy 

vaults, cea-poob, and in fact, all of the « iste from this densel) inhau 

in ctly or indirectly into the lanjas. The yards are 

in such d thai to dig new privy vaults and new cess-| w 

would be to simply continue the evil. The building* are so Mj con- 
structed and dilapidated thai 11 would be Impossible to put them in a 
condition hi to be occupied. 

rib we would respectfully submit two plans that 

we bavi i i to condemn the buildings and ordor them to 

id. This plan of procedure is often adopted lu Eastern cities, 

and we believe has been recenth tried ia San Franoisco. The lecond 

plan, and the one whti li we would eep< uiaUj recommi to 1. Is the ex ten- 

ti f Los \i i and a sewer on Alameda street. If these 

two steps are taken everj adobe building in Chinatown would be torn 
down and proper sewerage would be practicable. 

In conclusion, we would urge aj youT lb.ion-al.le body the imnor 

tanee of adopting one of these, oi >other plan that would be efloc 

live before the hoi season Is here. We would also respectfully u| ■■-■ I 

the advisability of your Honorable bod) visiting* hi na town I lei 

to be thoroughly informed of the importance of taking Immediate 
action. We t 

Very respectfully yours, 

il. Kim;. I biefoJ Police. 

\\ ,i i I B I.inoi BY. Health ' Mlieer. 
J»0. GOLDSWOHTHY, City Purveyor. 

Washington's birthday wasdulj celebrated by the military 

and fire i panics of the city. April Sd a banquel was given 

in the Horticultural Pavilion in honor of the exempt firemen. 
The Fourth of July received due attention, and was aptly cele 

August 1st William A-ljliutt, an old resident, and proprietor 
of the Merced Theatre, died at bis home in Los Angeles. 

December 19th Fred \V. Kail, another old resident/ died tie 
was at one time proprietor of the Lafayette Hotel. 


Los Angeles is now a handsome city of about twelve thou 

sand inhabilanta As a rule, Btone, brich and tar have 

supplanted the adobes of earlj dayi and manj of the business 

houses and residences will c pan favorably in all n 

with those of San Francisco and Eastern cities. Sonoratown 
(the native quarter) is still thoroughly Mexican, being entirely 
built up of adobes, and here native life maj be studied in all 
its primitive simplicity. Orchards and vineyards encompass 
the city upon every Bide, and extend within the city limits. 


This is the principal suburb, and was laid out by Dr. Griffin 
and Governor Downey in 1873. There is here a handsome, 
frame school-house, completed within the past two years. A 
graded school of three departments is therein conducted, and 
the average aggregate attendance is about one hundred and 

Some three hundred to four hundred persons reside at this 
point, all, or nearly all, engaged in business at Los Angeles 




This suburb of Los Angeles will be found fully described in 
bhi biographic sketch of W. H. Workman, Esq. (See Biogra- 
phies mfra). 


In our chapter on " County ' MHeers " we have explained the 
powers and duties of the Mexican Aywnta.7niento,and need not 
here recapitulate, The minutes <>f the Aunutnmi<>nto of Los 
City commenced in L832, and are complete until Nov- 
ember, L839, when it, ceased fin virtue of a law oF the Mexican 
Congress) until 1844. The minutes of 1844 and 1846arecom- 
plete, 1845 missing. In February, 1847, the Ayinvta/miento 
again acted, and its minutes are complete until December, 
L847. In May. lsl!i. the A >/>< nhim icnto again organized, and 

its minutes are c plefce until -Inly, 1850, when the Common 

i lonneil took its place. 

With infinite labor and care from imperfect records (Spanish 
and English) wo have compiled the following tables of the 
various city officers since L850. 

In explanation "f these tables we will say here that, under 
the original charter of Los Angeles City (approved April 4, 
1850), the number of councilman was fixed at seven, and all 
.•ii_\ officers were elected annually, on the first Monday of May. 

By an Act, approved March 5, 1868, the number of council- 
men was changed to ten, and these wore divided into two 
elusses, live hutdine f,, r uiie year and the remaining five for 
two years. All other city officers were to hold office for two 
years, The time of holding elections was changed to the first 
Monday in April 

l'.\ ,i siihseipient Act (March 30, 1868) the time of holding 
eleetii.n-, wa- fixed for the first Monday in December, which is 
the date on which they are still held. 



L850. A. P. Hoilges. 
1851. B. D. Wilson. 
L852. John Gt. Nichols 
L853, A. K. Coronel. 
1854. S. C. Foster 
L855 Thomas Fojter. 

L856. S. C. Foster* 
L857 58, John Q. Nichols 
1859 D. Marchessault 

L860 H Mellu.3. 

1801-64. D. Marchessault. 
* Resigned; succeeded by John G. Nichols. 

isM) Benj. Hayes. 1853. 

L851. W G. Dryden, 1854. 

L852, J. L. Brent 1855. 

Jose* Mascarel. 

C. Aguilar. 

D, Marchessault. 
C. Aguilar. 

1869-70. Joel H. Turner. 
1871-72. C. Aguilar. 
1873-74. J. R. Toberman. 
1875-76. P. Beaudry. 
1877-78. F. A. McDougal. 
1S79-S0. J. R. Toberman. 
J. R. Toberman. 


C. E. Carr. 

Isaac Hartman. 
Lewis Granger. 

1856-57. C. E. Thorn, 
1858-59. J. H. Lander. 

1860. S. F. Reynolds, 

1861. J. H. Lander. 
1SG2. M J. Newmark 
1863-04. A. B. Chapman. 
1865. J. H. Lander. 

1866-67. A. J. King. 
1868. C. H. Larabee. 
18G9-70. Wm. McPherson. 
1871-72. F. H. Howard. 
1873-70. A. W. Hutton. 
1877-80. J. F. Godfrey. 
1880. J. F. Godfrey. 


L850-52. A. F. Coronel. 1862. N. Williamson. 

1853. Yg. Coronel. 1863. * 

L854. M. Keller. L864 J. D. Woodworth. 

1855. J. 1). Hunter. 1865. J. \V. Beebee 

1856 W. H. Peterson. 1866-68. J. Bilderrian. 

1857. B, S. Eaton. 1869-70. Antonio Roeha. 

L858, M. Coronel. 1871-72. Juan Robarts. 

L859. W. H. Peterson. 1873-74. L. Seebold. 

1860. J. Metzker. 1875-78. J. Z. Morris. 

1861. J.C.Swain. 1879-80. R. Bilderrian. 

*No Assessor elected, and so far as known no assessment made. 

1850. Sand. Whiting. 1865-67. Wm. C. Warren. 

1851. Alex. Gibson. 1868. John Trafford. 

1552. Win. Reader. 1869-70. Wm. C. Warren. 

1553. A. S. Beard. 1871-72. Francis Baker. 

1854. Geo. W. Cole. 1873-74. R. J. Wolf. 

1855. A Shelby. L875-76. J. J. Carrillo. 
1856-57. W. C. Getman. 1877* J. F. Gerkens.f 
1858-59. F. H. Alexander. 1878. E. Harris.f 
1860-63. Thomas Trafford. 1879. Henry King.f 
1864. J. P. Ownby. 18S0. Henry King.f 

'Office of City Marshal discontinued, and that of Chief of Police created 
+Chief of Police. 


1S50-76. City Marshal (ex- 1879. A. J.Hamilton.* 

officio). 1880. M. Kremer. 

1877-78. J. J. Carrillo. 

'Succeeded by C. H. Dunsmore. 


1850. Francisco Figueroa. 1863-64. J. L. Morris. 

1851. F. P. Temple. 1865-67. J. F. Burns. 
1852-56. S. Arbuckle. 1S68-70. Thomas Rowan. 
1S57-59. H. N. Alexander. 1871-74. G. R. Butler. 
1860. T. G. Barker. 1875-76. J. J. Melius. 
1861-62. H. N. Alexander. 1877-78. I. M. Hellman. 

1879-80. L. Lichtenberger. 


1874. Wm. Moore. 

1875. J. M. Baldwin.* 

1880. John E. Jackson. 

'Resigned; succeeded by M. Kellehar. 

1876-78. M. Kellehar. 
1879. John Goldsworthy. 


1850-59. W. G. Dryden. 18G6. 0. N. Potter. 

ls.;(i-tii» W . W. Stetson.* 1867-70. W. G. Dryden 

1863. B. S. Eaton, 1871-75. M. Kremer. 

1864-65. C. K, Avers 1876-78. S. B. Caswell 

1879-80. W. W. Robinson. 

* Succeeded. by J, F. Crawley August, iSCc'. 


1875-77. J. H. MeKee. 
1878. T. C. Gale. 

1879. W. Lindlev. 

1880. J. B. Winston. 
•common council. 

1850. D. W. Alexander, A. Bell, M. Requena, J. Temple, 
M. L. Goodman, C. Aguilar, J. Chaves, (B. D. Wilson, \V 

1851. R. C. Foster, J, O. Wheeler, D. W. Alexander, A. 
Olvera, M. Requena, Yg. Coronel, T. A. Sanchez, (J, L. Brent). 

1852. M. Requena, J. G. Downey, M. Norton, Y. del Valle, 
M. Keller, M. Botello, Yg. Coronel. 

1853. W. T. B. Sanford, W. H. Rand, A. Jacobi, J. P. 
Jones, M, Requena, J. M. Doporto, Pio Pico, (E. Drown). 

1854. M. Requena, C. Wadhams, W. T. B. Sanford, L. 
Granger, F. Melius, S. Lazard, A. F. Coronel, (J. M. Doporto 
H. R. Myles). 

1855. Win. Lloyd, J. H. Nichols, H Z. Wheeler, E. Drown, 
I. H. Stewart, Obed Macy, John W. Ross, (Timothy Foster, 
H. Ubrbroock, R. Glass, J. Schumacher, C. Aguilar.) 

1856. E. Drown, M. Requena, I. Gilcrisfc, N. A. Potter,. J. 
G. Downey, A. TJlyard, Y. del Valle, (C. Aguilar, J. Schu- 
macher, R. Glass, Obed Macy, H. Uhrbroockj. 

1857. A. Ulyard, G. Carson, A. F. Coronel, Juan Barn?, 
John Frohling, J. Mullally. H. McLaughlin. (N. A. Putter, M 
Norton, M. Requena, E. Drown). 

1858. A. F. Coronel, D. M. Porter, J. S. Griffin, J. Goller 
C. Aguilar, P. Banning, S. C. Foster, fJuan Barre*, H. Me-' 
Laughlin, G. N. Whitman, J. Mullally, John Frohling). 

1859. D. M. Porter, N. A. Potter' J. Baldwin, A°M. Dod- 
son, E. Drown, W. Woodworth, J. Ybarra, (A. F. Coronel, S. I ' 
Foster, C. Aguilar, J. Goller, V. Hoover. P. Banning, J. S. 

1860. D. Marchessault, T. B. Collins, J. Edwards, A. Stearns, 
V. Hoover, E. Moulton, P. Baltz, (— Anderson, — Peterson, 
N. A. Potter, W. Woodworth, J. Baldwin, E. Drown, J. Ybarra). 

1861. A. F. Coronel, A. M. Dodson, J. B. Winston, E. 
Drown, C. Aguilar, N. A. Potter, S. Lazard. W Woodworth, 
— Peterson, — Moore, — Anderson, J. Huber, E Moulton, 
V. Hoover). 

P wTl C 'ySZ.F^^A j h " 3 ( } ' are (,f meml *>rs not elected at the ftafei 

, £?« f ' w t *8 holdl!1 ft over - or h- ai^ciai election. iWJuW U* 
enclosed are those uf the councilman regularly elected, at the usual city deel 

Residence of A. E.PUTNEV, Florence, 
Los Angeles C° Cal. 

»£i^" f g 6f r*o*r»SiOA/ 4- mmn 



1862 N. A Potter, A. F. Coronel, A, Poulain, V. Sichel 
.1. tfeixel, -1 Turner, J. Huber, ''A. M . Dodson, J. B. Winston! 

S. Lazaro 1 , C. Aguilar, E, Drown). 

[868 J.Turner, A. F. Coronel, P. Sechel, J. Hubet, J. B. 
Win-ton. E Taylor, T Signoret, iJ. Weixel, N. A. Potter, A. 

[864 J Huber, P. Sichel, J. Mascarel, A. F. Coronel, M 
Requena, V, Hoover, \V. Woodworth, (J.Turner, E Taylor, 
.1. B. Winston, T. Signoret). 

L865 H. Taft, J. Goller, J. Chaves, \V. S. Van Dusen, J. 
Jones, C. Vejar, W. H. Perry, (W. Woodworth, .1. Huber, M. 
Requena, •! Mascarel, P. Sichel, V. Hoover, A. F, Coronel). 

1866. E. Workman, L. Boeder, J. Schumacher, M. Morrison, 
J. Kin,-;, A. F. Coronel, M. Morris, (W. H. Perry, W. S. Van 
Dusen, J. Jones, .1. Chaves, J. C. Vejar, H. Taft, .1 Goller 

1.S)I7. M. Morris, M. Requena, A. F. Coronel, J. C. Vejar, 
A. A Boyle, -I. Wolfskin, V. Hoover, (J. King, J. Schumacher, 
L. Roeder, M. Morrison, J. Mascarel). 

1868 •'. King, J. R. Toberman, .1. Metzker, M. Kremer, 
A .1 King, T. Geary, W. H, Perry, H. Wartenberg, -I. Goller, 
IT. Sabichi, (J. Schumacher, L. Roeder, J. Mascarel, M. Morri- 
son, A. A. Boyle, G. Dalton, L. Botillor.) 

is.ili. L. koeder, O. W. Childs, J. King, H. Wartenberg, 
M Keller, D. Botiller, M. Morris, W. H. Perry, J. Mascarel, 
J. Metzker. 

1870. J. Mascarel, E. H. Workman, S. B. Caswell, M. 
-Monis, .1 Metzker, J. King, 1). Botiller, L. Roeder, 0. W. 
Childs, A, A. Boyle, (H. Wartenberg, J. R. Toberman, L. B. 
Martinez, J, C. Vejar). 

1871. J. Chaves, J. Jones, B. Dulourdiux, G. Fall, W. Fer- 
guson, M. Teed, H. Dockweiler, F. Sabichi, J. Osborn, W. 

1872. F, P Campbell, Obed Macy, J. Valdez, P. Beaudry, 
K H Workman, II. K. S. O'Melveny, — Dennison, M. Teed j 
F. Sabichi. W. Ferguson. 

1»7:> -T. Valdez, J. Mullally, E.E.Long, P. Beaudry, M. 
Ten), W. ( taborn, W. H. Workman, F. Sabichi, E. F. de Celis, 
H. Dockweiler. 

ls?+. J. Chaves, J. Gerkins, J. Mascarel, F. Sabichi, C. E. 
Huber. P. Beaudry, W. H. Workman, E. F. de Celis, H. Dock- 
weiler. .). Valdez 

l B7o 1' P < lampbell, R. Sotello, J. Mullally, J. G. Carmona, 
M. Teed, L. Lichtenberger, W. W. Robinson, J. Mascarel, C. E. 
Ruber, K H. Workman, L. WolfekUl, T. Leahy. 

1876 B. Sotello, J. Gerkins, W. H. Workman. J. Kuhrts, 
D. V. Waldron, T Leahy, M- Teed, L. Lichtenberger, J. Mul- 
lally. E Huber, L Wolfskill, F. P. Campbell, 

1877. F Tannet, B. Valle, B. Cohn, J. W. Potts, E. K. 
Green, J. S. Thompson, It. Sotello, W. H. Workman, J. Kuhrts, 
I' V Waldron, T. Leahy, J. Mullally. 

L878. J. Mullally. C. Apablasa, J. E Hollenbeck, C C 
Lip A. H. Kercheval .1 H. Jones B. Cohn, J & Thompson, 
K K Greene, J. W Potts, B Valle, F Tannet 

1879. E. M. Hamilton, L Meizi ffisr.J. H B 
R Moloney, J. Boberreith C Brode, S. A. Fi 
Buchanan, S -I Becl S M Perry, W. H. Workman, N R 
Vail, W B. Lawlor, J G McDonald 

1880. J: L. Bauchett, W Monroe, E F. Spence, E K 
Greene, J. P. Moran, J Knhrts J G McDonald, <> H B13 
H. Schumacher, s. H. Buchanan, L. Meizner, S. J. B I 
ib.luney, W. H. Workman, W. B Lawlor. 


There have been many minor Bres in Loa Angeli - and b fi n 

extrusive ones. We propose I tice only those of the lattt c 

class The first of historical importance occurred in 


On the night, of Thursday, February 25, L858, Los Angeles 
was visited by a very destructive fire, by which property, 
variously estimated at from thirty thousand to fifty thousand 
dollars, was destroyed and several citizens were ruined, having 
lo-.t nearly all they possessed, The Hit caught accidentally, 
about 8 o'clock in the evening, in the store and tin Bhop of 
Childs & Hale (on the west side of Los Angeles street) while 
they were absent — either, it is supposed, from a lighted candle 
left on the counter or from the depredations of rats araon° 
matches. The Barnes had gained considerable headway before 
being discovered, and spread very rapidly. As the rout's were 
covered with asphaltum, or brea (which, when once ignited, 
burns very stubbornly), and as the scene of the conflagration 
was at some distance from water, it was found very difficult to 
subdue the fire, and it was thought at one time that all the 
stores on the north Bide of Commercial Btreel must go, together 
with the Bella Union Hotel and the residences of Don Abel 
Steams and others. Most of the stores in this vicinity were 
emptied of their contents and the goods piled in the street 
Had it not been for the fire-proof brick building of Bachman 
& Co., which served as a wall against the further progress of 
the Barnes southward, the destruction of property must have 
been vastly greater. As it was, this was by far the most 
extensive fire that had ever been known in the lower country. 
Thousands of people were on the ground, and all showed a 
readiness to assist in saving property and extinguishing the 
flames, the glare of which, amid the surrounding darkness, was 
at times terrific. There was at this time no regular fire-engine 
in Los Angeles, but a small steam engine belonging to Mr. 
Francis Melius did good service, and a line of men, extending 
from the zanja, or main ditch, to the burning buildings, passed 
buckets of water along, and with the further aid of the city 

water-carts, the fire was finally arrested The wind was from 
the mountains, and flying sparks for a time endangered the 
whole city. 

A i uoii,' the principal losers hy this fire were » !hilds & Hale, 

losl ; McLaughlin 

1 acksmiths, little oi nothing saved Flash man *v 

Siechel, hardware, loss i the) wore jusl opening and 

of theii stock into the tore, which pari 

owever, destroyed; Bachman & Co liquor dealers and 

damage by water and removal of g Is; the Bella 

Onion Hotel, together with many others, Loss from same 
cause. All without insurance, except Bachman A Co \ sub 
rted to pro* ide a i it | fire engine. 


A very destructive fire occurred on the morning of June 13, 
1867, in Bell's Block, on Los Angeles street, consuming the 

entin Btock of Kalisher & Co., w] tcupiod a portion of 

'1"' building Fi thence the flames spread rapidly, and 

oon consumed also the entire stock of Isaac Schlesinger. 
The fire had reached the Btore of Messrs Norton & Teed 
man before it was subdued. The loss was estimated al i tj 
four thousand dollars. 


January 27th a little before midnight, fire was discovered 
in the Btore of < John & Norton, dealers in dry goods and cloth 

ing This Btore was in o row of one story brick and adobe 

buildings on Aliso street, between Los Angeles and Alai la. 

The Barnes spread rapidly along the brea roofs, with which the 
adjacent buildings were covered, and soon the two buildings 

adjoining were also in flames. The store in diatelv adjacent 

was occupied by Mrs. Brass and sister as a millinery- Btore; 
and the one adjoining thai by William Griffith as a wholesale 

and retail fruit store. All these were i pletelj destroyed, 

with their contents The losses were estimated as follows: 

Building owned by Norton Brothers, insured for three tl 

saml dollars. Tin- building cost six thousand dollars, ' !ohn & 
Norton's 3tock of dry goods and clothing, entirely destroyed 
estimated loss eleven thousand dollaT insured. Mrs Bra and 
sister, loss two thousand dollars, no insurance, Mr. Griffith, loss, 
one thousand five hundred dollars, no insurance, The goods 
from the adjoining stores on Los Angeles breet, were all 
removed to the street, and for a brief time, it seemed as though 
a riot was imminent The thieves and vagabonds who haunt 
the doggeries of the city came flocking to the © q< and began 
to plunder right and left. In this way, a large quantity of 
l'oo'Is was lost. Tin- police soon arrived upon the ground, and 
their vigorous and effective measures soon restored order. 

Febklaky :», 1870 — During the morning, fire was dis- 
covered in a lodging-house on Arcadia street, kept by John 



Baker. The flames spread rapidly right ami left, and within 
one hour, the entire block fronting on Arcadia street, running 
from Sanchez to Main street was in ruins, The burnt block 

w;is occupied as follows:- • 

C. C. Higby, billiard and liquor saloon, loss, four thousand 
dollars, no insurance; P. Phillips, beer saloon, loss, one thousand 
dollars, insured for two thousand dollars; John Baker, lodging- 
house, loss, no estimate, insured for one thousand dollars. Mr. 
Signoret, the owner of the block, had a barber shop and bath- 
in- establishment adjoining Baker's lodging-house. His loss b 
buildings, furniture, house and shop, was estimated from ten 
thousand to eleven thousand dollars, insured for twelve thou- 
sand dollars. The lodging-house was the resort of a rough lot 
of customers. BakeP, the proprietor, was arrested and com- 
mitted to jail upon suspicion of having set tire to the place. 
After a long and tedious examination before Justice Gray, he 
vi as held to bail in the sum of three thousand dollars. He was 

afterward convicted of tin; crime 
May 4, 1871 — A fire during the evening, destroyed the only 
remaining adobe building on the east side of Los Angeles 
Btreet, between Commercial and Aliso streets" 

AUGUST 17, 1871— A fire on this morning entirely consumed 
the one-story building on the corner of Main and Requena 
Btreet, owned by the Estate of Maria Dolores Navarro, and 
occupied by J. Lazarovich as a grocery store. Loss estimated 
at about eleven thousand dollars. 
OCTOBEE 29, 1872, almost disastrous conflagration occurred, 
entirely destroying Packard A; Company's distillery, situated on 
the east bank of the Los Angeles river. The tire originated 
from the explosion of a coal oil lamp. Loss estimated at sixty 
thousand dollars. The destruction of this distillery was seri- 
ously felt by a large number of the small vinieulturists, who 
depended upon it as a market for their grapes. 

SeeptmBEB 14,1874, the Eagle flouring mills were totally 
destroyed by tire. These mills had cost about forty thousand 
dollars, some eight or nine years before, and were the property 
of Mrs. Stearns. The estimated loss, over and above insurance, 
was twenty thousand dollars. 

May '2d, L875 — During the night, two quite extensive fires 
occurred. The first was discovered in the building occupied 
by Hotter & Bradley, dealers in furniture and carpets. The 
building and stock was almost entirely destroyed. Loss, twen- 
ty lour thousand dollars, insurance, fourteen thousand dollars. 

The second fire occurred shortly afterward in a brick stable 
on Fort and Franklin streets. Loss, five hundred dollars. An 
attempt was also made the same night to fire the city stables, 
but without success. 

As all tic- fires were evidently of incendiary origin, the 
Board of Underwriters at San Francisco, offered a reward of 
one thousand dollars for the arrest and conviction of each 
incendiary within Los Angeles county. 

May 25, 187t>, during the evening, a fire broke out in the 
center of the block bounded by Aliso, Alameda, Los Angeles 
and Commercial streets. The principal injury was confined to 
Domingo Garcia's building, the Commercial Hotel, and Class \ 
Lassen's stables. Loss about two thousand dollars, wholly 
covered by insurance. 

December 22, 187G— Early on this morning, Gruce's new 
hotel at East Los Angeles, was discovered to be on fire. The 
alarm was promptly sounded but owing to the great distance 
intervening, the firemen reached the ground too late to do more 
than protect adjoining property. The building, with most of 
its contents was destroyed. Total loss about twelve thousand 
dollars, insurance, seven thousand dollars. 

December 28, 1876 — "We extract the following account of 
the second burning of the Eagle Mills, from the Rqn-ess of 
tins date : — 


About half-past two o'clock this morning an employe of the Eagle 
Mills, who sleeps in the grain-shed connected with the mills, was 
awakened by a crackling noise and a stifling smoke.. Jumpingfrom 
his bed, he opened the door which connected his room with the mill 
proper, but was driven back by the rush of flames and smoke, caused 
by the draft. Seeing that he had to run for his life, he excitedly 
groped his way to the side door of his sleeping-room, but unfortunately 
knocked the key from the key-hole to the floor, and in his affrighted 
condition it took him some time to find it. He finally did so. and 
escaped just in time, for the room was then on fire on all ^ides. Upon 
reaching the air he immediately raised the cry of " fire," which, after 
a few minutes was answered by parties in the city. Just twenty-five 
minutes after the alarm was first given the Confidence boys wire on 
the ground. Considering the hour and the distance from the engine 
house to the mills, the promptness of the firemen was remarkable. 

Bo rapid was the destruction, that within fifteen minutes after the 
discovery of the fire, the floors and roof of the brick mill and adjoin- 
ing frame sheds had fallen in. and nothing was left standing but 
the brick walls. Had the work of destruction been less rapid, the 
result would have been the same, for there was no water in the zanja, 
and only a miniature stream could be forced from the hydrants. The 
origin of the fire is not positively known, but everything points to the 
fact that it was a case of 


On the morning of September 14, 187*. the old mill on this site, 
erected in 1855, was burned. A short time previous the Aliso Mills 
were destroyed by fire, and as no explanation of the origin was ever 
obtained, it was generally believed that both fires were the work of 
incendiaries. What the object of this destruction of mills is we can- 
not conjecture, but there certainly is some object. The walls of the 
old Stearns mill were repaired and new floors and machinery put 
into place by Mr. F. Weber, at a cost of eight thousand dollars. 

These same walls are not damaged by this morning's fire to any 
material extent, and can readily be used for the construction of a new 

Large quantities of grain, flour, meal and salt were in the building, 
and the mill and contents may be said to be a total loss, nothing being 
saved but a few small sacks of salt. The ruins and grain heaps are 
siitl burning, and many persons have been on the ground during 
the day, remarking the strange fatality which partially checks milliog 
enterprise in this city, and .speculating as to the object of the incen- 
diaries. The mills were but lately rebuilt at great expense, and the 
loss will be heavy. They have not been running during the past week, 
and when the man who discovered the fire retired last night, there was 
neither light nor fire in any of the mill buildings. 


Mr. F. Weber, who leased the site from Mrs. R. S. Baker and 
erected the buildings burned last night, is a heavy loser. His mini 
loss is over ten thousand dollars, on grain, salt, buildings and machinery, 
while his insurance is only two thousand dollars, divided between the 
Home Mutual. Royal Canadian, and California insurance companies. 


Feuri-ary 0. 1877. — About twenty minutes past three, thisafternoon, 
the Railroad House, on Alameda street, opposite the Southern Pacilic 
depot, was discovered to be on fire. The fire companies responded 
promptly, and in a short time had the flames under control. The 
fire originated in the kitchen (all the cooks being absent at the time) 
and communicated to the second story of the hotel, burning out all the 
bed-rooms thereon. The loss was caused principally by water and 
breakage of furniture. 


February 22, 1879, the large furniture establishment of Dotter 

& Bradlev was almost entirely destroyed by tire. Lots about 

fifteen thousand dollars. Fully insured. 



The original No. 1 organized in September, 1871, and the 
contract was let for building an engine-house the same month. 
October 7th, Mr. George M. Fall, of the Fire Committee of 
the Common Council, went to San Francisco and negotiated 
for the purchase of an engine, which arrived shortly afterwards 
This company continued to do good service until April, 1874. 
April 4, 1874, at their regular monthly meeting, it was 
resolved to disband, because the Common Council took no 
action in regard to a petition presented by the company 
requesting them to purchase a pair of horses for the engine 
Immediately after old No. 1 disbanded, thirty-eight citizens 
organized a new company — hence the name " Thirty-Eights. 
The following named gentlemen were the first officers: C & 
Miles, Foreman; W. F. McDonald, First Assistant; J. Cashin, 
Second Assistant ; S. Lacy, Secretary; J. Kuhits, Treasurer. 
The company has had as high as seventy-five members. It has 
now fifty-three active members, and twelve on the retired 
list. The present officers are: M. S. Fay, Foreman; H. Mal- 
lard, First Assistant; E. Hosman, Second Assistant; C. » 
Miles, President; G. P. McLaiu, Secretary; J. Kuhrts. 
Treasurer. Their engine-house is situated on Spring street, 
near Franklin. They hold stated meetings in the parlor- »vi t 
the engine-room. 



Anaheim, Lds Angeles C° Cal 

if *■'-■■ .,, 

■_■■■•■■ oh 6-~ YffXr 



Organized May 27, 1875, by electing the following officers 
y I'.iitln IV-i.l.-'nt; Brice McLellan, Secretary; I. W. Lord, 
Treasurer. The present officers are: Walter S. Moore, Presi 
(]rllt George 0. Vignolo, Treasurer; J. J. Woodworth, Secre- 
tory; Robert Eckerfc, Foreman. October 17. L878, at Horti- 
cultural Park, in the Firemen's Race, free to all companies in 
the District, the Confidence won first money and prize. The 
company has now sixty-two active ami twenty-three honorary 
members; sixty-five active and twenty-two honorary being the 
greatest number of members it has ever had at any one time. 
Their engine-house is a two-story brick building, situated on 
Main street near First. The upper story is elegantly furnished, 
ami is used as a reading-room by the members of the company, 
and here they hold their meetings on the first Wednesday of 
every month. 


Organized July 2S, 1*7$, by electing the following officer's; 
John H. Jones, Foreman; Ottley Papineau, First Assistant; 
J. A. Duusmoor, Second Assistant; Francis Baker, Secretary; 
George li. Pike, Treasurer. The company organized under 
very difficult circumstances, and had but little assistance Erom 
the city for the first six months of its existence; but it steadily 
wore its way into public favor, and soon proved invaluable to 
the Fire Department. Among its members and supporters are 
the 1111,4 prominent business men of Los Angeles. Their car- 
riage is drawn by horses belonging to the company. The 
present officers are: S. H. Buchanan, Foreman ; Joseph (Jorwin, 
First Assistant ; A. L. Hath, Second Assistant; H. J. Fleish- 
man, Secretary ; George H. Pike, Treasurer. 

The company has forty-five members, which is the greatest 
number they have ever had. Their hose-house is located on 
the corner of Fifth and Spring streets. Regular meetings are 
held the first Monday of each month. 

Organized July 15 1879, by electing the following officers: 
F. H Steele, Foreman; H. J. Prieur, First Assistant; J. W 
Claweon, Second Assistant; H. J. Stevenson, President; R. D. 
Wade, Secretary The company has at present thirty seven 
<■-, forty having been the largest number at any one 

time. The present officers are : .Foreman; H. J. Prieur, 

First Assistant; J. W. Clawson, Second Assistant; H. J. 
»n, President; E. A. De Camp, Secretary. Their head- 
Huartersare located at No. 10 Main street. 

tinder Mexican rule, the Ayv/niamiento claimed the right to 
all the water of the Los Angeles river, from its source until it 
left the city limit*. 


In 1854 an Act was passed by the Legislature, approved 
April 13th, explanatory oi the city charter of L850 

in<< as follows : — 

An Act to incor- 

BECTioM l. The third section of the Act entitled 
porate the city ol Los Angeles," approved April 4, 1830, shall be con- 
■trued to vest, and to hare vested in the Mayor and Common < 
nt thesaidcity the and control over the di 

water torthe purpose ol irrigation or otherwise among the rinevards 
i ,1: "' 11 " ' ■ the limits claimed b 3 thi 

I certify that the'foregoing is . t true copy of the original ordinance 
oow on Slain the office under my charge* a> Clerk of the Common 
Council. w. Q, DATDBN, Clerk. 

July 31, 1858 we read in the SouMern Vineyard:— 

VtU '- sen presented to the Common Council by oitisens, 

soliciting permission to take water from the public sanja by wheels and 
bydranli -: Ec purposes. 

kin, Deo mber _b 1858 

pueblo and Ayuntamientp Me Loa Angeles; and by the said Mayor _. , 

a " mmon umncil a- the egidos or commoni of said citj the no l '"' " Btej vv " rU Company has been incorporated, with 

won whereof is hereby declared to be in the said Mayor and Cora n ■ capital of ten thousand dollars, 1'he object of this company ti to 


In his annual message this year 1854), the Mayor recom- 
mended the appointinenl ol an officer to have control of the 
city water, both for domestic and irrigating purposes Tin- 
officer was subsequently appointed and i *Zan- 

jero." In this year, also, a company was formed bo bore foi 
artesian water at the foot of the bluffs, immediately in the 
rearof Fori street. The progress and failure of this under- 
taking have been before noticed in our general chapter on the 
water supply of the count} 

We copy the following from the Los Angeles Stwr of Feb- 
ruary 27. 1857: — 


The citizens of Los Angeles were pleased by the prompt action 
taken by the city authorities, upon the petition of Hon. Win. (;. 

Dryden praying a certain wain- privilege f he corporation of 

the city of Los AngeleB. The petitioner, being the owner of lands 
in the upper and northern part of the city, upon which are large 
springs ut' lasting water, the idea suggested itself of collecting thia 
water and, if possible, by a force pump to raise the water thus col- 
lected to a sufficient height to supply the city generally with pure 
drinking water. Thus originated the petition, which i- annexed, 
together with ordinance founded thereon:— 

whereas, Wm. G. Dryden, having petitioned the I 'ommon * 'ounciloi 
the city of Los Angeles for the right of way to cai ry all and any water 
that he may have on his land:) in the northern portion ol the city over, 
under and through the streets, land-, alleys and roads within the cor- 
porate limits of this city: and, whereas, a special commits 
examined said lands and water and recommend thai said grant of the 
right of way to convey water as aforesaid should be mad'': and the 
Council, after considering the same in session of 2.'M day of February, 
A.D. 1857, thereafter approved the same and resolved that an ordi- 
nance should be made in conformity therewith, as follows: 

An ordinance, granting the right of way to Wm. G. Dryden to convey 
water over the lands of the corporation of the city of Los An 
The Mayor and Common Council of the city of Los Angeles do 
ordain as follows: 

Section 1. That the right of way is hereby granted to Wm. G. Dry- 
den, his heirs and assignee,-", to convey all and any water thai may rise 01 
can be collected upon bis lands in the northern part of this city of Loa 
Angeles, over, under aud through the streets, lanes, alleys and roads of 
the city of Los Angeles; provided, however, that nothing in this grant 
shall in' any manner interfere with the vested rights of any one. 

SEC 2 That the further right and privilege is hereby granted 
to Wm. 1 1. Dryden. bis heirs and assignees, to erect and place upon the 
main sanja of this city a water-wheel, to raise the water by machinery 
to supply this city with water; provided, however, that the free course 
in said sanja shall in no manner be obstructed thereby. 

Manuel ReqUENA, President Common Council. 

Approved this 'J-lth day of February, A. D., 1857, 

John G. Nichols, Mayor. 

...p ... 

i that pan of the city on the oorth-west. ami above 

rhe water is to be taken from springs that riso on lands 

belonging to oi | tock i^ divided into twentj 

-I dollars each. Fifteen share- are already taken 

- are qow -mm at the Bella I qIod, thi tfonl ■ j . in- 1. 

f the company, Temple's building, to receive lubscrip 
lions for the 

I ebruary l'.">, L859, we are informed— 

bafl and all the east-inm work of the watei Wheel for l he nm- 

Btructioq of the city water-works came down on the Santa Oru to-day, 

Mechanics will proceed h dlatelj to the construction and works, 

li- cost of thi casting In Ban Francisco was four hundred and sixty- 
nine dollars. 

In March. I s "' 1 . thi Coi n Council of Los Angelee con 

templated raising on the eredil of the city two hundred il 

Band dollars, at twelve per cent, for twentj year to be used 

in bringing water from He' la., Uigeles rivei i the plains 

Bouth-west of the town, so as to bring them under cultivation 

There was considerable opposition, but we find that in June 

following the Legislature authorized the borrowing of a sum 

ttol i ceeding two hundred thousand dollars, to be used foi the 

■ -I" bringing watei to the city for domi tic purpo e i 

and irrigation, for lighting the city, etc. The committee 

i to inquires, to the bi I mode of bringing the water 

appointed Geo. W Gifl as Secretary andjCivil Engineer to 

i hi work, 

in 1861 we find that four thou and dollars was raised forthe 
purpose of bringing water into the city, and perfecting a \} 
tem of water-works, yet all tins labor must have ^.m- I'm 
d - L863 and according to Dr Griffin 1806) 
citizens were but poorly supplied with water hauled in carte 
from the river. 

August 25, 1864, we read — 

The work of laying pipes to couductjpure water into Los Angeles Is 


Au>\ on November .">tli of that year — 

People are beginning to have the water brought into their houses 

from the pipes laid in the streets. 

July s, IN67, a number of citizens assembled and organized 
a company [capital stock one hundred thousand dollars; shatv 
twenty-five dollars each; for the purpose of collecting into n 
ervoirs the waste and surplus water of the river during the 
winter season, so that it might be used in the summer for irri- 



gation of those lands in and adjoining the city, which were now 
comparatively worthless from the want of water. 
November I, 1867, we read la the News: — 

The organization find incorporation of .a water company in Lns Ange- 
les hn« now been accomplished, find the company will commence their 
labors in ;i short time. The preliminary surveys have already been 
made. Tlie water will he taken from ihe Los Angeles river, at a point 
about six miles above the city, and by a cut or tunnel, turned into a 
canyon running to t-ome extent parallel with the valley of the Los 
WigcleB river, and which debouches upon the plain some two or three 
miles from the city. The canyon is very deep and narrow near its ter- 
minal ion upon Lhe plain; across this narrow jmini a strong dam of Alone 

and cement will be built, nnd the river beiug turned into the canyon 
during the ruiny season, when the water is not required for irrigation, 
will form a lank six miles long, varying in width from fifty to three 
or four hundred yards, and having an average depth of fifty feet, afford- 
ing an ;i i H in« I.i nre of water for irrigation of thousands of acres of tine 
I nnd lying to the south and west of the city. 

A.gain we read under date November 20th:— 

The Lop Angeles Canal and Resebvote Company.— This Com- 
pany i*» now organized, and nt a meeting of the trustees, on Saturday, 
November 17tli, it was ordered that the books for subscription to the 
capital -lock be opened immediately. The officers of the company are: 
Geo. Hanson, President; J. W. Green Smith, Treasurer; J. J. Warner, 
Secretary. The capital stock of the company is two hundred thousand 
dollars, in shares of. one hundred dollars each. Five percent of the 
stock in payable at the time of subscription, and the balance when 
ordered by the Trustees, not to exceed, however, live per cent or five 
dollars on a share bi-monthly, 

M \i:< ii 23 L868 — An ordinance granting certain lands to 
Los Angeles ('anal and Reservoir Company, was approved by 
i '. Aguilar Mayor 

I i i;i:i \uv 1, LSC8 — At a meeting of the Common Council 
an ordinance was passed granting the City Water-works to 
John S. C « i i Uin, Prudent Beaudry, and Solomon Lazard, the 
associates and assigns of J. L. Sainsevainc, for considerations 
in the ordinance expressed, the outlines of which are as fol- 
lows: Tin' grantees to pay the city ten thousand dollars in 
installments of two thousand dollars per annum for five years, 
and to surrender to the City six thousand dollars in city war- 
rants, bearing ten per cent per annum interest, and other in- 
debtedness of the city to the amount of eight thousand dollars 
—making a total payment of twenty-four thousand dollars; 
with the further conditions that the grantees lay twelve 
nide. of iron pipes in the city; build additional reservoirs of 
sum* u ni capacity for twenty days' supply of water for demes- 
ne purposes; to construct a ditch around the base of the hills 
for the purpose of supplying the reservoirs with water; to 
place the hydrants at the street corners, to supply water in 
case of fire, and to build an ornamental fountain upon the 
public plaza, at a cost of one thousand dollars, and to give 
bonds in the sum of fifty thousand dollars for the compliance 
with tlif conditions of the ordinance. 

Sop tern b r 15th we read in the News: — 

Article- of incorporation of the Lna Angeles City Water-works Corn- 
have been tiled in the Secretary of Stales' office, Sacramento, 
tal stock two hundred and twenty thousand dollars divided into 

two thousand two hundred shares of one hundred dollars each. The 
Trustees are J. S. Griffin, J. G. Downey, P. Beaudry, S. Lazard, A. J. 
KiiiL'. Eugene Myer and Charles Lafaon, 

November 24th — The Los Angeles City Water-works bave com- 
menced cutting their canal from the Los Angeles river.six miles above 
the city. 

The following very lull description of this work is from the 
! Los Angeles Daily News of January 12, 18G9: — 

A few days ago we profited by an invitation to examine the recently 

, constructed water-ditch and tunnel of the Loa Angeles City Water 

! Company, and in company with one of the directors strolled three or 

four miles up the ditch, which has a total length of six and a half 

mile?, three of which are through solid sandstone. The tunnel is one 

! hundred and eighty-two feet long, three and one-half feet wide and 

five feet high. The whole work is executed in the most substantial 

i manner and cost about fifteen thousand dollars. Along the ditch upon 

1 the bluff is huilta good foot path, which will be shaded in another year 

with trees planted on the edge of the ditch in such a manner as to 

strengthen the banks and afford ample shade for those who wi-h to 

air themselves on the splendid boulevarde de Beaudry, as it will he 

called after the very capable and energetic President of the company. 

who gave so much of Ilia valuable time to the personal supervision of 

the work from the commencement to its completion. 

The enterprise is the most important one yet carried out in this 
county, and one that our citizens may justly feel proud of, being, as it 
is, a public work, that at the end of thirty years will revert to the 
city, with all the pipes, reservoirs, and paraphernalia of a great water- 
works, the revenue of which will be more than sufficient to support 
the city government. Less than one year ago, when the company 
proposed to pay the city a rental of one thousand live hundred dollars 
per annum, and make such improvements as would make the city a 
permanent and valuable water-works, the proposition met with a strong 
opposition from many of our citizens. The promptness, however, with 
which a work of such magnitude was begun and completed, and the 
upward tendency given to real estate as confidence became established, 
completely disarmed all opposition, and the water-works is to-day a 
popular enterprise, the final completion of which will add in a few 
years millions to the wealth of the city. The works belong to the city 
corporation, and are rented to the present company, and instead of 
being fostered by the city government, the company were compelled 
to expend nearly ten thousand dollars for rights "of way, sites for 
machinery and reservoirs, that the city would have supplied without 
any cost to the tax-payers or the company, which it was the duty of 
the municipal government to do. By large expenditures of money, 
however, the company overcame all obstacles, and now have the work 
on the high road to successful completion. A large and permanent 
supply of pure spring water is now constantly filling their reservoirs. 
Twenty-five thousand feet of first-class iron pipe have been shipped 
from Europe, and is expected to arrive here by the first of June, and 
before the end of the summer the municipal government of Los Angeles 
will be the owner of the best constructed water-works on the Pacific 
coast, which, instead of being an expense to the tax-payers, actually 
paid the interest upon one-third of the public debt duriog its con- 
struction, and which will at the expiration of the lease support the 
municipal government. 

November 25th the same paper says: — 

The Water Company of Los Angeles is exhibiting commendable 
energy in laying pipes to supply the wants of our citizens. Upwards 
of seven miles ol pipe have been laid, and still the work 

And asrain 

l; goL-s on. 

December 28th— Since the purchase of the Spring Valley Water- 
works by the Los Angeles Water Company, and the consolidation of 
the two companies, there has been considerable demand for water 
stock, Willi a constant upward tendency. Shares hecinuina at filtv 
doflars per share are closing at sixty-five dollar-*. 

By an Act approved April 2, 1870, the city was divided into 
three irrigating districts, and a B.iard of three Water Commis- 

sioners were provided for, to be elected by actual irrigators of 
real estate within the city limits, Until the next ensuing 
municipal election, .Manuel F. Corohel, Jose* Wolfskii], and 
F. R. Toberman were appointed by the Act such commission n 
All the powers in regard to the control of water, formerly 
vested in the Mayor and Council, were transferred to this 
Board. In December, 1870, L. B. Martinez, J. J. Warner, and 
L. Bauchette were duly elected Water Commissioners. In 1872 
(Act approved January 19th) the Act of 1870, creatine- the 
Board of Water Commissioners, was repealed, and the Mayoi 
and Common Council were reinvested with all their former 
powers regarding the subject matter. These powers they have 
since retained, and still retain. 

Tie- following account of the water system ou the hill 
lands uvst of the city is from the "Historical Sketch of 
Los Angeles I !ounty " before referred to: — 

In the year 1872 improvements were commenced in the hills west 
of Los Angeles City. These hills, although offering delightful situ 
for" residences, from lack of water and difficulty ot access, had not 
shared in the prosperity of the city, hut had* remained compara- 
tively valueless and neglected. To the energy and perseverance 
more especially of two men. Mr. P. Beaudry and" Mr. J. \\ . Potts, la 
due the change that has taken place. Mr. Putts has, since L872, 
expended in grading, principally upon the lines of Temple and 
Second streets, upwards of thirty thousand dollars. Mr. Beaudry baa 
in like manner expended upwards of fifty thousand dollars. The 
work with which Mr. Beaudry 's name "has been more especially 
linked is the furnishing of an abundant supply of water to these hill 
lands. Mr. Beaudry haw had excavated a large basin amid the springs 
lying along upper Alameda street, from which, with a sixty horse- 
power engine running a Hooker pump of the capacity of forty thousand 
gallons per hour, water is forced to an elevation of two hundred nnd 
forty feet, where it is received by two reservoirs with a storage capacity 
of three million five hundred thousand gallons, and thence distributed 
through eleve